Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Piracicaba is a city located in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. The population is 391,449 in an area of 1378.07 km². It is at an elevation of 547 m above sea level; the place name comes from a word in the Tupi language that means "place where the fish stops". The name arises from the fact that the waterfalls of the Piracicaba River, which bisects the city, is a point at which "piracema"—fish swimming upstream to reproduce. Larger fish species such as the dourados can still be observed. In 1766, Antonio Correa Barbosa, charged with the task of establishing a settlement on the estuary of Piracicaba river, opted for a location about 90 km from it; the settlement was founded on August 1, 1767, as a povoação subordinated to the vila of Itu. In 1784, Piracicaba gets emancipated from Itu. In 1821, the freguesia is promoted to vila, known as Vila Nova da Constituição. In 1856, Vila Nova da Constituição is promoted to city status and in 1877 it is named "Piracicaba", following a law by the councilman and future Brazilian president Prudente de Morais.
In 1944, the city was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Piracicaba. Piracicaba is home to the oldest agricultural university in Brazil, the Luiz de Queiroz School of Agriculture of the University of São Paulo. Founded in 1901, the school is located on a farm with a large collection of plants, it is recognized as a leader in the field of precision agriculture. Other universities based in Piracicaba are the Methodist University of Piracicaba and the University of Campinas' School of Dentistry. Piracicaba is known by the nickname "Noiva da Colina", is the annual host to the "Festa das Nações", to the "Salão Internacional do Humor", where cartoonists from around the world display comic drawings. Piracicaba is famous for sugarcane plantations, traditional cachaça production, traditional music. In particular, its economy, as of this year, is fueled by the cultivation of sugarcane; the harvest of sugarcane produces many products, including sugar and ethanol. Copersucar, a large company that has a center of research on genetic improvement of sugarcane participates in this growing industry.
Another characteristic economic feature is the presence of large industries, where the main ones are Caterpillar, ArcelorMittal, Hyundai. Piracicaba's altitude is 554 meters. Temperatures through the year vary from 37.5° Celsius maximum to 16.0° Celsius minimum, Piracicaba experiences annual rainfall of 123 centimeters. The area of the city is 1,378 square kilometers, making it the 19th largest city in the State of São Paulo; the urban area of Piracicaba is 158 square kilometers, 95% of the population resides in it. The population in 2015 was 391,449; the Human Development Index for the city was 0.710 in 2000, 0.785 in 2010, both falling in the "high" category. As of 2010, water and power are supplied at a level approaching 100% of the households; as of 2013 there were 164 telephones, 333 cars, both statistics per thousand people. Like the cultural variety in Piracicaba, there are several religious manifestations in the city, it is possible to find in the city dozens of different Protestant denominations, as well as the practice of Buddhism, Islamism and others.
In the last decades and Eastern religions have grown in the city. There are the Jewish and Afro-Brazilian religions. According to data from the 2010 Census conducted by the IBGE, the population of Piracicaba was composed that year by Catholics, Evangelicals, no religious affiliation and Jehovah's Witnesses; the remaining 2.09% of the resident population declared themselves of other denominations or of undetermined religion. Source: IBGE - Census 2010 José Altafini known as "Mazola", a Brazilian footballer. André Cypriano, documentary photographer Evaristo Conrado Engelberg and inventor Marcos Pizzelli-Brazilian footballer. Rubens Ometto Silveira Mello, owner of Cosan
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
The Campeonato Brasileiro Série A referred as Brasileirão, is a Brazilian professional league for men's football clubs. At the top of the Brazilian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B. Due to historical peculiarities and the large geographical size of the country, Brazil has a short history of nationwide football competitions. Only in 1959, with the advancements in civil aviation and air transport and the need to appoint a Brazilian representative to the first edition of the Copa Libertadores was a nationwide tournament created, Taça Brasil. In 1967, the Torneio Rio-São Paulo was expanded to include teams from other states, becoming the Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa, considered a national tournament; the first Campeonato Brasileiro with that name was held in 1989. Prior to this, only the seasons post-1971 were regarded as Campeonato Brasileiro.
In 2010, the national tournaments from 1959 and 1970 – Taça Brasil and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa – were unified by the Brazilian Football Confederation in the Brazilian championship history. The Campeonato Brasileiro is one of the strongest leagues in the world; the International Federation of Football History & Statistics ranked the league fourth in strength for the 2001–12 period after the Premier League, La Liga, Serie A. The Campeonato Brasileiro is the most-watched football league in the Americas and one of the world's most exposed, broadcast in 155 nations, it is one of the world's richest championships, ranked as the sixth most valuable with a worth of over US$1.43 billion, generating an annual turnover of over US$1.17 billion in 2012. Since 1959, a total of 156 clubs have played in the Campeonato Brasileiro. Seventeen clubs have been crowned Brazilian football champions, twelve of which have won the title more than once. Palmeiras is the most successful club of the Campeonato Brasileiro, having won the competition ten times including the most recent edition, followed by Santos with eight titles, Corinthians with seven titles and São Paulo with six titles.
Santos' Os Santásticos won five consecutive titles between 1961 and 1965, a feat that remains unequaled. The State of São Paulo is the most successful state, amassing 31 titles among five The Taça Brasil was introduced in 1959, ran until 1968; the Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa was competed for between 1967 and 1970. In 2010 the CBF announced. In 1968, the delay in closing the 1968 Taça Brasil made CBD use the Robertão to determine the Libertadores representants. With the extinction of the Taça Brasil, the Robertão named by CBD as "Taça de Prata" remained the top Brazilian championship the following two years. Following Brazil's third world title at the 1970 FIFA World Cup, president Emílio Médici decided to better organize Brazilian football. In a reunion with the CBD and the club presidents in October 1970, it was decided to create the following year a Brazilian championship contested by twenty teams, inspired by the national tournaments in the European nations; the first edition of the named "Campeonato Nacional", was held in 1971.
The top division was named "Divisão Extra", while a newly created second division earned the "Primeira Divisão" name. In 1987, the CBF announced it was not able to organize the Brazilian football championship, a mere few weeks before it was scheduled to begin; as a result, the thirteen most popular football clubs in Brazil created a league, The Clube dos 13, to organize a championship of their own. This tournament was called Copa União and was run by the 16 clubs that took part in it; the CBF stood by the Club of the 13 decision. However, weeks with the competition underway, under pressure from football clubs excluded from the Copa União, the CBF adopted a new set of rules, which considered the Copa União part of a larger tournament, comprising another 16 teams. According to that new set of rules, the Copa União would be dubbed the Green Module of the CBF championship, whereas the other 16 teams would play the Yellow Module. In the end, the first two teams of each Module would play each other to define the national champions and the two teams that would represent Brazil in the Copa Libertadores in 1988.
However, that new set of rules was never recognized by the Club of the 13 and ignored by most of the Brazilian media, who concentrated their attention in the independent league won by Clube de Regatas do Flamengo. The eventual final, set to be Sport Club of Recife vs Flamengo never materialized, with Flamengo refusing to partake in the final; as a result, Sport won the Championship for 1987 and went on to represent Brazil in the Copa Libertadores in 1988. Although Flamengo has attempted to gain ownership of the championship multiple times through the justice system, Sport remains recognized by both CBF and FIFA as 1987 Champions. In 2010, CBF decided to recognize the champions of both Taça Brasil and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa as Brazilian Champions, creating some controversy as there was a two-year period when both tournaments were held, thus Palmeiras was awarded two times for winning both in 1967 and both Santos and Bota
Esporte Clube Santo André
Esporte Clube Santo André known as Santo André, is a Brazilian football team from Santo André, São Paulo state. Santo André greatest rival is the other team in ABC region; the club's mascot name is Ramalhão after the bandeirante João Ramalho. João Ramalho founded the city of Santo André in 1553. Santo André was founded on September 18, 1967, by people that wanted to have a team in their city representing the professional football of the Municipality; the first Santo André directorship was elected on October 4, 1967, was composed by the following members: Newton Brandão, the President. The first official match of the club took place on April 8, 1968, at Américo Guazzelli stadium in a friendly match against Santos. Pelé did not play, but participated in the festivities. Santo André won 2 - 1. In 1984 Santo André were invited to play in Série A based on their State Championship performance; the team reached the third round, but were not invited to compete the following year as the criteria changed.
Santo André next made headlines in 2003 when the team finished as runners-up to Ituano in Série C and thus were promoted to Série B. In 2004, Santo André won their first national title when they defeated Flamengo in the Copa do Brasil final, gaining the right to compete in the following year's Copa Libertadores de América, their first season in Série B was over before it started as the team was docked 12 points for playing an ineligible player. This meant at the time of the Copa do Brasil success their point tally on the local tournament was negative; the team recovered to comfortably avoid relegation. In 2008 Santo André were runners-up to Corinthians in the Série B and thus earned promotion to Série A. After a hard-fought campaign Santo André were relegated back to Série B on the last day of the season; the 2010 Paulista State Championship proved to be a successful campaign. The team finished second in the table behind Santos after a mid season seven match winning streak put them in a commanding position.
In the playoffs Santo André overcame Grêmio Prudente, before facing the all conquering Santos team who had scored nearly 100 goals in all competitions. The first game ended in a 3-2 victory for Santos despite Santo André having a man sent off; the second match on May 2, 2010, proved to be an epic encounter as Santo André leveled the tie in the first minute, before being pegged back. A thrilling game ended 3-2 to Santo André and saw three red cards given to Santos, one to Santo André. Despite hitting the post twice, Santo André could not break down a professional Santos rear guard action. Santos thus won the title due to their superior overall record. Santo André slipped into free fall and were relegated to Série C in 2010 and relegated to the Série D in 2011. Copa do Brasil: 12004Brazilian Championship Serie B: 0Runners-up: 2008Brazilian Championship Serie C: 0Runners-up: 2003Copa FPF: 22003, 2014Campeonato Paulista: 0Runners-up: 2010Campeonato Paulista A-2: 41975, 1981, 2008, 2016Copa São Paulo de Futebol Júnior: 12003 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. A notable coach would be Sérgio Guedes. Santo André's stadium is Estádio Bruno José Daniel, inaugurated in 1969, with a maximum capacity of 18,000 people. Official Web Site Fans Site