Temple Lea Houston
Temple Lea Houston was an American attorney and politician who served from 1885 to 1889 in the Texas State Senate. He was the last-born child of Margaret Lea Houston and Sam Houston, the first elected president of the Republic of Texas. Temple Lea Houston was the only one of the Houstons' eight children to be born in the Texas governor's residence in Austin. By the time he was seven, both his parents had died, he lived with her family in nearby Georgetown, Texas. At the age of 13, Houston left home to join a cattle drive and worked on a riverboat on the Mississippi River. Aided by a friend of his father's, he gained an appointment as a page in the U. S. Senate and worked in Washington, D. C. for three years. Houston returned to Texas in 1877 at the age of seventeen to attend the Agricultural and Mechanical College, he transferred to Baylor University in Waco, where he graduated in 1880 with honors in law and philosophy. He was admitted to the bar, he was the youngest attorney in Texas. That year he was appointed as the attorney for Brazoria County near Texas.
In 1882, Houston was appointed as the district attorney of the 35th Judicial District of Texas, which covered a large part of the Texas Panhandle, based in Mobeetie, Wheeler County. Houston carried; some called him "the best shot in the West." He wore buckskin attire from a sombrero with a wide brim and a silver eagle. Like, his father he was more than six feet tall, he had gray eyes. His knowledge of the Bible and classical literature was all-encompassing, he commanded the attention of any audience. Established in his career, on February 14, 1883, 23-year-old Houston married Laura Cross, the daughter of a planter, they lived near Fort Elliott, which protected the border against American Indians, as well as the important cattle drives. The couple had only four of whom lived past infancy. Houston was elected in 1884 to a single term in the Texas State Senate from District 19, he concentrated his law practice on the Santa Fe railroad. He spoke Spanish, as well as seven Indian languages. In 1888, he gave the dedication address for the opening of the Texas State Capitol, still in use after several renovations.
Houston participated in the Oklahoma Territory's Land Run of 1893. In 1894, Houston moved his family to the cattle town of Woodward in Oklahoma Territory, he was legal counsel of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. Houston became known and popular for his courtroom dramatics, he was charged with murder in the shooting of a brother of the outlaw Al Jennings, after an argument in the Cabinet Saloon, was acquitted. Houston won a reputation as a brilliant trial lawyer. In 1899, he delivered his "Soiled Dove Plea" in a makeshift courtroom in Woodward's opera house; the argument on behalf of Minnie Stacey, a prostitute who worked at the Dew Drop Inn, became famous for winning her acquittal after ten minutes' consideration by the jury. The historian William T. Hagan described Houston as "a flamboyant figure in his black frock coat and shoulder-length auburn hair topped off with a white Stetson, he liked to lace his arguments with literary allusions and could enthrall a courtroom or legislative chamber."Houston had agreed to be a candidate in Oklahoma's first gubernatorial election but died two years before statehood.
Houston died of a cerebral hemorrhage on August 15, 1905 in Woodward still Oklahoma Territory. His wife Laura lived until April 17, 1938, they are buried together at Elmwood Cemetery in Woodward. Edna Ferber modeled her main character of Yancey Cravat on Temple Houston in her novel Cimarron. Ross Elliott played Houston in "The Reluctant Gun" episode of the western anthology series, Death Valley Days. In the 1960 film Oklahoma Territory, Houston was played by Bill Williams. Gloria Talbott was cast as Ruth Red Hawk, Ted de Corsia as Chief Buffalo Horn, X Brands as Running Cloud, Walter Sande as Marshal Pete Rosslyn; the film was directed by Edward L. Cahn. A 1963–1964 NBC/Warner Brothers television series entitled Temple Houston, which aired 26 episodes, was co-produced by the actor Jeffrey Hunter, who played the part of Houston. Temple Houston was placed on the schedule in a matter of six weeks after it was sold by studio boss Jack Webb to the network. Grace Hunter Adams, Jack Love: Eighty Niner, Traditional, 1988.
James D. Hamlin, The Flamboyant Judge: As Told to J. Evetts Haley and William Curry Holden'. Sallie B. Harris and Ladies: A History of Hemphill County. Louise B. James, Below Devil's Gap: The Story of Woodward County, Okla.: Evans Publications, 1984 Seale, William. Sam Houston's Wife: A Biography of Margaret Lea Houston. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2436-0. Glenn Shirley, Temple Houston: Lawyer with a Gun. Bernice Tune, Golden Heritage and Silver Tongue of Temple Lea Houston. Houston Family Papers, 1836–1969 and undated, in the Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library, Texas Tech University Beth Ann Doughty, "Houston, Temple", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture Temple Lea Houston at Find a Grave
Brazoria County, Texas
Brazoria County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population of the county was 313,166; the county seat is Angleton. Brazoria County is included in the Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the Gulf Coast region of Texas. Regionally, parts of the county are within the extreme southernmost fringe of the regions locally known as Southeast Texas. Brazoria County is among a number of counties that are part of the region known as the Texas Coastal Bend, its county seat is Angleton, its largest city is Pearland. Brazoria County, like nearby Brazos County, takes its name from the Brazos River; the county includes what was once Velasco, the first capital of the Republic of Texas. It served as the first settlement area for Anglo-Texas, when the Old Three Hundred emigrated from the United States in 1821. Brazoria County, like Brazos County, takes its name from the Brazos River. Anglo-Texas began in Brazoria County when the first of Stephen F. Austin's authorized 300 American settlers arrived at the mouth of the Brazos River in 1821.
Many of the events leading to the Texas Revolution developed in Brazoria County. In 1832, Brazoria was organized as a separate municipal district by the Mexican government, so became one of Texas original counties at independence in 1836. An early resident of Brazoria County, Joel Walter Robison, fought in the Texas Revolution and represented Fayette County in the Texas House of Representatives. Stephen F. Austin's original burial place is located at a church cemetery, Gulf Prairie Cemetery, in the town of Jones Creek, on what was his brother-in-law's "Peach Point Plantation", his remains were brought to be reinterred at the state capital in Austin. The town of West Columbia served as the first capital of Texas, dating back to pre-revolutionary days. Temple Lea Houston, youngest son of Sam Houston, was c. 1880 the county attorney of Brazoria County. His life story is reflected in the 1963 film The Man from Galveston and the 26-episode 1963-1964 NBC western television series, Temple Houston. Lake Jackson is a community developed beginning in the early 1940s to provide housing to workers at a new Dow Chemical Company plant in nearby Freeport.
The county has elements of both rural and suburban communities, as it is part of the Greater Houston. On June 2, 2016, the flooding of the Brazos River required evacuations for portions of Brazoria County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,609 square miles, of which 1,358 square miles is land and 251 square miles is water. Harris County Galveston County Matagorda County Wharton County Fort Bend County Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge San Bernard National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, 241,767 people, 81,954 households, 63,104 families resided in the county; the population density was 174 people per square mile. There were 90,628 housing units at an average density of 65 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.09% White, 8.50% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.63% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races. About 22.78 % of the population were Latino of any race. About 12.1% were of German, 11.2% American and 7.2% English ancestry according to Census 2000.
About 79.0 % spoke only English at home. Of the 81,955 households, 40.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.00% were not families. About 19.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82, the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.60% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 8.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 107 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,632, for a family was $55,282. Males had a median income of $42,193 versus $27,728 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,021. About 8.1% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.6% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 313,166 people residing in the county. 70.1% were White, 12.1% Black or African American, 5.5% Asian, 0.6% Native American, 9.2% of some other race and 2.6% of more than one race. 27.7 % were Latino. The Brazoria County Jail is located at 3602 County Road 45 in unincorporated central Brazoria County, north of Angleton; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates six state prisons for men and its Region III office in unincorporated Brazoria County. As of 2007,1,495 full-time correctional job positions were in the county. In 1995, of the counties in Texas, Brazoria had the second-highest number of state prisons and jails, after Walker County. In 2003, a total of 2,572 employees were employed at the six TDCJ facilities; the TDCJ units are: Clemens Unit, near Brazoria Darrington Unit, near Rosharon - The Windham School District Region III office is within the unit. Wayne Scott Unit, near Angleton. Ramsey Unit - The unit is co-located with Stringfellow and Terrell.
The TDCJ Region III Maintenance Headquarters is within this unit. Stringfellow Unit, near Rosharon - The
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U. S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, United States territories encompassing parts of the current U. S. states of Oklahoma, Colorado and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians; the region of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas referred to as Mexican Texas declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution in 1836. The Texas war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s; the United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory. The Republic-claimed borders were based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico.
The eastern boundary had been defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 between the United States and Spain, which recognised the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. Under the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 the United States had renounced its claim to Spanish land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande, which it claimed to have acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; the republic's southern and western boundary with Mexico was disputed throughout the republic's existence. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern boundary, while Mexico insisted that the Nueces River was the boundary. Texas was annexed by the United States on December 29, 1845 and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on that day, with the transfer of power from the Republic to the new state of Texas formally taking place on February 19, 1846. However, the United States again inherited the southern and western border dispute with Mexico, which became a trigger for the Mexican–American War.
Texas had been one of the Provincias Internas of New Spain, a region known historiographically as Spanish Texas. Though claimed by Spain, it was not formally colonized by them until competing French interests at Fort St. Louis encouraged Spain to establish permanent settlements in the area. Sporadic missionary incursions occurred into the area during the period from the 1690s–1710s, before the establishment of San Antonio as a permanent civilian settlement. Owing to the area's high Native American populations and its remoteness from the population centers of New Spain, Texas remained unsettled by Europeans, although Spain maintained a small military presence to protect Christian missionaries working among Native American tribes, to act as a buffer against the French in Louisiana and British North America. In 1762, France ceded to Spain most of its claims to the interior of North America, including its claim to Texas, as well as the vast interior that became Spanish Louisiana. During the years 1799 to 1803, the height of the Napoleonic Empire, Spain returned Louisiana back to France, which promptly sold the territory to the United States.
The status of Texas during these transfers was unclear and was not resolved until 1819, when the Adams–Onís Treaty ceded Spanish Florida to the United States, established a clear boundary between Texas and Louisiana. Starting in 1810, the territories of New Spain north of the Isthmus of Panama sought independence in the Mexican War of Independence. Many Americans fought on the side of Mexico against Spain in filibustering expeditions. One of these, the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition consisted of a group of about 130 Americans under the leadership of Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara. Gutierrez de Lara initiated Mexico's secession from Spain with efforts contributed by Augustus Magee. Bolstered by new recruits, led by Samuel Kemper, the expedition gained a series of victories against soldiers led by the Spanish governor, Manuel María de Salcedo, their victory at the Battle of Rosillo Creek convinced Salcedo to surrender on April 1, 1813. On April 6, 1813, the victorious Republican Army of the North drafted a constitution and declared the independent Republic of Texas, with Gutiérrez as its president.
Soon disillusioned with the Mexican leadership, the Americans under Kemper returned to the United States. The ephemeral Republic of Texas came to an end following the August 18, 1813 Battle of Medina, where the Spanish Army crushed the Republican Army of the North; the harsh reprisals against the Texas rebels created a deep distrust of the Royal Spanish authorities, veterans of the Battle of Medina became leaders of the Texas Revolution and signatories of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico 20 years later. Along with the rest of Mexico, Texas gained its independence from Spain in 1821 following the Treaty of Córdoba, the new Mexican state was organized under the Plan of Iguala, which created Mexico as a constitutional monarchy under its first Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. During the transition from a Spanish territory to part of the independent country of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin led a group of American settlers known as the Old Three Hundred, who negotiated the right to settle in Texas with the Spanish Royal governor of the territory.
Since Mexican independence had been ratified by Spain shortly thereafter, Austin traveled to Mexico City to secure the support of the new country for his right to settle. The establishment of Mexican Texas coincided with the Austin-led settleme
Southeast Texas is a sub-region of East Texas located in the southeast corner of the U. S. state of Texas. The sub-region is geographically centered on the Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan areas. Culturally, Southeast Texas is more akin to the Gulf Coast, Louisiana, or Mississippi, than it is to West Texas. Much of modern Southeast Texas culture has its roots in traditions. Southeast Texas is consistent with much of the rest of rural Texas in that it is a part of the Bible Belt, an area in which many inhabitants have Fundamentalist Christian beliefs. Many of the largest cities in East Texas outside Houston still follow a rural Southern way of life in dialect, mannerisms and cuisine. Though 35 percent of Texas' population is now Hispanic, African-Americans are still the most populous minority in Southeast Texas. During the Civil Rights Movement several communities clashed over racial integration issues. Southeast Texas includes part of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and most of the Texas portion of the Intracoastal Waterway.
The area is crossed by numerous rivers and streams, the largest three being the Sabine River, the Neches River, the Trinity River. In Southeast Texas and the rest of the South, small rivers and creeks collect into swamps called "bayous" and merge with the surrounding forest; the only large bodies of water in Southeast Texas are Galveston Bay and Sabine Lake, but the large reservoirs of East Texas are just to the North. The southeastern portion of Texas is geographically and culturally attached to Southwest Louisiana. Near the coast, the land is low and flat, marshy; the Piney Woods extend into the Northern parts of Southeast Texas, reaching as far south as the rice paddies and marshlands that lie between Houston and Beaumont. The highest point on the coast is at High Island, where a salt dome raises the elevation to around 40 feet. Away from the coast, the terrain begins to exhibit the rolling hills of Central Texas. Toward Central Texas, the mixed pine and hardwood forests give way to the East Central Texas forests of post oak and grasslands.
The Golden Triangle is an area of extreme Southeast Texas near the Louisiana border. The "triangle" is formed by Beaumont, Port Arthur, Orange, which are the largest cities in the area. "Golden" refers to the wealth that came from the Spindletop oil strike near Beaumont in 1901. In an attempt to distance the area from the petrochemical industry, some area interests attempted to rename the Golden Triangle as the "Triplex." This name change did not catch on, local residents still refer to it as the Golden Triangle. Some residents of the Golden Triangle do not consider the Greater Houston area to be part of Southeast Texas and place the western boundary of the region at the Trinity River, 30 miles from downtown Houston; this area holds the annual South Texas State Fair in Beaumont. The Big Thicket is an area of dense forest located in the area just north and northwest of the city of Beaumont. There are many small towns including Woodville and Kountze; the Big Thicket National Preserve protects part of the old thicket, highlighting the area's biological resources.
The 97,000 acre preserve boasts a varied ecology of piney woods and coastal prairies. It includes diverse range of plant species including orchids, cactus and pine in close proximity to each other. 65,000 people visit this area each year. Two important routes cross the Big Thicket: to the north lies the old cattle route or Beef Trail, that ran from Tyler County to Louisiana. Galveston Bay is a large estuary located along Texas upper coast; the bay is fed by the Trinity River and the San Jacinto River, numerous local bayous, incoming tides from the Gulf of Mexico. The bay covers 600 square miles, is 30 miles long and 17 miles wide. Galveston Bay is on average 7–9 feet deep; the bay has three inlets to the Gulf of Mexico: Bolivar Roads between Galveston Island and the Bolivar Peninsula, San Luis Pass to the west, Rollover Pass to the east. The Houston Ship Channel, connecting the Port of Houston to the Gulf, passes through Galveston Bay. Houston is the largest city on the bay, while smaller ones include Galveston, Pasadena and Texas City.
The bay provides nursery and spawning grounds for large amounts of marine life and is important for both commercial and recreational fishing. Compared to the rest of the state, Southeast Texas' climate is warmer in winter and cooler in summer. On average, the region receives more rain than other parts of the state; this can increase the humidity level in the region. The mild and wet climate is due to the influence of the Gulf of Mexico. Average annual rainfall in the Golden Triangle is 60 inches. Rainfall totals in other parts of Southeast Texas are lower, but still in excess of 40 inches per year. During Tropical Storm Claudette in 1979, the city of Alvin recorded an official 24-hour rainfall total of 42 inches — the highest one-day rainfall total measured in the United States. Nederland received 66 inches during Harvey. Houston has been called the Lightning Capital of Texas, as its density of lightning strikes is higher than it is in other parts of the state; this area of unusually high lightning activity stretches from Houston eastward into Southwest Louisiana.
Much of this can be explained by the natural occurrence of thunderstorms in the region, which form al
Texas's 22nd congressional district
Texas's 22nd congressional district of the United States House of Representatives covers a suburban south-central portion of the Greater Houston metropolitan area. The district includes the majority of Fort Bend County, including most of the cities of Sugar Land, Missouri City, Rosenberg and the county seat of Richmond as well as the county's share of the unincorporated Greater Katy area west of Houston. In addition, the district contains portions of northern Brazoria County, including Pearland and Alvin, as well as a small portion of southeast Harris County centered on Friendswood; the district is represented by Republican Pete Olson, elected in 2008 over one-term incumbent Democrat Nick Lampson. Before 2006, the district had been represented by former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay since 1985, before that, former Congressman and three-time presidential candidate Ron Paul in 1976 and again from 1979 to 1985. In 2006, 52% of poll respondents identified as Republicans, 32% as Democrats, 16% as independents.
The district was created in 1958, replacing the abolished at-large district represented by Democrat Martin Dies, Jr. from 1953 to 1959. At the time, each of Texas's 254 counties were represented by one member of Congress; the new district made history with its placement in Harris County, home to the city of Houston and represented in its by Democrat Albert Thomas in the state's 8th congressional district, making Harris the first county in Texas since World War II to be divided into more than one congressional district. The new 22nd District made up of suburban territory outside of Houston along with southern portions of the city itself, was won by Democrat Robert R. Casey, a former Harris County Judge; the 8th and 22nd districts were separated by a boundary consisting of what is now U. S. 290, the western and southern portions of Loop 610, the portion of Buffalo Bayou east of downtown Houston including the Houston Ship Channel. All points south of this boundary were in the 22nd; these boundaries would remain effective until the 1964 elections.
After a federal court in Houston ruled Texas' congressional redistricting practices as unconstitutional in Bush v. Martin, effective with the 1966 elections, Harris County was realigned into three separate congressional districts — the existing 8th and 22nd districts, plus the newly realigned 7th district on the west side of Houston and Harris County; the new 7th would elect former Harris County Republican Party chairman George H. W. Bush, while Casey's 22nd district was made the most compact of the three, stretching from southwest Houston to southeast Harris County, including Pasadena and Clear Lake City, encompassing the Johnson Space Center; the district was not realigned until following the 1970 Census. Beginning with the 1972 elections, the 22nd district lost some African-American portions to the newly realigned, majority African-American 18th District, while other areas along the Houston Ship Channel went to the 8th District, now represented by Democrat Bob Eckhardt and concentrated in north Houston.
Those areas were replaced by growing Fort Bend and Brazoria counties, home to growing Republican constituencies of white upper-middle-class families — natives and transplants alike — moving to jobs in Houston's growing energy sector, as well as at the Johnson Space Center and the Texas Medical Center, drawn to affordable housing and top-rated schools in the area's burgeoning master-planned communities. A mid-decade redistricting in 1974 added southern Waller County, with a similar character to Fort Bend and Brazoria; as with most growing exurban areas in the Southern United States, these new areas had large blocs of conservative white Democrats disenchanted with their party's support for restoration of civil rights promoted by the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson and the national Democratic Party. While Casey continued to win reelection in 1972 and 1974 without significant opposition, his resignation following his appointment to the Federal Maritime Commission in 1976, combined with increased suburban growth in the aforementioned counties, opened the door for a Republican upset in the special election that followed.
Months after Casey's resignation, on April 3, 1976, Republican Ron Paul, a physician and Air Force veteran who had moved from the Pittsburgh area in the previous decade with his wife and settled in Brazoria County, won a special election to fill the remainder of Casey's unexpired term. While Paul lost the general election that year to Democratic State Senator Bob Gammage by fewer than 300 votes, in 1978 he defeated Gammage in a rematch by a 1,200-vote margin, coinciding with the election of Bill Clements as Texas' first Republican Governor since Reconstruction. In 1980, Paul would go on to win a second term, defeating Democratic attorney Mike Andrews, a former Harris County prosecutor, by a narrow margin. Following the 1980 Census, rapid growth in the Houston area resulted in most of the Harris County portion of the 22nd being transferred to the new 25th congressional district, which Andrews won in 1982 and would hold for six terms before pursuing an unsuccessful run for the Democratic nomination for U.
S. Senate in 1994; the redistricting left Paul with a district comprising three major portions, all of which were Republican. These included: all of Fort Bend County, by this time a booming suburban county anchored by the development of the First Colony master-planned community in Sugar Land, containing other booming suburbs including Missouri City and Rosenberg. Much of Paul's politica