Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (Brazil)
The Imperial Academy of Fine Arts was an institution of higher learning in the arts in Rio de Janeiro, established by King João VI. Despite facing many initial difficulties, the Academy was established and took its place at the forefront of Brazilian arts education in the second half of the nineteenth century; the Academy became the center of the diffusion of new aesthetic trends and the teaching of modern artistic techniques. It became one of the principal arts institutions under the patronage of Emperor Dom Pedro II. With the Proclamation of the Republic, it became known as the National School of Fine Arts, it became extinct as an independent institution in 1931, when it was absorbed by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and became known as the UFRJ School of Fine Arts, which still operates today. The foundation of art schools in Brazil came from, according to Rafael Denis, Francophile initiatives headed by the ministry of Dom João and the Conde da Barca; these schools were seen as necessary for the formation of specialized professionals to serve the State and its nascent industries.
In the early nineteenth century, the educational system was non-existent and artistic training was transmitted through apprenticeships. It was thought that, by contracting foreign professors from places like Paris, the school could bring art education to Brazil. Contact was made with Joaquim Lebreton at the Institut de France in the area of Fine Arts and a group of educators was assembled. However, the origins of the school are debated among historians, it is unclear whether Dom João, the Marquis of Marialva, Lebreton, or French artist Nicolas-Antoine Taunay came up with the idea of bringing arts education to Brazil. In any case, Lebreton took charge of the project and brought a cohort of instructors to Brazil. Within the group, there was a naval architect, a mechanical engineer, a master ironsmith and various artisans in addition to traditional artists; the most famous member of the group was painter, Jean-Baptiste Debret, the illustrious student of celebrated artist Jacques-Louis David. Both Montigny and Taunay had won the prestigious Prix de Rome.
They arrived in Rio de Janeiro on 26 March 1816 aboard the Calpe and escorted by the Royal English Navy. A few sent for them later; this expatriate group formed a small colony that came to be known as the Missão Artística Francesa, or French Artistic Mission. The Mission strengthened the human and conceptual resources that structured the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios; the first institute of its kind in Brazil, the Real School was founded by royal decree on 12 August 1816. The educational program was outlined by Lebreton, according to a letter his sent to Dom João on 12 June of the same year. In it, Lebreton divides the cycle of artistic apprenticeship into three phases, diverging from the system established by the Royal French Academy of Painting and Sculpture:Those phases were: General design and copying the work of masters. Landscapes and basic sculpting. Detailed painting and sculpting with the use of live models and study in the worships of master artists. Architecture students had a three-tiered system divided by theory and practice.
Theory: The history of architecture Construction and Perspective Stone masonryPractice: Design Copying and Studying Dimensions CompositionLebreton regulated the process and criteria necessary for student evaluation, the schedule of classes, paired alumnists with public works projects. He expanded the school's official art collection and balanced the budget. Lebreton was fundamental in the formation of another arts institution, the Escola de Desenho para Artes e Ofícios, whose curriculum was rigorous but provided free instruction; the project, representative of Academism, had a profile in contrast with the educational system and the circulation of artistic knowledge in place in Brazil. The country had a long and rich artistic history, seen in the vast collection of Baroque artwork that has survived; the implementation of fine arts education represented a break in methodology for artists. The informal apprenticeship model, dating back to the medieval period, determined the status of artists based on the notoriety of their masters.
Artists were considered part of the general population of specialized artisans and their influence on society was marginal. Thematically, most art during this period focused on religious themes because the Catholic church was the greatest patron of the arts; the art world of Colonial Brazil did not have the ability to produce the "palatial" art that the arrived royal court desired. This explains the rapid support given to Lebreton's project by the exiled monarchy, it was seen as the beginning of Brazil's evolution into a "civilized" nation. Members of the Mission arrived in Brazil filled with high expectations, as Debret wrote: "We were all animated by a similar zeal and, with the enthusiasm of wise travelers that no longer feared facing the vicissitudes of a long and dangerous voyage, we left France, our shared homeland, to go study an unknown environment and impress upon this new world the profound and useful influence—we hoped-- of the presence of French artists"; the reality, was in contradiction with the expectations of the members of the Mission.
Despite royal support, the Mission, proponents of Neoclassicism, encountered resistance among native artists who still followed a Baroque aesthetic and already-established Portuguese professionals, who felt their positions were threaten
São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus. As the richest Brazilian state and a major industrial complex dubbed the "locomotive of Brazil", the state is responsible for 33.9% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo has the second highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita, the fourth lowest infant mortality rate, the third highest life expectancy, the third lowest rate of illiteracy among the federative units of Brazil, being by far, the safest state in the country; the homicide rate is 3.8 per 100 thousand as of 2018 1/4 of the Brazilian rate. São Paulo alone is richer than Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia combined. If São Paulo were an independent country, its nominal GDP would be ranked among the top 20 in the world; the economy of São Paulo State is the most developed in Brazil. With more than 45 million inhabitants in 2017, São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state, the most populous national subdivision in the Americas, the third most populous political unit of South America, surpassed only by the rest of the Brazilian Federation and Colombia.
The local population is one of the most diverse in the country and descended from Italians, who began immigrating to the country in the late 19th century. In addition, Germans, Japanese and Greeks are present in the ethnic composition of the local population; the area that today corresponds to the state territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples from 12,000 BC. In the early 16th century, the coast of the region was visited by Portuguese and Spanish explorers and navigators. In 1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa would establish the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas—the village of São Vicente, in the Baixada Santista. In the 17th century, the paulistas bandeirantes intensified the exploration of the interior of the colony, which expanded the territorial domain of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire in South America. In the 18th century, after the establishment of the Province of São Paulo, the region began to gain political weight. After independence in 1820, São Paulo began to become a major agricultural producer in the newly constituted Empire of Brazil, which created a rich regional rural oligarchy, which would switch on the command of the Brazilian government with Minas Gerais's elites during the early republican period in the 1880s.
Under the Vargas Era, the state was one of the first to initiate a process of industrialization and its population became one of the most urban of the federation. The city of São Paulo, the homonymous state capital, is ranked as the world's 12th largest city and its metropolitan area, with 20 million inhabitants, is the 9th largest in the world and second in the Americas, after Greater Mexico City. Regions near the city of São Paulo are metropolitan areas, such as Campinas, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos; the total population of these areas coupled with the state capital—the so-called "Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo"—exceeds 30 million inhabitants, i.e. 75 percent of the population of São Paulo statewide, the first macro-metropolis in the southern hemisphere, joining 65 municipalities that together are home to 12 percent of the Brazilian population. In pre-European times, the area, now São Paulo state was occupied by the Tupi people's nation, who subsisted through hunting and cultivation.
The first European to settle in the area was João Ramalho, a Portuguese sailor who may have been shipwrecked around 1510, ten years after the first Portuguese landfall in Brazil. He became a settler. In 1532, the first colonial expedition, led by Martim Afonso de Sousa of Portugal, landed at São Vicente. De Sousa added Ramalho's settlement to his colony. Early European colonisation of Brazil was limited. Portugal was more interested in Asia, but with English and French raiding privateer ships just off the coast, the territory had to be protected. Unwilling to shoulder the burden of naval defence himself, the Portuguese ruler, King Joao III, divided the coast into "captaincies", or swathes of land, 50 leagues apart, he distributed them among well-connected Portuguese. The early port and sugar-cultivating settlement of São Vicente was one rare success connected to this policy. In 1548, João III brought Brazil under direct royal control. Fearing Indian attack, he discouraged development of the territory's vast interior.
Some whites headed nonetheless for Piratininga, a plateau near São Vicente, drawn by its navigable rivers and agricultural potential. Borda do Campo, the plateau settlement, became an official town in 1553; the history of São Paulo city proper begins with the founding of a Jesuit mission of the Roman Catholic order of clergy on January 25, 1554—the anniversary of Saint Paul's conversion. The station, at the heart of the current city, was named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga. In 1560, the threat of Indian attack led many to flee from the exposed Santo André da Borda do Campo to the walled fortified Colegio. Two years the Colégio was besieged. Though the town survived, fighting took place sporadically for another three decades. By 1600, the town had about 1,500 citizens and 150 household
Olinda, is a historic city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, located on the country's northeastern Atlantic Ocean coast, in Greater Recife. It has a population of 389,494 people, covers 41.681 square kilometres, has a population of 9 inhabitants per square kilometer. It is noted as one of the best-preserved colonial cities in Brazil. Olinda features a number of major tourist attractions, such as a historic downtown area and the Carnival of Olinda, a popular street party similar to traditional Portuguese carnivals, with the addition of African influenced dances. Unlike in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, in Olinda, admission to Carnival is free. All the festivities are celebrated on the streets, there are no bleachers or roping. There are hundreds of small musical groups in many genres. Several indigenous tribes occupied the coast of Northeastern Brazil for several thousand years, the hills of the present day municipality of Olinda had settlements of Caetés and Tupinambá tribes, which were at war.
French mercenaries are thought to be the first Europeans to get to the region, but the Portuguese exploited intertribal rivalries and managed to build a stronghold on the former Caeté village in the higher hill. Recent studies by the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco have uncovered new evidence of the pre-colonial population of the area; the settlement of Olinda was founded in 1535 by Duarte Coelho Pereira. It was made the seat of the Territorial Prelature of Pernambuco in 1614, becoming the Diocese of Olinda in 1676; the economy of the region was dominated by the production of sugarcane. The importation of slaves from Africa to support the economy made Olinda a colonial stronghold. By 1600 its economy was based on sugar, imported African slave labor had made it a colonial stronghold. Slavery existed in Olinda until the Lei Áurea, or Golden Law, abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888. Olinda was burned by Dutch invaders; the Portuguese built their town on the hill, for practical purposes. In the 17th century the Kingdom of Portugal was united with Spain.
Taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, the area around Olinda and Recife was occupied by the Dutch who gained access to the Portuguese sugarcane plantations. John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen was appointed as the governor of the Dutch possessions in Brazil in 1637 by the Dutch West India Company on recommendation of Frederick Henry, he landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco and the chief stronghold of the Dutch, in January 1637. By a series of successful expeditions, he extended the Dutch possessions from Sergipe on the south to São Luís de Maranhão in the north, he conquered the Portuguese possessions of Saint George del Mina, Saint Thomas, Luanda, Angola, on the west coast of Africa. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in 1640, Portugal would reestablish its authority over the lost territories of the Portuguese Empire. Olinda declined in importance after the Dutch invasion. Recife became the capital of Pernambuco in 1827; the city now serves as a suburb to the greater Recife metropolitan area.
Due to the historic position of the city, its Cathedral, a World Heritage Site, São Salvador do Mundo, remains the primary seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olinda e Recife, with a co-cathedral in Recife, while Olinda has a Minor Basilica, again World Heritage Site: Basílica Abacial do Mosteiro de São Bento de Olinda. Besides its natural beauty, Olinda is one of Brazil's main cultural centers. Declared in 1982 a Historical and Cultural Patrimony of Humanity by the UNESCO, Olinda relives the magnificence of the past every year during the Rio-style Carnival, on the rhythms of frevo and others rhythms; the main economic activities in Olinda are based in tourism, transportation industry and artcraft. The tourist sector has a boom every Carnival when thousands of people are in the old historic town center. Economy by Sector List of museums in Pernambuco Olinda travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website https://web.archive.org/web/20130407002251/http://olindavirtual.org/ https://web.archive.org/web/20060614045202/http://www.olinda.com.br/ Commercial site Video Olinda, Pernambuco Video Olinda street Carnival
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UFRJ is the largest federal university in the country and is one of the Brazilian centers of excellence in teaching and research. In terms of scientific and cultural productions it is recognized nationally and internationally due to the great teachers, researchers and assessments made by international agencies. In 2017 QS World University Rankings ranked UFRJ as the best Brazilian federal university, as well as the third best university in the country occupying the seventh position among institutions of Latin America. In 2016 and 2017 the Ranking Universitário Folha ranked UFRJ as the best university in Brazil and the best Federal University in the country; the Center for World University Rankings published in 2017 UFRJ as the second best university in the world in Zoology field. Brazil's first official higher education institution, it has operated continuously since 1792, when the "Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho" was founded, served as basis for the country's college system since its officialization in 1920.
Besides its 157 undergraduate and 580 postgraduate courses, the UFRJ is responsible for seven museums, most notably the National Museum, nine hospitals, hundreds of laboratories and research facilities and forty-three libraries. Its history and identity are tied to the Brazilian ambitions of forging a modern and just society; the university is located in Rio de Janeiro, with ramifications spreading to other ten cities. Its main campuses are the historical campus of "Praia Vermelha" and the newer "Cidade Universitária", which houses the "Parque Tecnológico do Rio" - a science and innovation development cluster. There are several off-campus units scattered in Rio de Janeiro: the School of Music, the College of Law Studies, the Institute of Philosophy and Social Sciences and the Institute of History, in downtown Rio. To the city of Macaé, located in the State's northern region, was dedicated a research and learning center focused on environmental issues and oil-related matters, the city of Duque de Caxias, in partnership with the National Institute of Metrics and Industrial Quality, saw the implementation of "Pólo Avançado de Xerém", aimed at boosting research in the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology.
UFRJ is one of the main culprits in the formation of the Brazilian intellectual elite, contributing to build not only the history of Rio de Janeiro but of Brazil. Some of its former students include renowned economists Mario Henrique Simonsen; the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro is direct descendent of Brazil's first higher education courses. Created on September 7, 1920 by president Epitácio Pessoa through the Law Decree 14343, the institution was named "University of Rio de Janeiro", its history, however, is much vaster and parallel to that of the country's cultural and social development. In its inception, the university was composed by the "Escola Politécnica", the "Faculdade Nacional de Medicina" and by the "Faculdade Nacional de Direito". To these initial units many others were progressively added, such as the "Escola Nacional de Belas Artes" and the "Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia". Thanks to such achievements, the UFRJ toke crucial role in the implantation of Brazilian higher education, in fact an aspiration from Brazilian intellectual elite since the country's colonial era.
Due to the longstanding tradition of its pioneering courses, the university functioned as the "scholar mill" upon which most of Brazil's subsequent higher education institutions were molded. In 1937, Getúlio Vargas's minister of education, Gustavo Capanema, announced a reform of the education system, under which the institution changed its name to the "University of Brazil"; the change reflected the government's aim of controlling the quality of the national higher education system - by setting a standard by which all other universities would have to conform. Such decision was influenced by the French concept of university - that in which component schools are isolated in order to assume a specific professionalizing teaching method under strong state control -, which contrasted to the German model seen, for example, in the University of São Paulo, founded in 1934; the early
Victor Brecheret, born Vittorio Breheret, was an Italian-Brazilian sculptor. He lived most of his life except for his studies in Paris in his early twenties. Brecheret's work combines techniques of European modernist sculpture with references to his native country through the physical characteristics of his human forms and visual motifs drawn from Brazilian folk art. Many of his subjects are figures from classical mythology. Brecheret was one of the first Brazilian modernists to achieve success. In 1921 his sculpture Eve was acquired by the São Paulo city hall. In 1922 his work was exhibited in the foyer of the Municipal Theatre during the Week of Modern Art, his O Grupo was acquired by the French government in 1934 for the Musée du Jeu de Paume. His best-known work, the massive Monument to the Banderas at the entrance of Ibirapuera Park in São Paulo, was proposed in 1920, begun in 1936, completed on January 25, 1953. Brecheret's Brazilian birth certificate lists his birthplace as São Paulo; this Brazilian record, was made in 1930 when the sculptor was 36 years old upon his own request.
Daisy Peccinini, Brecheret's biographer, maintains that he was in fact born in Farnese, based on the original birth register made only four days after his birth. A second-leval judicial sentence from the State Court of São Paulo issued on October 15, 2014 corroborates that Brecheret was born in Italy and emigrated to Brazil in 1904 with his maternal uncle Enrico Nanni. Official Website of the Instituto Victor Brecheret in English The Marajoara art of Victor Brecheret, by the Instituto Victor Brecheret. PECCININI, Daisy. Instituto Victor Brecheret, 2004
Soapstone is a talc-schist, a type of metamorphic rock. It is composed of the mineral talc, thus is rich in magnesium, it is produced by dynamothermal metamorphism and metasomatism, which occur in the zones where tectonic plates are subducted, changing rocks by heat and pressure, with influx of fluids, but without melting. It has been a medium for carving for thousands of years. Petrologically, soapstone is composed dominantly of talc, with varying amounts of chlorite and amphiboles, trace to minor iron-chromium oxides, it may be massive. Soapstone is formed by the metamorphism of ultramafic protoliths and the metasomatism of siliceous dolostones. By mass, "pure" steatite is 63.37% silica, 31.88% magnesia, 4.74% water. It contains minor quantities of other oxides such as CaO or Al2O3. Pyrophyllite, a mineral similar to talc, is sometimes called soapstone in the generic sense, since its physical characteristics and industrial uses are similar, because it is commonly used as a carving material. However, this mineral does not have such a soapy feel as soapstone.
Soapstone is soft because of its high talc content, talc having a definitional value of 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. Softer grades may feel similar to soap the name. No fixed hardness is given for soapstone because the amount of talc it contains varies from as little as 30% for architectural grades such as those used on countertops, to as much as 80% for carving grades. Soapstone is used as an insulator for housing and electrical components, due to its durability and electrical characteristics and because it can be pressed into complex shapes before firing. Soapstone undergoes transformations when heated to temperatures of 1000–1200°C into enstatite and cristobalite. Ancient Egyptian Scarab signet/amulets were most made from glazed steatite. Soapstone is used for inlaid designs, sculpture and kitchen countertops and sinks; the Inuit used soapstone for traditional carvings. Some Native American tribes and bands make bowls, cooking slabs, other objects from soapstone. Locally quarried soapstone was used for gravemarkers in 19th century northeast Georgia, US, around Dahlonega, Cleveland, as simple field stone and "slot and tab" tombs.
Small blocks of soapstone were heated on the cookstove or near the fire and used to warm cold bedclothes or to keep hands and feet cozy while sleighing. Vikings hewed soapstone directly from the stone face, shaped it into cooking pots, sold these at home and abroad. Soapstone is sometimes used for construction of fireplace surrounds, cladding on wood-burning stoves, as the preferred material for woodburning masonry heaters because it can absorb and evenly radiate heat due to its high density and magnesite content, it is used for countertops and bathroom tiling because of the ease of working the material and its property as the "quiet stone". A weathered or aged appearance occurs over time as the patina is enhanced; the ancient trading city of Tepe Yahya in southeastern Iran was a center for the production and distribution of soapstone in the fifth to third millennia BC. It was used in Minoan Crete. At the Palace of Knossos, archaeological recovery has included a magnificent libation table made of steatite.
The Yoruba people of West Nigeria used soapstone for several statues, most notably at Esie, where archaeologists have uncovered hundreds of male and female statues about half of life size. The Yoruba of Ife produced a miniature soapstone obelisk with metal studs called superstitiously "the staff of Oranmiyan". Soapstone has been used in India for centuries as a medium for carving. Mining to meet worldwide demand for soapstone is threatening the habitat of India's tigers. In Brazil in Minas Gerais, due to the abundance of soapstone mines in that Brazilian state, local artisans still craft objects from that material, including pots and pans, wine glasses, jewel boxes and vases; these handicrafts are sold in street markets found in cities across the state. Some of the oldest towns, notably Congonhas and Ouro Preto, still have some of their streets paved with soapstone from colonial times; some Native Americans use soapstone for smoking pipes. Its low heat conduction allows for prolonged smoking without the pipe heating up uncomfortably.
Some wood-burning stoves make use of soapstone to take advantage of its useful thermal and fire-resistant properties. Soapstone is used to carve Chinese seals. Soapstone is most used for architectural applications, such as counter tops, floor tiles and interior surfacing; the active North American soapstone mines include one south of Quebec City with products marketed by Canadian Soapstone, the Treasure and Regal mines in Beaverhead County, Montana mined by the Barretts Minerals Company, another in Central Virginia operated by the Alberene Soapstone Company. Architectural soapstone is mined in Canada, Brazil and Finland and imported into the United States. Welders and fabricators use soapstone as a marker due to its resistance to heat, it has been used for many years by seamstresses and other craftsmen as a marking tool because its marks are visible and no
Júlio de Castilhos Museum
Júlio de Castilhos Museum is a museum located in the city of Porto Alegre. It is the oldest museum in Rio Grande do Sul state, its collection, over 10 thousand pieces, is Brazilian national heritage, comprises objects of historical, artistic and archaeological character related to the history of Rio Grande do Sul. Its sections for the Ragamuffin War and the Paraguayan War are specially rich; the museum preserves a few but important examples of sculptures produced within Indian Reductions by Jesuits and indigenous peoples. Museum website