Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UFRJ is the largest federal university in the country and is one of the Brazilian centers of excellence in teaching and research. In terms of scientific and cultural productions it is recognized nationally and internationally due to the great teachers, researchers and assessments made by international agencies. In 2017 QS World University Rankings ranked UFRJ as the best Brazilian federal university, as well as the third best university in the country occupying the seventh position among institutions of Latin America. In 2016 and 2017 the Ranking Universitário Folha ranked UFRJ as the best university in Brazil and the best Federal University in the country; the Center for World University Rankings published in 2017 UFRJ as the second best university in the world in Zoology field. Brazil's first official higher education institution, it has operated continuously since 1792, when the "Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho" was founded, served as basis for the country's college system since its officialization in 1920.
Besides its 157 undergraduate and 580 postgraduate courses, the UFRJ is responsible for seven museums, most notably the National Museum, nine hospitals, hundreds of laboratories and research facilities and forty-three libraries. Its history and identity are tied to the Brazilian ambitions of forging a modern and just society; the university is located in Rio de Janeiro, with ramifications spreading to other ten cities. Its main campuses are the historical campus of "Praia Vermelha" and the newer "Cidade Universitária", which houses the "Parque Tecnológico do Rio" - a science and innovation development cluster. There are several off-campus units scattered in Rio de Janeiro: the School of Music, the College of Law Studies, the Institute of Philosophy and Social Sciences and the Institute of History, in downtown Rio. To the city of Macaé, located in the State's northern region, was dedicated a research and learning center focused on environmental issues and oil-related matters, the city of Duque de Caxias, in partnership with the National Institute of Metrics and Industrial Quality, saw the implementation of "Pólo Avançado de Xerém", aimed at boosting research in the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology.
UFRJ is one of the main culprits in the formation of the Brazilian intellectual elite, contributing to build not only the history of Rio de Janeiro but of Brazil. Some of its former students include renowned economists Mario Henrique Simonsen; the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro is direct descendent of Brazil's first higher education courses. Created on September 7, 1920 by president Epitácio Pessoa through the Law Decree 14343, the institution was named "University of Rio de Janeiro", its history, however, is much vaster and parallel to that of the country's cultural and social development. In its inception, the university was composed by the "Escola Politécnica", the "Faculdade Nacional de Medicina" and by the "Faculdade Nacional de Direito". To these initial units many others were progressively added, such as the "Escola Nacional de Belas Artes" and the "Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia". Thanks to such achievements, the UFRJ toke crucial role in the implantation of Brazilian higher education, in fact an aspiration from Brazilian intellectual elite since the country's colonial era.
Due to the longstanding tradition of its pioneering courses, the university functioned as the "scholar mill" upon which most of Brazil's subsequent higher education institutions were molded. In 1937, Getúlio Vargas's minister of education, Gustavo Capanema, announced a reform of the education system, under which the institution changed its name to the "University of Brazil"; the change reflected the government's aim of controlling the quality of the national higher education system - by setting a standard by which all other universities would have to conform. Such decision was influenced by the French concept of university - that in which component schools are isolated in order to assume a specific professionalizing teaching method under strong state control -, which contrasted to the German model seen, for example, in the University of São Paulo, founded in 1934; the early
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, activities of daily life, sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic and political environment of an emerging industrialized world; the poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.
A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, recapitulation and parody; some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common in the West, are those who see it as a progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was'holding back' progress, replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end.
Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche to Samuel Beckett. While some scholars see modernism continuing into the twenty first century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Postmodernism refutes its basic assumptions. According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view the modernists, carrying the torch of romanticism." While J. M. W. Turner, one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movement, as "a pioneer in the study of light and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists" and therefore modernism "in breaking down conventional formulas of representation.
The dominant trends of industrial Victorian England were opposed, from about 1850, by the English poets and painters that constituted the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, because of their "opposition to technical skill without inspiration." They were influenced by the writings of the art critic John Ruskin, who had strong feelings about the role of art in helping to improve the lives of the urban working classes, in the expanding industrial cities of Britain. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists: "There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the pre-Raphaelites; the Pre-Raphaelites foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough." Rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. However, the Industrial Revolution continued.
Influential innovations included steam-powered industrialization, the development of railways, starting in Britain in the 1830s, the subsequent advancements in physics and architecture associated with this. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and King's Cross station; these technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge and the Eiffel Tower. The latter broke all previous limitations on; these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. The human experience of time itself was altered, with the development of the electric telegraph from 1837, the adoption
John VI of Portugal
John VI, nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825. Although the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist de facto beginning in 1822, he remained its monarch de jure between 1822 and 1825. After the recognition of the independence of Brazil under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825, he continued as King of Portugal until his death in 1826. Under the same treaty, he became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son, Pedro I of Brazil, was both de facto and de jure the monarch of the newly-independent country. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Maria I and Peter III of Portugal, he was an infante of Portugal, he only became heir to the throne when his older brother José, Prince of Brazil, died of smallpox in 1788 at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles Duke of Braganza and Duke of Beja, as well as Prince of Brazil. From 1799, he served as prince regent of Portugal, due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I.
In 1816, he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire, with no real change in his authority, since he possessed absolute powers as regent. One of the last representatives of absolute monarchy in Europe, he lived during a turbulent period. Throughout his period of rule, major powers, such as Spain and Great Britain, continually intervened in Portuguese affairs. Forced to flee to South America across the Atlantic Ocean into Brazil when troops of the Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, he found himself faced there with liberal revolts, his marriage was no less conflictual, as his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain conspired against her husband in favor of personal interests or those of her native Spain. He lost Brazil when his son Pedro declared independence, his other son Miguel led a rebellion that sought to depose him. According to recent scholarly research, his death may well have been caused by arsenic poisoning. Notwithstanding these tribulations he left a lasting mark in Brazil, where he helped to create numerous institutions and services that laid a foundation for national autonomy, he is considered by many historians to be a true mastermind of the modern Brazilian state.
Still, he has been viewed as a cartoonish figure in Portuguese-Brazilian history, accused of laziness, lack of political acumen and constant indecision, is portrayed as physically grotesque. João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael was born 13 May 1767, during the reign of his maternal grandfather and paternal uncle Joseph I of Portugal, he was the second son, paternal cousin, nephew by marriage of the future Queen Maria I, Joseph's daughter, her husband, the future King Peter III. At the time of John's birth they were Princess of Brazil and Infante of Portugal, he was ten years old when his grandfather died and his mother ascended to the throne. His childhood and youth were lived as he was a mere infante in the shadow of his elder brother José, Prince of Brazil and 14th Duke of Braganza, the heir-apparent to the throne. Folklore has John as a rather uncultured youth, but according to Jorge Pedreira e Costa, he received as rigorous an education as José did. Still, a French ambassador of the time painted him in unfavorable colors, seeing him as hesitant and dim.
The record of this period of his life is too vague for historians to form any definitive picture. Little is known of the substance of his education, he received instruction in religion, law and etiquette, would have learned history through reading the works of Duarte Nunes de Leão and João de Barros. In 1785, Henrique de Meneses, 3rd Marquis of Louriçal, arranged a marriage between John and the Infanta Carlota Joaquina of Spain, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and Queen Maria Luisa of Parma. Like her betrothed, Carlota was a junior member of a royal family. Fearing a new Iberian Union, some in the Portuguese court viewed the marriage to a Spanish infanta unfavorably, she endured four days of testing by the Portuguese ambassadors before the marriage pact was confirmed. Because John and Carlota were related, because of the bride's youth, the marriage required a papal dispensation. After being confirmed, the marriage capitulation was signed in the throne room of the Spanish court with great pomp and with the participation of both kingdoms.
It was followed by a proxy marriage. The marriage was consummated five years later; the infanta was received at the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa at the beginning of May 1785, on 9 June 1785, the couple received a nuptial benediction at the palace chapel. At the same time, John's sister, the Infanta Mariana Victoria, was married to the Infante Gabriel of the Spanish royal family. An assiduous correspondence between John and Mariana at that time reveals that the absence of his sister weighed upon him and, comparing her to his young wife, he wrote, "She is smart and has a lot of judgment, whereas you have rather little, I like her a lot, but for all that I cannot love her equally." John's young bride was little given to docility, requiring at times the correction of Queen Maria herself. Furthermore, the difference in their ages made him anxious; because Carlota was so young, the marriage had not been consumm
Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (Brazil)
The Imperial Academy of Fine Arts was an institution of higher learning in the arts in Rio de Janeiro, established by King João VI. Despite facing many initial difficulties, the Academy was established and took its place at the forefront of Brazilian arts education in the second half of the nineteenth century; the Academy became the center of the diffusion of new aesthetic trends and the teaching of modern artistic techniques. It became one of the principal arts institutions under the patronage of Emperor Dom Pedro II. With the Proclamation of the Republic, it became known as the National School of Fine Arts, it became extinct as an independent institution in 1931, when it was absorbed by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and became known as the UFRJ School of Fine Arts, which still operates today. The foundation of art schools in Brazil came from, according to Rafael Denis, Francophile initiatives headed by the ministry of Dom João and the Conde da Barca; these schools were seen as necessary for the formation of specialized professionals to serve the State and its nascent industries.
In the early nineteenth century, the educational system was non-existent and artistic training was transmitted through apprenticeships. It was thought that, by contracting foreign professors from places like Paris, the school could bring art education to Brazil. Contact was made with Joaquim Lebreton at the Institut de France in the area of Fine Arts and a group of educators was assembled. However, the origins of the school are debated among historians, it is unclear whether Dom João, the Marquis of Marialva, Lebreton, or French artist Nicolas-Antoine Taunay came up with the idea of bringing arts education to Brazil. In any case, Lebreton took charge of the project and brought a cohort of instructors to Brazil. Within the group, there was a naval architect, a mechanical engineer, a master ironsmith and various artisans in addition to traditional artists; the most famous member of the group was painter, Jean-Baptiste Debret, the illustrious student of celebrated artist Jacques-Louis David. Both Montigny and Taunay had won the prestigious Prix de Rome.
They arrived in Rio de Janeiro on 26 March 1816 aboard the Calpe and escorted by the Royal English Navy. A few sent for them later; this expatriate group formed a small colony that came to be known as the Missão Artística Francesa, or French Artistic Mission. The Mission strengthened the human and conceptual resources that structured the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios; the first institute of its kind in Brazil, the Real School was founded by royal decree on 12 August 1816. The educational program was outlined by Lebreton, according to a letter his sent to Dom João on 12 June of the same year. In it, Lebreton divides the cycle of artistic apprenticeship into three phases, diverging from the system established by the Royal French Academy of Painting and Sculpture:Those phases were: General design and copying the work of masters. Landscapes and basic sculpting. Detailed painting and sculpting with the use of live models and study in the worships of master artists. Architecture students had a three-tiered system divided by theory and practice.
Theory: The history of architecture Construction and Perspective Stone masonryPractice: Design Copying and Studying Dimensions CompositionLebreton regulated the process and criteria necessary for student evaluation, the schedule of classes, paired alumnists with public works projects. He expanded the school's official art collection and balanced the budget. Lebreton was fundamental in the formation of another arts institution, the Escola de Desenho para Artes e Ofícios, whose curriculum was rigorous but provided free instruction; the project, representative of Academism, had a profile in contrast with the educational system and the circulation of artistic knowledge in place in Brazil. The country had a long and rich artistic history, seen in the vast collection of Baroque artwork that has survived; the implementation of fine arts education represented a break in methodology for artists. The informal apprenticeship model, dating back to the medieval period, determined the status of artists based on the notoriety of their masters.
Artists were considered part of the general population of specialized artisans and their influence on society was marginal. Thematically, most art during this period focused on religious themes because the Catholic church was the greatest patron of the arts; the art world of Colonial Brazil did not have the ability to produce the "palatial" art that the arrived royal court desired. This explains the rapid support given to Lebreton's project by the exiled monarchy, it was seen as the beginning of Brazil's evolution into a "civilized" nation. Members of the Mission arrived in Brazil filled with high expectations, as Debret wrote: "We were all animated by a similar zeal and, with the enthusiasm of wise travelers that no longer feared facing the vicissitudes of a long and dangerous voyage, we left France, our shared homeland, to go study an unknown environment and impress upon this new world the profound and useful influence—we hoped-- of the presence of French artists"; the reality, was in contradiction with the expectations of the members of the Mission.
Despite royal support, the Mission, proponents of Neoclassicism, encountered resistance among native artists who still followed a Baroque aesthetic and already-established Portuguese professionals, who felt their positions were threaten
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Victor Meirelles de Lima was a Brazilian painter, best known for his works relating to his nation's culture and history. His parents were recent immigrants from Portugal, he displayed an early talent for art, at the age of fourteen. This work impressed Jerônimo Coelho, an Imperial Counselor, who brought Meirelles to Rio de Janeiro and introduced him to Félix Taunay, Director of the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes, it was decided that the Academy would take charge of his education, so he enrolled there in 1847 and remained until 1852. That year, his painting of "St. John the Baptist in Prison" won him the Prix du Voyage for a study trip to Europe, he passed through Paris, although he spent most of his time in Florence and Rome, where he studied with Tommaso Minardi and Nicola Consoni at the Accademia di San Luca. In 1856, he returned to Paris and remained until 1860. During this period, he attended the École des Beaux-Arts, refining his technique with Léon Cogniet and Paul Delaroche. While there he maintained contact with Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre, his mentor at the Imperial Academy, who suggested the subject for one of Meirelle's best-known works, "Primeira Missa no Brasil", which took him two years to complete.
It has since been used on the 1,000 Cruzeiro banknote. Upon his return to Brazil, Emperor Pedro II awarded him the Order of Christ and made him a Knight in the Order of the Rose, he became an Honorary Professor at the Academy and was given the Chair of History Painting. In 1868, he spent time aboard several warships to complete a commission for naval history paintings and, over the next decade, executed numerous works for the Imperial Family. In 1879, his gigantic painting of the Second Battle of Guararapes was displayed at the Imperial Academy, alongside a painting by Pedro Américo, depicting the Battle of Avay. Meirelles and Américo had been at odds with one another over an earlier commission so critics began to notice similar details and accuse Meirelles of plagiarism; the controversy raged in the local press for months but no conclusions were reached. In 1885, he undertook his most ambitious project. With the assistance of Henri Langerock, a Belgian Orientalist painter who came from North Africa to work on the project, it was completed in 1888.
It was displayed in Brussels, where it had been created won a Gold Medal at the Exposition Universelle. After the Republic was declared in 1889, Meirelles and other artists associated with the monarchy were removed from their posts at the Imperial Academy although he was dismissed for his age. In 1893 he attempted to start a private school, together with Eduardo de Sá and Décio Villares, but was not successful. Without sufficient resources, he installed his Panorama of Rio de Janeiro in a hut and charged 1,000 Réis per visitor. Any of the proceeds not used for living expenses went to the Santa Casa de Misericórdia. Though, he sank into poverty and became ill, he died, unnoticed, at his modest home during the Sunday morning Carnaval festivities. His Panorama was placed into storage where it became rotten and moldy and was dumped into Guanabara Bay. Angelo de Proença Rosa, Victor Meirelles de Lima: 1832-1903, Edições Pinakotheke, 1982 Tarcísio Mattos and Lourdes Rossetto, Museu Victor Meirelles: 50 anos, Tempo Editorial, 2002 ISBN 85-89420-01-9 Museu Victor Meirelles homepage.
Victor Meirelles: Quadros da História @ CurtaDOC TV Victor Meirelles e a Construção da Identidade Brasileira by Teresinha Sueli Franz @ DezenoveVinte