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Brazilian Academy of Sciences

The Brazilian Academy of Sciences is the national academy of Brazil. It is headquartered in the city of Rio de Janeiro and was founded on May 3, 1916, it publishes a large number of scientific publications, among others the Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. Source: Brazilian Academy of Sciences 1916-1926 Henrique Charles Morize 1926-1929 Juliano Moreira 1929-1931 Miguel Osório de Almeida 1931-1933 Eusébio Paulo de Oliveira 1933-1935 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1935-1937 Álvaro Alberto da Mota e Silva 1937-1939 Adalberto Menezes de Oliveira 1939-1941 Inácio Manuel Azevedo do Amaral 1941-1943 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1943-1945 Cândido Firmino de Melo Leitão 1945-1947 Mario Paulo de Brito 1947-1949 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1949-1951 Álvaro Alberto da Mota e Silva 1951-1965 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1965–1967 Carlos Chagas Filho 1967–1981 Aristides Pacheco Leão 1981–1991 Maurício Peixoto 1991–1993 Oscar Sala 1993–2007 Eduardo Krieger 2007-2016 Jacob Palis Jr. 2016– Luiz Davidovich ABC has a distinguished array of national and international members, among them: Media related to Academia Brasileira de Ciências at Wikimedia Commons Official website List of publications

Buell Blast

The Buell Blast is a motorcycle, made by the Buell Motorcycle Company from 2000 to 2009. The Blast was conceived as an entry-level motorcycle to attract newcomers to motorcycling in general and to Harley-Davidson in particular; as such, the design goals were low ease of operation and maintenance. Steps to achieve these goals include the use of an automatically tensioned belt final drive, self-adjusting hydraulic valve lifters, a carburetor with an automatic choke; the engine design was borrowed from Harley's Evolution Sportster engine with the rear cylinder eliminated. The plastic bodywork pieces of the Blast were made from Surlyn, a substance used to make the outside of golf balls, to protect the surfaces when the Blast is dropped, the color is molded-in; the Blast was used in Harley-Davidson's Rider's Edge New Rider program, a similar course to the Motorcycle Safety Foundation's Basic "RiderCourse". In July 2009, prior to ceasing all motorcycle production, Buell ran an ad campaign stating that the Buell Blast would no longer appear in their line-up.

The ad featured a Buell Blast being destroyed in an automobile crusher. For 2010, a limited run of crushed Blast cubes was offered for sale upon request, they were available in Battle Blue, Midnight Black, Sunfire Yellow, were individually signed and numbered by Erik Buell

Thoma of Villarvattom

Thoma Villarvettath was a person claimed by some members of the Nasrani community to be a king of Villarvettom, a vassal principality of the Kingdom of Cochin. In 1439, Pope Eugene IV sent an apostolic letter through his legates to Thomas, the Villarvettom king in the following manner: "To our dearest son in Jesus the great king Thomas of India happiness and apostolic benediction. We have been told that you and your subjects are true and faithful Christians”. Udayamperoor, the capital of this kingdom, was the venue of the famous Synod of Diamper of 1599 CE, it was held in the All Saints Church in Diamper. The venue was chosen on account of the place having been the capital of a Syrian Christian principality. According to the claimed accounts, this Christian dynasty lasted till about the close of the 15th century; the last ruler of the line Jacob Swaroopam died without a male heir. His surviving daughter was married by a prince of the Cochin royal family, converted to Christianity. So the territories of the Villarvettom came to be absorbed in the Kingdom of Cochin.

It was considered that the rulers of Cochin had a special responsibility for looking after the welfare of the Saint Thomas Christians of Malabar Coast. The Malabar Syrian Christians however preserved the royal emblems of the Villervattom and presented this to Vasco da Gama, when he arrived in Cochin; this was done to show their homage to the Christian King of Portugal. The tale of Villarvattom dynasty is mentioned in the Malayalam novel Manja Veyil Maranangal by Benyamin; the Tomb of Villarvettom Thoma Raja can be found in the udayamperoor church


Pengerang is a mukim and a new municipal area in Kota Tinggi District, southeastern Johor, Malaysia. It is known as a small custom cum immigration post, it is separated from Changi Airport, Singapore by the Tebrau Straits. Pengerang has sea life and unique landforms; the PBT spans over an area of 184 km2. This include of several towns such as Bandar Penawar, Sungai Rengit and Tanjung Pengelih; the Johor State Government has picked Pengerang for a catalyst project for rural transformation program. Johor’s Chief Minister Datuk Mohamed Khaled Nordin said the area has seen steady development over the last few years as investments poured in because of the Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex. “When Pengerang was chosen as the location for an oil and gas hub it was not only to give a positive impact to the country but to transform rural areas where the people will reap the rewards of development,” he said at a press conference after presenting 100 agriculture land grants at Taman Bayu Damai, Pengerang on 23 February 2015.

Pengerang is well known for Malaysia's mega project named Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex, sited in the area. The project was announced in 2011 and Pengerang was chosen for Malaysia's national project due to its strategic location, it offers access to existing major international shipping lanes and proximity to an existing major trading hub. The Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex is one big step in creating value to the downstream oil and gas value chain in Johor and Malaysia. Sited in Pengerang, it is a national mega project located on a single plot measuring of 20,000 acres. Upon completion, the project will house oil refineries, naphtha crackers, petrochemical plants as well as a liquefied natural gas import terminals and a regasification plant; the component of this mammoth project was first initiated with the development of the Pengerang Deepwater Terminal or PDT, a joint-venture between Dialog Group, Royal Vopak of The Netherlands and the State of Johor. Serving as a centralised storage facilities for trading and petrochemical industry, the Deepwater Terminal is envisioned to have a storage capacity of 5 million cubic meters.

The USD 3 Billion facility includes an independent terminal for trading, a dedicated industrial terminal for consumption of investors within PIPC and a Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal. The construction of a deepwater jetty facility with natural water depth would enable the berthing of both ultra large crude carriers and large crude carriers. PDT received its first shipment of oil in the first quarter of 2014 and continues to cater to the growing demand for its services; the other component of PIPC is the Petronas’ Pengerang Integrated Complex, PETRONAS’ largest downstream investment in a single location to date, the development includes the USD 16 billion Refinery and Petrochemical Integrated Development Project or RAPID. This involves the USD 11 billion associated facilities consisting of Air Separation Unit, Raw Water Supply, Cogeneration Plant, Regasification Terminal, Deepwater Terminal and Utilities and Facilities. Upon its completion in 2019, PIC will have a refining capacity of 300,000 barrels per day with petrochemical plants yielding an estimated production capacity of 3.6 million tonnes per annum of petrochemical products.

The development of PIPC which received full support from the both state government and federal government will benefit the local community by creating more access to economic opportunities other than the provision of public infrastructure and a complete infrastructure in Pengerang, Johor, PIPC will create a total of 8,600 jobs in the operational phase by year 2020. Pengerang coastal batteries, located nearby Tanjung Pengelih, are a heritage trail of World War II; the battery was constructed at the mouth of Sungai Santi, overlooking Straits of Johor and was abandoned after the war. The battery, located at Tanjung Pengelih, is said to be the biggest defence fort outside the United Kingdom, it sits on a 610 hectares plot of land and once had a hospital. Pengerang battery is a lost fortress located in Johor. Overlooking Straits of Johor, it is located close to a Malaysian military camp, standing on the top of a little hill covered by jungle; the main road is provided from Kota Tinggi to the main settlement of Sungai Rengit.

Pengerang has two public ferry terminals at Tanjung Pengelih. The port at Tanjung Belungkor hosts ferries to Changi Point, Singapore, as well as Sekupang on the island of Batam, Indonesia; the port at Tanjung Pengelih hosts ferries to Changi Point, as well as Tanah Merah. There is an exclusive port for customers to the Sebana Cove Resort travelling from HarbourFront and Tanah Merah

HMS Montreal (1761)

HMS Montreal was a 32-gun Niger-class fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was served in the Seven Years' War and the American War of Independence; the French captured her in 1779 and she served with them under the name Montréal. An Anglo-Spanish force destroyed her during the occupation of Toulon early in the French Revolutionary Wars. Montreal was ordered from Sheerness Dockyard on 6 June 1759, one of an eleven ship class built to a design by Thomas Slade, she was laid down on 26 April 1760, launched on 15 September 1761, was completed by 10 October 1761. She had been named Montreal on 28 October 1760, was commissioned under her first commander, Captain William Howe, in September 1761, having cost £11,503.17.11d to build, including money spent fitting her out. Montreal was first assigned to serve in the Mediterranean, which she sailed for in December 1761, she was paid off in July 1764 after the conclusion of the Seven Years' War. She was immediately recommissioned under Captain Keith Stewart, returned to the Mediterranean in July that year.

By 1766 Montreal was under the command of Captain Phillips Cosby, still in the Mediterranean, though she returned home in September 1767, bringing the body of the Duke of York, who had died in Monaco. She was paid off in early 1769 and returned to Portsmouth where she was examined as a model for future ship construction by the Kingdom of Sardinia. Master shipwright David Mearns prepared detailed sketches of the vessel, these became the plans for the Sardinian frigate Carlo, launched in 1770. Montreal was recommissioned into the Royal Navy in December 1769 under Captain James Alms, she returned to the Mediterranean the following year, was under the command of Captain Christopher Atkins from about September 1772. She paid off again in March 1773, was surveyed at Chatham in April. A small to middling repair was carried out between July 1777 and February 1778, she recommissioned in November 1777 under Captain Stair Douglas, she sailed to North America in April 1778, was afterwards sent to the Mediterranean.

While in North America Douglas was court-martialled for firing a gun into a small boat during some horseplay, killing a midshipman. He was acquitted on the grounds. While in the Mediterranean Montreal formed part of Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Duff's squadron. On 4 May 1779 Montreal was sailing off Gibraltar in company with HMS Thetis when they encountered the French ships Bourgogne, under the command of Captain de Marin and Victoire, under command of Captain d'Albert Saint-Hippolyte, both ships of the 76th squadron out of Toulon. Thetis engaged Victoire and was able to escape; the French took her into service as Montréal. British records agree, though they put the encounter on 1 May; when Thetis and Montreal saw two large ships approaching under Dutch colours, they suspected that the strange ships were French and attempted to sail away. Thetis succeeded, but at 9p.m. Bourgogne and Victoire caught up with Montreal, came alongside, ordered Douglas to send over a boat. Captain Douglas sent over Lieutenant John Douglas, whom the French ordered to Douglas to hail Montreal and instruct ehr to strike.

Captain Douglas refused and attempted to sail away, but after the French had fired several broadsides into Montreal he struck. In July 1780, Montréal was escorting six ships destined for Algiers, she was under the command of Captain de Vialis de Fontbelle, in charge of the convoy. At 5:30 in the morning, on 30 July 1780, de Vialis de Fontbelle noticed that four vessels to leeward had taken up pursuit of the convoy while the convoy was somewhere between the Tower of Cachique and Cape Caxine, about 12 miles from the Cape. At 6:00, it was determined that the four pursuing ships were enemy vessels, that a fifth pursuer was coming up. At this time, de Vialis de Fontbelle signalled the convoy to make best speed to the Tower of Cachique, he sought refuge under its guns. The French identified the pursuing British squadron as consisting of two frigates, two brigs, a xebec. By 6:45, the two sides had begun exchanging long-range fire; the British ships were trying to cut inside the convoy, between shore and the convoy, between the convoy and Montréal.

By around 8:00, the two brigs had engaged the convoy. The 20-gun HMS Porcupine, under Captain Sir Charles Knowles, xebec HMS Minorca, under Commander Hugh Lawson, engaged Montréal off the Barbary coast; the convoy anchored beneath the guns of Cachique. During the opening of close combat, de Vialis de Fontbelle had received two mortal wounds, one to the right arm and one to the left calf, he therefore turned over command to his second-in-command, the Count of LaPorte-Yssertieux, before dying. Montréal demasted one of the English vessels. By 9:30, the English commander signaled withdrawal; the two-hour engagement was inconclusive. Minorca suffered two wounded on Porcupine; the convoy suffered four dead, including Captain de Vialis de Fontbelle. Three English ships gave chase when the convoy lifted anchor, however the convoy had lost them by 11:00, reached Algiers intact. For his conduct in the action, la Porte-Yssertieux received a promotion to brevet de capitaine de vaisseau; the French used Montréal as a powder hulk.

The British captured her when they occupied Toulon in August 1793 in support of the monarchists there. The French Revolutionary forces besieged Toulon and on 16 December 1793 the British decided to evacuate the port while destroying as much as possible of the materials that they could not take away. Montréal was one of two powder hulks in the por


Whonnock is a rural treed, hilly community on the north side of the Fraser River in the eastern part of the City of Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. It is 56 kilometres east of Downtown Vancouver on the Lougheed Highway Whonnock shares borders with three other Maple Ridge communities. To the west the borders are upper Kanaka Creek with Webster's Corners. To the east Whonnock Creek forms the border with Ruskin. To the north is the municipal border and to the south the Fraser River; the name Whonnock is derived from a Halkomelem word for humpback salmon or pink salmon, the only kind of salmon to ascend Whonnock Creek. Whonnock Creek flows from the north, above Dewdney Trunk Road, south to the Fraser River passing Whonnock Lake. Whonnock Indian Reserve No. 1 is located at the confluence of the Fraser River. This Reserve is under the jurisdiction of the Kwantlen First Nation, headquartered on McMillan Island at Fort Langley. First Nations have been living continuously in the area for more than 10,000 years.

About 25 years before Simon Fraser came downriver in 1808 a wave of smallpox wiped out, or nearly so, the villages in this area, including the one at Whonnock Creek. Those villages were connected to a First Nations tribe of the Boundary Bay area, destroyed by the epidemic. Around the time of settlement of Fort Langley First Nations people started to repopulate the deserted places. In historical times the Whonnock Tribe of the Kwantlen First Nation lived here, they had their own Chief. The last member of the Whonnocks tribe living on the reserve died in 1951; the first permanent white settler and landowner in Whonnock was a man from Shetland, Robert Robertson, who settled in Whonnock with his First Nations wife in 1861 and in the following 25 years raised a family next to the village of the Whonnocks without any white settlers close by. The selection of Whonnock for a railroad station on the transcontinental railroad initiated the community of today. After the trains started running in 1885 the railroad brought a stream of new settlers.

From 1885 onward Whonnock became the focal point for settlers all over the eastern part of Maple Ridge as well as Glen Valley across the Fraser and on lands across the Stave River. Whonnock soon boasted, aside from a railway station, a post office, a school, a general store, amenities not available elsewhere for some time. Added to that were a growing number of churches. Most of the new residents were of British descent and came from other parts of Canada, but other nationalities were here. Norwegian immigrants and their descendants played a significant part in the history of the community. In general the settlers made logging. Subsistence farming was the only kind of farming in this poor neighbourhood but, as elsewhere in Maple Ridge, a few residents developed small-scale commercial fruit growing and poultry farming. There was a small number of affluent permanent or summer residents – hobby "rangers" – who could afford employing others to do the manual work. From the 1920s until their expulsion in 1942, the Japanese settlers – a large part of the population – made use of the slopes facing south for extensive berry farming.

Lumberyards and mills continue to be active on the waterfront until the present day although today on a smaller scale than before. Women, through the church and other organizations, played an important part in the shaping of community life. In 1912 they created and started operating a community hall that remained the centre of social activities for some forty years. Many people keep horses, have poultry, sheep and llamas. There are fruit farms. Whonnock Lake is a typical bog lake; the only regular water input is from the north. There is an exit to Whonnock Creek on the south-east side. Whonnock Lake Park, offers a stand of mature trees, a grassy playground, a small sandy beach —swimming and nature study; the park is home to native plants and thriving colonies of beavers and muskrats, as well as to breeding populations of loons, mallard ducks, numerous small birds. The lake is stocked annually with rainbow trout, supports a substantial recreational fishery. In 1988 the Whonnock Community Association opened Whonnock Lake Centre in Whonnock Lake Park.

In 2013, after taking care of the operation of the Centre for 25 years the Whonnock Community Association transferred the management of the Centre to the City of Maple Ridge. Whonnock Lake Centre serves in the first place as community hall for Whonnock residents, it is a well-known location for weddings and other events. The name Whonnock Community Association was registered in 1981 but a group of volunteers interested in the wellbeing of the community operated before under different names; the Association organizes community events. Ridge Canoe and Kayak Club is a flat-water sprint-paddling club based at Whonnock Lake It consists of athletes of all levels. Begun as an Olympic racing club in 1982, RCKC has expanded to many other areas of paddling sports. RCKC offers programs for recreational paddlers. Fire Hall No. 2 in Whonnock was built in 1974. The area covered by Hall No. 2 reaches from 256th Street east to the Mission border. Whonnock has had a post office and a postmaster since 1885; the owner of the general store was postmaster.

In 1914, when the postmaster stopped being the shopkeeper, he moved the post office to its present site. The post office is today in a building. 1932. The Whonnock postmaster is the last in the Lower Mainland bearing that title. Whonnock is served by School District 42 Map