Breaded cutlet is a dish made from coating a cutlet of meat with breading or batter and either frying or baking it. Breaded cutlet is known as schnitzel in German-speaking countries, cotoletta in Italy, escalope in France, filete empanado in Spain, filete empanizado in Cuba, milanesa in Latin America, katsu in Japan and Korea, kotlet in Poland. Chicken fingers or chicken tenders are an American dish prepared by breading and deep frying the pectoralis minor muscle of the chicken, the smaller cut of the chicken breast located along its underside, attached to the ribs. Chicken fried steak is an American breaded cutlet dish that may have originated with German and Austrian immigrants to Texas in the 19th century, it is a piece of beef steak coated with seasoned fried. It is associated with Southern U. S. cuisine. Its name is related to the dish being prepared to fried chicken, it is served with mashed potatoes with both the steak and potatoes covered with white, cracked pepper gravy. Chicken Kiev is a popular breaded cutlet dish of boneless chicken breast pounded and rolled around cold garlic butter with herbs breaded and either fried or baked.
Cordon bleu is a breaded cutlet of veal, chicken or pork stuffed with ham and cheese breaded and either fried or baked. Cotoletta originates in Italy as cotoletta alla milanese is similar to Wiener schnitzel. However, it is a cutlet rather than an escalope, it is traditionally cooked with its rib. From Milan, it can now be found all over the country. In Spain, breaded cutlet is called escalope milanesa in restaurants when served with French fries and a slice of lemon; when eaten in a sandwich, it is called filete empanado. It is made of veal or beef. Chicken is called pollo empanado, pork is not usual. Cotoletta was first documented in 1148 in Latin: "Lumbolos cum panicio". Polish kotlet schabowy made with pork tenderloin, it is served with potatoes and a salad of either raw vegetables or, most of pickled cabbage, the latter akin to coleslaw. Other versions are the kotlet z kurczaka, a variety of chicken cutlet coated in breadcrumbs, the kotlet z indyka, a turkey cutlet coated in breadcrumbs. In Argentina and Venezuela the milanesa, a dish similar to the schnitzel, is a typical dish.
Its name means'from Milan'. The milanesa is made of beef or veal, dipped in egg, breadcrumbs, fried. In Argentina, a milanesa napolitana is topped with ham, melted mozzarella cheese and tomato slices or tomato sauce. Due to the strong influence of Italian culture in Brazil, breaded cutlets are known as filé à milanesa or bife à milanesa, it is found in street restaurants and cooked at home. Servings include white rice, salted brown or black beans, mashed potatoes or French fries and tomato salad. Milanesa sandwiches are somewhat less common, there is the parmigiana version - filé à milanesa with tomato sauce and melted mozzarella cheese. In Colombia, the dish is called milanesa or chuleta valluna, is made with a thin cut of pork and fried. In Chile, breaded cutlet is known as escalopa, it is made of beef, pork or chicken; this dish is known as milanesas, it is prepared by breading and frying thin pieces of meat. Escalopas can be found from fancy to simple restaurants. In Cuba, breaded cutlet is served as steak milanesa, made with a thin cut of sirloin and fried, with tomato sauce on top and sometimes melted cheese.
It is served with traditional Cuban side dishes. If not accompanied by the tomato sauce, it is known as bistec empanizado, bistec empanado or empanada, it is sometimes eaten with slices of criollo lemon on the side to squirt on top. In Mexico, thinly sliced meat and fried, known as milanesa, is a popular ingredient in tortas, the sandwiches sold in street stands and indoor restaurants in Mexico City. In Panama, cutlet is known as milanesa, it is most made of thinly sliced beef but thin chicken fillets; the meat is seasoned with salt and pepper, dipped in beaten eggs and covered with flour or bread crumbs and fried in vegetable oil. If breaded, they are covered with flour first before being dipped in the egg. Lime juice is squeezed over the cutlets before serving or eating them, they are seasoned with hot sauce often. Milanesas are eaten with white rice and other common side dishes, such as salad, beans; the latter two are poured over the rice as they are served in Panama while the salad is served off to the side where there is still space left on the plate.
When served as sandwiches, they are known as emparedado de milanesa or sandwich de milanesa when tomatoes, lettuce, ketchup and/or American cheese. Sandwich bread and pan flauta are the types used to make these sandwiches. In Portugal, breaded cutlet is called bife panado or just panado. Different varieties of panado can be made with chicken, pork, or veal; the meat is seasoned with black pepper and lemon juice. It is served with spaghetti, fried potatoes, or rice, it is popular as a sandwich, served in a bun with lettuce. In North America, chicken parmigiana is an Italian-American dish, consisting of a breaded chicken breast topped with
A grain is a small, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant; the two main types of commercial grain crops are legumes. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits and tubers; this durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, milled for flour or pressed for oil. Thus, major global commodity markets exist for maize, soybeans and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. Grains and cereal are synonymous with the fruits of the grass family. In agronomy and commerce, seeds or fruits from other plant families are called grains if they resemble caryopses. For example, amaranth is sold as "grain amaranth", amaranth products may be described as "whole grains"; the pre-Hispanic civilizations of the Andes had grain-based food systems but, at the higher elevations, none of the grains was a cereal.
All three grains native to the Andes are broad-leafed plants rather than grasses such as corn and wheat. All cereal crops are members of the grass family. Cereal grains contain a substantial amount of a carbohydrate that provides dietary energy. Finger millet fonio foxtail millet Japanese millet Coix lacryma-jobi var. Ma-yuen kodo millet maize millet pearl millet proso millet sorghum barley oats rice rye spelt teff triticale wheat wild rice Starchy grains from broadleaf plant families: amaranth buckwheat chia quinoa kañiwa kiwicha Pulses or grain legumes, members of the pea family, have a higher protein content than most other plant foods, at around 20%, while soybeans have as much as 35%; as is the case with all other whole plant foods, pulses contain carbohydrate and fat. Common pulses include: chickpeas common beans common peas fava beans lentils lima beans lupins mung beans peanuts pigeon peas runner beans soybeans Oilseed grains are grown for the extraction of their edible oil. Vegetable oils provide some essential fatty acids.
They are used as fuel and lubricants. Black mustard India mustard rapeseed safflower sunflower seed flax seed hemp seed poppy seed Because grains are small and dry, they can be stored and transported more than can other kinds of food crops such as fresh fruits and tubers; the development of grain agriculture allowed excess food to be produced and stored which could have led to the creation of the first permanent settlements and the division of society into classes. Those who handle grain at grain facilities may encounter numerous occupational hazards and exposures. Risks include grain entrapment, where workers are submerged in the grain and unable to remove themselves.
A schnitzel is meat thinned by pounding with a meat tenderizer, fried in some kind of oil or fat. The term is most used to refer to meats coated with flour, beaten eggs and bread crumbs, fried, but some variants such as Walliser Schnitzel are not breaded. Originating in Austria, the breaded schnitzel is popular in many countries and made using either chicken, mutton, turkey, or pork, it is similar to the French dish escalope, tonkatsu in Japan, the milanesa of Mexico, Uruguay and Brazil. The German word Schnitzel, Middle High German Snitzel, is a diminutive of Sniz'slice'; the term Wiener Schnitzel itself dates to at least 1845. The dish called, it is made of veal and is traditionally garnished with a slice of lemon and either potato salad or potatoes with parsley and butter. The term Wiener Schnitzel is a protected geographical indication in Austria and Germany and can only be made of veal; when any other kind of meat is used, the dish must be called Wiener Schnitzel vom Schwein/Pute/Huhn or Schnitzel nach Wiener Art to differentiate it from the veal original.
The English term schnitzel means in general all types of fried flat pieces of meat. Due to the similarity between schnitzel and escalope, in many of the countries listed below, people sometimes refer to schnitzels as escalope, vice versa. In Latin American countries, this dish is called milanesa. Beef and chicken schnitzel are both popular dishes in Australia in pubs where they are among the most available meals. Chicken schnitzel is sold at many take-away establishments. Schnitzel in Australia is served in the form of parmigiana, a schnitzel topped with Italian tomato sauce and ham. At pubs, schnitzel is accompanied by chips and sometimes bacon. Plain and parmigiana schnitzels are sometimes known by colloquial names "Schnitty", "Schnitter", "Parma" or "Parmie". Wiener Schnitzel, a thin and pan fried cutlet made from veal, is one of the best known specialities of Viennese cuisine, is one of the national dishes of Austria. Other popular unbreaded variants in Austria are: Jägerschnitzel is a schnitzel with mushroom sauce.
Rahmschnitzel is a schnitzel with a cream sauce containing some mushrooms. Zigeunerschnitzel is a schnitzel with a zigeuner sauce containing tomato, bell peppers, onion slices. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the dish is called Bečka Šnicla or Bečki Odrezak and is made of veal or beef and served with mashed potatoes. Common garnishes include a slice of some lettuce. In Brazil, such preparations, designated à milanesa, are quite common in the more European-influenced southern region of the country; the meats of choice are beef or chicken, while veal and pork are rare. Called шницел, it is made from ground veal, formed as a thin patty, seasoned with salt and black pepper breaded and fried; the dish is served with a choice of mashed or roasted potatoes, French fries, or a tomato salad. It is common at truck stops, it is ordered à la carte, coming with a lemon wedge, but one can find it in the frozen sections in supermarkets or premade and ready to cook. Schnitzel presentations are called chuleta in Colombia.
They are composed of flat pieces of chicken, veal, or pork, covered with flour, deep-fried. The chuleta is a traditional dish of the Valle del Cauca region. In Croatia, the dish is called Bečki odrezak and it is made of pork and served with French fries. Common garnishes include a slice of some lettuce. A similar dish is called Zagrebački odrezak. Schnitzel is very popular in the Czech Republic, where it is known as a smažený řízek or just řízek, is made of pork, chicken, or veal, it is served with boiled or mashed potatoes or potato salad. It used to be and to some degree still is a typical packed lunch for day trips, when it was consumed with bread. During the communist period, a deep-fried breaded hard cheese called smažený sýr became popular among the youth and students served with tartar sauce, a slice of lemon, boiled new potatoes with melted butter and parsley greens. In Denmark, the dish is called skinkeschnitzel when made of pork and wienerschnitzel when made of veal, is served with fried potatoes, green or snow peas, a "boy" consisting of a lemon slice topped with capers, a slice of anchovy.
In Finland, the dish called Wieninleike, is always made of pork and fried like the original. It is served with French fries, potato mash, or wedge potatoes. A slice of lemon, a slice of anchovy, a few capers are placed on top of the cutlet; the dish includes a small amount of salad made from fresh vegetables. The dish was popular between the end of the Second World War and the 1990s, when it could be found in any low-end restaurant across Finland. In the past decades, its popularity has been dimmed by the rise of fast food; however Wieninleike and its different variations remain a staple of menus in any non-ethnic or fine dining restaurant in Finland. Lunch restaurants, different highway resting places and restau
A paratha is a flatbread that originated in the Indian subcontinent, prevalent throughout areas of India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh, where wheat is the traditional staple. Paratha is an amalgamation of the words parat and atta, which means layers of cooked dough. Alternative spellings and names include parantha, prontha, porota, porotha and farata; the Hindustani word paratha is derived from Sanskrit. Recipes for various stuffed wheat puranpolis are mentioned in Manasollasa, a 12th-century Sanskrit encyclopedia compiled by Someshvara III, who ruled from present-day Karnataka. However, Puran poli is a separate bread. Earlier references to paratha have been mentioned by Nijjar, in his book Panjāb under the sultāns, 1000-1526 A. D. when he writes that parauthas were common with the aristocracy in the Punjab. According to Banerji, parathas are associated with Punjabi and North Indian cooking; the Punjabi method is to stuff parathas with a variety of stuffings. However, Banerji states, Mughals were fond of parathas which gave raise to the Dhakai paratha and flaky, taking its name from Dhaka in Bangladesh.
O'Brien suggests that it is not correct to state that the Punjabi paratha was popularised in Delhi after the 1947 Partition as the Punjabi item was prevalent in Delhi before then. Parathas are one of the most popular unleavened flat breads in the India part of the Indian Subcontinent and they are made by baking or cooking whole wheat dough on a tava, finishing off with shallow frying. Parathas are thicker and more substantial than chapatis/rotis and this is either because, in the case of a plain paratha, they have been layered by coating with ghee or oil and folding using a laminated dough technique. A Rajasthani mung bean paratha uses both the layering technique together with mung dal mixed into the dough. While some so-called stuffed parathas resemble a filled pie squashed flat and shallow fried, using two discs of dough sealed around the edges. By alternatively using a single disc of dough to encase a ball of filling and sealed with a series of pleats pinched into the dough round the top flattened with the palm against the working surface before being rolled into a circle.
Most stuffed parathas are not layered. Parathas can be eaten as a tea-time snack; the flour used is finely ground wholemeal and the dough is shallow fried. The most common stuffing for parathas is mashed, spiced potatoes followed by dal. Many other alternatives exist such as leaf vegetables, cauliflower or paneer. A paratha can be eaten with a pat of butter spread on top or with chutney, ketchup, dahi or a raita or with meat or vegetable curries; some roll the paratha into a tube and eat it with tea dipping the paratha. To achieve the layered dough for plain parathas, a number of different traditional techniques exist; these include covering the thinly rolled out pastry with oil, folding back and forth like a paper fan and coiling the resulting strip into a round shape before rolling flat, baking on the tava and shallow frying. Another method is to cut a circle of dough from the centre to its circumference along its radius, oiling the dough and starting at the cut edge rolling so as to form a cone, squashed into a disc shape and rolled out.
The method of oiling and folding the dough as in western puff pastry exists, this is combined with folding patterns that give traditional geometrical shapes to the finished parathas. Plain parathas can be round, square, or triangular; the paratha is an important part of a traditional breakfast from the Indian subcontinent. Traditionally, it is made using ghee but oil is used; some people may bake it in the oven for health reasons. The paratha is eaten with dollops of white butter on top of it. Side dishes which go well with paratha are curd, fried egg, Mutton kheema, jeera aloo and raita as part of a breakfast meal, it may be stuffed with potatoes, onions, qeema or chili peppers. Ajwain paratha Aloo paratha Aloo cheese paratha Anda paratha Band gobi wala paratha/Patta gobhi paratha Batuha paratha Boondi paratha Ceylon paratha Chana paratha Channa dal paratha Chicken paratha Chili parotha/mirchi paratha Dal paratha Dhakai paratha Dhaniya paratha Gajar paratha Gobhi paratha Jaipuri paratha Kerala paratha Lachha paratha – tandoori Lachha paratha – tawa wali (popular in eastern India, triangular in shape with multiple layers interspaced
Tonkatsu is a Japanese dish which consists of a breaded, deep-fried pork cutlet. The two main types are loin, it is served with shredded cabbage. The word tonkatsu is a combination of the Sino-Japanese word ton meaning "pig" and katsu, a shortened form of katsuretsu, the transliteration of the English word cutlet, which again derived from French côtelette, meaning "meat chop". Tonkatsu originated in Japan in the 19th century. Early katsuretsu was beef, it was considered a type of yōshoku—Japanese versions of European cuisine invented in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—and was called katsuretsu or katsu. Either a pork fillet or pork loin cut may be used. Tonkatsu is served with shredded cabbage, it is most eaten with a type of thick brown sauce called tonkatsu sauce or sōsu, a slice of lemon. It is served with rice, miso soup and tsukemono and eaten with chopsticks, it may be served with ponzu and grated daikon instead of tonkatsu sauce. In addition to being served as a single dish, it is used as a sandwich filling or in combination with curry.
Tonkatsu is popular as a sandwich filling or served on Japanese curry. Tonkatsu is sometimes served with egg on a big bowl of rice as katsudon. In Nagoya and surrounding areas, miso katsu, tonkatsu eaten with a hatchō miso-based sauce, is a specialty. Variations on tonkatsu may be made by sandwiching an ingredient such as cheese or shiso leaf between the meat, breading and frying. For the calorie conscious, konnyaku is sometimes sandwiched in the meat. Several variations of tonkatsu use alternatives to pork: Chicken katsu, which uses chicken instead appears in Hawaiian plate lunches. Menchi-katsu or minchi katsu, is a minced meat patty and deep fried. Hamu katsu, a similar dish made from ham, is considered a budget alternative to tonkatsu. Gyū katsu known as bīfu katsu, is popular in the Kansai region around Osaka and Kobe. A similar dish with ingredients other than pork, beef, or chicken is called furai, not katsu, such as aji-furai and ebi-furai. Japanese cuisine List of pork dishes
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee
Brown bread is a designation given to breads made with significant amounts of whole grain flour wheat, sometimes dark-colored ingredients such as molasses or coffee. In Canada, the United Kingdom and South Africa it refers to wholemeal or whole wheat bread, except in the Maritimes, where it implies bread made with molasses. In some regions of the US, the bread is called wheat bread in contrast to white bread. Whole wheat flours that contain raw wheat germ, instead of toasted germ, have higher levels of glutathione, thus are said to result in lower loaf volumes. In Ireland, during the Famine, prior to 1848, brown bread was handed out to the poor. In England, brown bread was made from brown meal. Around and prior to the year 1845, brown meal was considered a less desirable grain product, was priced accordingly. However, by 1865, due to discovered health benefits of bran, brown meal's London price had increased to a point greater than that of fine flour. Brown meal was what remained after about 90% of the coarse, outer bran and 74% of pure endosperm or fine flour was removed from the whole grain.
Using different extraction numbers, brown meal, representing 20% of the whole grain, was itself composed of about 15% fine bran and 85% white flour. In 1848 it was asserted grain millers knew only of bran and endosperm, but by 1912 it was more known that brown meal included the germ; the brown color of whole grain breads is caused by cerealine, a discovery attributed to Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès of France. Cerealine, considered by Mouriès an active principal or ferment similar in action to diastase, came from the cereal layer of rectangular cells that millers considered a part of bran: it was alternatively called the aleurone layer. In a statement attributed to Mouriès, if the cerealine is neutralized, white bread can be made from bran-containing flour. Irish wheaten bread is a form of Irish soda bread made with whole-wheat flour. Borodinsky bread is a sweet sourdough rye bread of Russian origin flavoured by caraway and coriander seeds and sweetened with molasses, which augments its quite dark color coming from the rye flour.
It is named after the Battle of Borodino, the legend says that it was invented by the widow of one of the Russian generals perished in that battle, though in reality it was created much in the end of the 19th century. New England or Boston brown bread is a type of dark sweet steamed bread popular in New England, it is cooked by cylindrical pan. Boston brown bread's colour comes from a mixture of flours a mix of several of the following: cornmeal, whole wheat, graham flour, from the addition of sweeteners like molasses and maple syrup. Leavening most comes from baking soda though a few recipes use yeast. Raisins are added; the batter is poured into a can, steamed in a kettle. While most variations are quick breads, can be made in less than an hour, several commercial brands are available. Brown bread is somewhat seasonal, being served in fall and winter, is served with baked beans. Brown bread is related to an earlier bread known as "Rye n Injun" or "thirded" bread from its use of rye and wheat flours.
Unlike modern Boston brown bread, thirded bread is yeast-raised and baked rather than steamed. Robert Wells. "Brown Bread Made Quick by Process of Sponging". The new system of making bread. Manchester: Abel Heywood & Son. Pp. 134–5. Fannie Farmer 1918 recipe for brown bread Recipe for brown bread Epicurious recipe for Irish brown bread