Beer in Brazil
Brazil is the world's third largest beer market with total volume at 139 million hectoliters, per capita consumption 61 liters in 2016. The tradition of brewing in Brazil dates back to German immigration in the early nineteenth century; the first breweries date from the 1830s, the brand Bohemia is claimed to be the first Brazilian beer, with production starting in 1853 in the city of Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro and is the oldest Brazilian beer, still under production. Many breweries appeared and disappeared in that period like Ritter from Rio Grande do Sul and Imperial Fábrica de Cerveja Nacional from Rio de Janeiro. Two important brands and Brahma, started production in the 1880s. Brazil is the world's third largest beer market, behind China and the US, with beer volumes in 2015 pegged at 139 million hectoliters. Per capita consumption has declined, dropping from 67 liters in 2012 to around 61 liters in 2016. Despite the weak performance in recent years, outlooks expect per head consumption to increase out to 2021.
The on-trade channel accounted for 60% of sales in 2016. As is the case with the market's overall volumes, per capita consumption, on-trade sales have been adversely impacted by an unfavorable economic situation. Standard Lager beers are the most popular in Brazil, with only a limited choice of beers from other categories; the majority of the market belongs to AmBev, the owner of the Brahma, Antarctica and Skol brands. Brazil's largest brewer was formed in 1999 from the merger of the two biggest brands and Antarctica. In 2004, Ambev merged with Belgium's Interbrew to form the world's largest brewer, now known as InBev. After the merger, Grupo Schincariol became the largest Brazilian-owned brewery in the country. In 2011, the company became a subsidiary of Japanese beverage company Kirin Brewery Company, subsequently changed its name to Brasil Kirin. In 2017 Kirin sold this business to Heineken NV for a transaction value of US$1.1 billion. In 2002, Molson Coors bought Brazil's second largest brewery Kaiser.
In 2006, the Mexican FEMSA Cerveza acquired 68% of Kaiser Brewery from Molson Coors. Molson Coors still holds 15% of Kaiser brewery shares, Heineken holds the remaining 17%. In 2006, FEMSA Cerveza released the Mexican brand Sol in the Brazilian market to compete to the biggest Inbev brands with poor results. In 2010, Heineken bought all FEMSA's brewery including the Brazilian unit. Company market share in 2009: Ambev, Grupo Schincariol, Petrópolis brewery, others. Brand market share in 2005: Skol, Antarctica, Nova Schin, Kaiser. There are a number of microbreweries in Brazil, the emergence of which are a recent phenomenon; some of the better renowned microbreweries include. Blumenau: Eisenbahn and some soft American lager breweries. Belo Horizonte is becoming a major microbrewering pole in the country, with several recognized brands such as Backer and many others. Over the past decade Brazilian drinkers are enjoying more imported beer. Leading supply destinations include but are not limited to: Mexico, The Netherlands, Belgium and Uruguay.
These imports are a lot more expensive than locally brewed beers. However, there are a growing number of bars and beer shops dedicating themselves to selling a large range of craft and imported beer; some international brands are produced in Brazil, such as Stella Artois and Heineken, but all are dedicated to the premium market with small market share. Beer is the most competitive sector of the alcoholic drinks market in Brazil, the big global beer companies like InBev and FEMSA compete for market share. In the Brazilian Carnival period there is an explosion in beer consumption. In these 4 days, 400 million liters are consumed. In November with the approach of summer, the manufacture and investment in marketing triples. International tourists find that domestic and local beers are much less expensive than imported brands. Beer and breweries by region Devassa by Playboy The Beer Sector in Brazil, Flanders Investment and trade
Brazilian Gold Rush
The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 1690s, in the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the Portuguese Empire. The gold rush opened up the major gold-producing area of Ouro Preto the aptly named Vila Rica; the Brazilian Gold Rush created the world's longest gold rush period and the largest gold mines in South America. The rush began; the bandeirantes were adventurers who organized themselves into small groups to explore the interior of Brazil. Many bandeirantes were of mixed indigenous and European background who adopted the ways of the natives, which permitted them to survive in the interior rain forest. While the bandeirantes searched for indigenous captives, they searched for mineral wealth, which led to the gold being discovered. More than 400,000 Portuguese and half a million African slaves came to the gold region to mine. Many people abandoned the sugar plantations and towns in the northeast coast to go to the gold region. By 1725, half the population of Brazil was living in southeastern Brazil.
850 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the 18th century. Other gold circulated illegally, still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches and for other uses; the municipality became the most populous city of Latin America, counting on about 40 thousand people in 1730 and, decades after, 80 thousand. At that time, the population of New York was less than half of that number of inhabitants and the population of São Paulo did not surpass 8 thousand. Minas Gerais was the gold mining center of Brazil. Slave labor was used for the workforce; the discovery of gold in the area caused a huge influx of European immigrants and The government decided to bring in bureaucrats from Portugal to control operations. They set up numerous bureaucracies with conflicting duties and jurisdictions; the officials proved unequal to the task of controlling this lucrative industry. In 1830, the St. John d'el Rey Mining Company, controlled by the British, opened the largest gold mine in Latin America; the British brought in modern management techniques and engineering expertise.
Located in Nova Lima, the mine produced ore for 125 years. Erário Mineral, author Luís Gomes Ferreira Brazilian Gold Gold mining in Brazil Chilean silver rush Tierra del Fuego Gold Rush
Petróleo Brasileiro S. A. — Petrobras, more known as Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The company's name translates to Brazilian Petroleum Corporation — Petrobras; the company was ranked #58 in the most recent Fortune Global 500 list. The company operates in six business areas, listed in order of revenue: Refining and marketing – refining, transportation, trading operations, oil products and crude oil exports and imports and petrochemical investments in Brazil Exploration and production – crude oil, NGL and natural gas exploration and production in Brazil Distribution – distribution of oil products, ethanol and natural gas to wholesalers and through the Petrobras Distribuidora S. A. retail network in Brazil Gas and power – transportation and trading of natural gas and LNG, generation and trading of electric power, the fertilizer business International – exploration and production of oil and gas, refining and marketing, distribution and gas and power operations outside of Brazil Biofuels – production of biodiesel and its co-products and ethanol-related activities such as equity investments and trading of ethanol and the excess electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse Petrobras controls significant oil and energy assets in 16 countries in Africa, North America, South America and Asia.
However, Brazil represented 92% of Petrobras' worldwide production in 2014 and accounted for 97% of Petrobras' worldwide reserves on 31 December 2014, when the company had 8,112.8 million barrels of oil equivalent of proved developed reserves and 4,599.7 million barrels of oil equivalent of proved undeveloped reserves in Brazil. Of these, 62.7% were located in the offshore Campos Basin. The largest growth prospect for the company is the Lula oil field in the Santos Basin. In 2015, the company produced 2.284 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, of which 89% was petroleum and 11% was natural gas. Reserves held outside of Brazil accounted for 8.4% of production in 2014. The majority of these reserves are in South America. Petrobras owns refineries in Texas, Okinawa and Bahía Blanca, Argentina; the company owns exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico and through joint ventures has production in Nigeria, Benin and Namibia. The Brazilian government directly owns 54% of Petrobras' common shares with voting rights, while the Brazilian Development Bank and Brazil's Sovereign Wealth Fund each control 5%, bringing the State's direct and indirect ownership to 64%.
The held shares are traded on BM&F Bovespa, where they are part of the Ibovespa index. Petrobras is a major supporter of the arts in Brazil. North RegionREMAN - Refinaria Isaac Sabbá - Manaus - 46 000 bpdNortheast RegionRLAM - Landulpho Alves Refinery - São Francisco do Conde - 323 000 bpd RPCC - Potiguar Clara Refinery - Guamaré - 37 700 bpd LUBNOR - Lubrificantes e Derivados de Petróleo do Nordeste - Fortaleza - 8 000 bpdSoutheast RegionREGAP - Gabriel Passos Refinery - Betim - 150.000 bpd REPLAN - Refinery of Paulínia - Paulínia - 415 000 bpd REVAP - Henrique Lages Refinery - São José dos Campos - 252 000 bpd RPBC - Presidente Bernardes Refinery - Cubatão - 178 000 bpd RECAP - Refinery of Capuava - Mauá - 53 000 bpd REDUC - Refinery of Duque de Caxias - Duque de Caxias - 239 000 bpdSouth RegionREPAR - Presidente Getúlio Vargas Refinery - Araucária - 207 563 bpd REFAP - Alberto Pasqualini Refinery - Canoas - 201 280 bpdOut of BrazilEliçabe - Buenos Aires - 31 200 bpd San Lorenzo - San Lorenzo - 37 700 bpd Refinaria Del Norte - Salta - 28 975 bpd Pasadena Refinery System Inc - Pasadena - 106 000 bpd Okinawa - Okinawa Island - 100 000 bpd Petrobras was created in 1953 under the government of Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas with the slogan "The Oil is Ours".
It was given a legal monopoly in Brazil. In 1953, Brazil produced only 2,700 barrels of oil per day. In 1961, the company's REDUC refinery began operations near Rio de Janeiro, in 1963, its Cenpes research center opened in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, the company established Petrobras Quimica S. A, a subsidiary focused on petrochemicals and the conversion of naphtha into ethene. Petrobras had begun processing oil shale in 1953, developing the Petrosix technology for extracting oil from oil shale, it began using an industrial-size retort to process shale in the 1990s. In 2006, Petrobras said that their industrial retort had the capacity to process 260 tonnes/hour of oil shale. In 1994, Petrobras put the world's largest oil platform, into service, it was a complete loss. In 1997, the government approved Law N.9.478, which broke Petrobras's monopoly and allowed competition in Brazil's oilfields, created the national petroleum agency Agência Nacional do Petróleo, responsible for the regulation and supervision of the petroleum industry, the National Council of Energy Policies, a public agency responsible for developing public energy policy.
In 1999, the National Petroleum Agency signed agreements with other companies, ending the compan
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys services; the measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index the consumer price index, over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation. Inflation affects economies in various negative ways; the negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity, allowing the central bank more leeway in carrying out monetary policy, encouraging loans and investment instead of money hoarding, avoiding the inefficiencies associated with deflation.
Economists believe that the high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth. Today, most economists favor a steady rate of inflation. Low inflation reduces the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more in a downturn, reduces the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy; the task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is given to monetary authorities. These monetary authorities are the central banks that control monetary policy through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, through the setting of banking reserve requirements.
Rapid increases in the quantity of money or in the overall money supply have occurred in many different societies throughout history, changing with different forms of money used. For instance, when gold was used as currency, the government could collect gold coins, melt them down, mix them with other metals such as silver, copper, or lead, reissue them at the same nominal value. By diluting the gold with other metals, the government could issue more coins without increasing the amount of gold used to make them; when the cost of each coin is lowered in this way, the government profits from an increase in seigniorage. This practice would increase the money supply but at the same time the relative value of each coin would be lowered; as the relative value of the coins becomes lower, consumers would need to give more coins in exchange for the same goods and services as before. These goods and services would experience a price increase. Song Dynasty China introduced the practice of printing paper money to create fiat currency.
During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the government spent a great deal of money fighting costly wars, reacted by printing more money, leading to inflation. Fearing the inflation that plagued the Yuan dynasty, the Ming Dynasty rejected the use of paper money, reverted to using copper coins. Large infusions of gold or silver into an economy led to inflation. From the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, Western Europe experienced a major inflationary cycle referred to as the "price revolution", with prices on average rising sixfold over 150 years; this was caused by the sudden influx of gold and silver from the New World into Habsburg Spain. The silver spread throughout a cash-starved Europe and caused widespread inflation. Demographic factors contributed to upward pressure on prices, with European population growth after depopulation caused by the Black Death pandemic. By the nineteenth century, economists categorized three separate factors that cause a rise or fall in the price of goods: a change in the value or production costs of the good, a change in the price of money, a fluctuation in the commodity price of the metallic content in the currency, currency depreciation resulting from an increased supply of currency relative to the quantity of redeemable metal backing the currency.
Following the proliferation of private banknote currency printed during the American Civil War, the term "inflation" started to appear as a direct reference to the currency depreciation that occurred as the quantity of redeemable banknotes outstripped the quantity of metal available for their redemption. At that time, the term inflation referred to the devaluation of the currency, not to a rise in the price of goods; this relationship between the over-supply of banknotes and a resulting depreciation in their value was noted by earlier classical economists such as David Hume and David Ricardo, who would go on to examine and debate what effect a currency devaluation has on the price of goods. The adoption of fiat currency by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Rapid increases in the money supply have taken place a number of times in countries experiencing political crises, produ
São José dos Campos
São José dos Campos is a major city and the seat of the municipality of the same name in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. One of the leading industrial and research centers with emphasis in aerospace sciences in Latin America, the city is located in the Paraíba Valley, between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, it is the main city of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte. A native of São José dos Campos is called a joseense. Total area: 1,099.60 km2 urban area: 353.9 km2 rural: 745.7 km2 Source: City administration website Northern Border: Camanducaia, Sapucaí Mirim in Minas Gerais Southern Border: Jacareí, Jambeiro in São Paulo State Eastern Border: Monteiro Lobato, Caçapava in São Paulo State Western border: Igaratá, Joanópolis, Piracaia in São Paulo State The municipality comprises three districts: São José dos Campos — the city itself, Eugênio de Melo and São Francisco Xavier. The last one is known for its natural sites and ecotourism.
The district of São José dos Campos is subdivided into 2 subdistricts. However, for administrative purposes, the city is composed of 7 urban regions: Center, South, East, Southeast and São Francisco Xavier. Highlands predominate in the northern region of the municipality with altitudes ranging from 660 to 975 m; the northern border of the municipality lies over the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, with some peaks reaching over 2000 meters. The highest point in the municipality is known. In the urban area, there are rolling hills; the lowest elevation in the city is found in the Paraíba do Sul river, at an elevation of 550 m. The municipality is bounded at the south by the'Serra do Jambeiro' mountains, with an elevation of about 900m. Municipality: Elevations 550 to 2,082 m City: Elevations 550 to 690 m; the municipality holds the 11,559 hectares São Francisco Xavier Environmental Protection Area, established in 2002. It contains part of the 292,000 hectares Mananciais do Rio Paraíba do Sul Environmental Protection Area, created in 1982 to protect the sources of the Paraiba do Sul river.
The climate of the city can be best described as a mix between the subtropical climate of southern parts of the country, the tropical climate of most of the country and the subtropical highland climate of neighbouring mountainous regions. Technically, the city has a humid subtropical climate with significant less precipitation during winters. Winters are mild, with average temperature in the coldest month of 17 °C. Summers are not excessively hot, with average temperature of the hotttest month of 24 °C. With global warming it is likely that the city's climate will transition to a true tropical climate in the near future. Frosts are rare, happening on average once per decade. There's no record of snow precipitation in the city center; the peaks at the northern border of the municipality due to altitude have a colder Cwb/Cfb climates, with occasional snowfalls. The origins of São José dos Campos lie at the end of the 16th Century when Jesuits founded a cattle farm, Aldeia do Rio Comprido; the farm was created through a concession of settlements around 1590 to the Society of Jesus.
The farm was located on the banks of the Rio Comprido, natural division between São José and the city of Jacareí today. The farm status was an artifice to hide a religious outpost, one of the several Jesuit Reductions in Brazil, known for their resistance to enslavement, from the Portuguese expedition leaders and indigenous people hunters, known as the Bandeirantes. On September 10, 1611, the local was recognized and the farmers precluded from utilizing the Natives as slaves. However, a turmeric conflict between farmers and the religious led to the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1640 from the region and the consequent dispersion of the mission; the Jesuits returned and reestablished a new settlement, where the current city center is spotted. It was about 15 km northeast of the previous mission, on a higher plain with a privileged view above a geological depression, which guaranteed security against invasions and floods. Again, despite being a new mission, it was treated as a cattle farm; the initial urbanization plan is attributed to the Jesuit priest Manoel de Leão, whose main occupation was to be an administrator of the community.
In 1692, documents named the village. At the beginning of the gold mining economic cycle in Brazil, the settlement goes through serious difficulties due to the exit of labor to the mines. After the definitive expulsion of Jesuits from the Portuguese Empire in 1759, all the religious order's assets, such as farms and villages were taken under the Portuguese Crown's custody; the governor, D. Luis Antonio Botelho Mourão, had as a priority to turn these new assets into productive units and increase tax collection. For that, Boutelho Mourão requested authorization from the Viceroy to create civil parishes, known as freguesias, to change the fiscal status of villages to the category of V
Antônio Delfim Netto
Antônio Delfim Netto is a Brazilian economist, former Minister of Finance and Planning of Brazil and congressman. During his incumbency as Minister of Finance of Brazil, the country experienced the so-called Milagre Econômico, a time of unprecedented economic growth. Antônio Delfim Netto. O Brasil pós-real: a política econômica em debate. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Economia. ISBN 978-85-86215-06-3
Dodge is an American brand of automobile manufactured by FCA US LLC, based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. Dodge vehicles include performance cars, though for much of its existence Dodge was Chrysler's mid-priced brand above Plymouth. Founded as the Dodge Brothers Company machine shop by brothers Horace Elgin Dodge and John Francis Dodge in the early 1900s, Dodge was a supplier of parts and assemblies for Detroit-based automakers and began building complete automobiles under the "Dodge Brothers" brand in 1914, predating the founding of Chrysler Corporation; the factory was located in Hamtramck and was called the Dodge Main factory from 1910 until its closing in January 1980. The Dodge brothers both died in 1920, the company was sold by their families to Dillon, Read & Co. in 1925 before being sold to Chrysler in 1928. Dodge vehicles consisted of trucks and full-sized passenger cars through the 1970s, though it made memorable compact cars and midsize cars; the 1973 oil crisis and its subsequent impact on the American automobile industry led Chrysler to develop the K platform of compact to midsize cars for the 1981 model year.
The K platform and its derivatives are credited with reviving Chrysler's business in the 1980s. The Dodge brand has withstood the multiple ownership changes at Chrysler from 1998 to 2009, including its short-lived merger with Daimler-Benz AG from 1998 to 2007, its subsequent sale to Cerberus Capital Management, its 2009 bailout by the United States government, its subsequent Chapter 11 bankruptcy and acquisition by Fiat. In 2011, Dodge and Dodge's Viper were separated. Dodge said that the Dodge Viper would be an SRT product and Ram will be a manufacturer. In 2014, SRT was merged back into Dodge; that year, Chrysler Group was renamed FCA US LLC, corresponding with the merger of Fiat S.p. A. and Chrysler Group into the single corporate structure of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Horace and John Dodge founded the Dodge Brothers Company in Detroit in 1900, found work manufacturing precision engine and chassis components for the city's growing number of automobile firms. Chief among these customers were the established Olds Motor Vehicle Company and the new Ford Motor Company.
Henry Ford selected the Dodge brothers to supply a wide range of components for his original Model A that included the complete chassis. The first machine shop where the brothers worked as parts suppliers for Olds and Ford was located at the Boydell Building on Beaubien Street at Lafayette; this location was replaced by a larger facility at Hastings Street and Monroe Avenue, now a parking garage for the Greektown Casino Hotel. By 1910 the Dodge Main factory was built in Hamtramck, where it remained until 1979; the Dodge Brothers Motor Company was established in 1913 and by 1914, John and Horace designed and debuted the first car of their own – the four-cylinder Dodge Model 30/35 touring car. Marketed as a more upscale competitor to the ubiquitous Ford Model T, it pioneered or made standard many features taken for granted like all-steel body construction as the vast majority of cars worldwide still used wood-framing under steel panels). Once the Dodge brothers produced their own car, John Dodge was once quoted as saying, "Someday, people who own a Ford are going to want an automobile".
As a result of this, the brothers' well-earned reputation for the highest quality truck and motor parts they made for other successful vehicles, Dodge Brothers cars were ranked at second place for U. S. sales as early as 1916. That same year, Henry Ford decided to stop paying stock dividends to finance the construction of his new River Rouge complex, the Dodges filed a suit to protect their annual stock earnings of one million dollars, leading Ford to buy out his shareholders. In 1916, the Dodge Brothers vehicles won acclaim for their durability in military service. First with the U. S. Army's Pancho Villa Expedition, during the 1910s U. S. Mexico Border War — the U. S. military's first operation to use truck convoys. General "Blackjack" Pershing procured a fleet of 150 to 250 Dodge Brothers vehicles for the Mexico campaign. Touring cars were used as reconnaissance vehicles. One notable instance was in May when the 6th Infantry received a reported sighting of Julio Cárdenas, one of Villa's most trusted subordinates.
Lt. George S. Patton led ten soldiers and two civilian guides in three Dodge Model 30 touring cars to conduct America's first motorised military raid at a ranch house in San Miguelito, Sonora. During the ensuing firefight the party killed three men. Patton's men tied the bodies to the hoods of the Dodges, returning to headquarters in Dublán and an excited reception from US newspapermen. Subsequently, some 12,800 Dodge cars and light trucks were used in World War I — over 8,000 touring cars, as well as 2,600 commercial vehicles, such as screen-side trucks and panel vans — serving as ambulances and repair trucks. Dodge remained the United States military's primary supplier of light wheeled vehicles, until the