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Breakbeat

Breakbeat is a genre of electronic music that utilizes breaks sampled from earlier recordings in funk, jazz and R&B, for the main rhythm. Breakbeats have been used in styles such as hip hop, jungle and bass, big beat, UK garage styles; the most origin of the word "breakbeat" is the fact that the drum loops that were sampled occurred during a "break" in the music, as in the Amen break, a drum solo from "Amen, Brother" by The Winstons. However, it is a common thought that the name derives from the beat being "broken" and unpredictable compared to other percussive styles, something, reflected in the name of the related genre broken beat. Whether this was part of the original meaning of the word or is purely a folk etymology remains unclear, but it is safe to say that the term has evolved to encompass both sentiments. Beginning in 1973 and continuing through the late 1970s and early 1980s, hip hop turntablists, such as DJ Kool Herc began using several funk breaks in a row, using irregular drum patterns from songs such as James Brown's "Funky Drummer" and The Winstons' "Amen Brother", to form the rhythmic base for hip hop songs.

DJ Kool Herc's breakbeat style involved playing the same record on two turntables and playing the break alternating between the two records. Grandmaster Flash perfected this idea with what he called the "quick-mix theory": he would mark the points on the record where the break began and ended with a crayon, so that he could replay the break by spinning the record and not touching the tone arm; this style was copied and improved upon by early hip hop DJs Afrika Bambaataa and Grand Wizard Theodore. This style was popular in clubs and dancehalls because the extended breakbeat provided breakers with more opportunities to showcase their skills. In the 1970s, hip-hop was all about the break. In the 1980s, the evolution of technology began to make sampling breaks easier and more affordable for DJs and producers, which helped nurture the commercialization of hip-hop. Through crude techniques such as pausing tapes and recording the break, by the 1980s, technology allowed anybody with a tape recorder to find the breakbeat.

In the early 1990s, acid house artists and producers started using breakbeat samples in their music to create breakbeat hardcore. The hardcore scene diverged into subgenres like jungle and drum and bass, which had a darker sound and focused more on complex sampled drum patterns. An example of this is Goldie's album Timeless. Josh Lawford of Ravescene prophesied that breakbeat was "the death-knell of rave" because the ever-changing drumbeat patterns of breakbeat music didn't allow for the same zoned out, trance-like state that the standard, steady 4/4 beats of house enabled. In 1994, the influential techno act Autechre released the Anti EP in response to the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, deliberately using advanced algorithmic programming to generate non-repetitive breakbeats for the full duration of the tracks, in order to subvert the legal definitions within that legislation which specified in the section creating police powers to remove ravers from raves that "'music' includes sounds wholly or predominantly characterised by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats".

In the late-1980s, breakbeat became an essential feature of many genres of breaks music which became popular within the global dance music scene, including big beat, nu skool breaks, acid breaks, electro-funk, Miami bass. Incorporating many components of those genres, the Florida breaks subgenre followed during the early-to-mid 1990s and had a unique sound, soon internationally popular among producers, DJs, club-goers. DJs from a variety of genres work breaks tracks into their sets; this may occur because the tempo of breaks tracks means they can be mixed with these genres. Breakbeats are used in many hip hop, jungle/drum & bass and hardcore songs, can be heard in other music, from popular music to background music in car and clothing commercials on radio or TV. With the advent of digital sampling and music editing on the computer, breakbeats have become much easier to create and use. Now, instead of cutting and splicing tape sections or backspinning two records at the same time, a computer program can be used to cut and loop breakbeats endlessly.

Digital effects such as filters, reversing, time stretching and pitch shifting can be added to the beat, to individual sounds by themselves. Individual instruments from within a breakbeat can be sampled and combined with others, thereby creating wholly new breakbeat patterns; the Amen break, a drum break from The Winstons' song "Amen, Brother" is regarded as one of the most used and sampled breaks among music using breakbeats. This break was first used on "King of the Beats" by Mantronix, has since been used in thousands of songs. Other popular breaks are from James Brown's Funky Drummer and Give it Up or Turnit a Loose, The Incredible Bongo Band's 1973 cover of The Shadows' "Apache", Lyn Collins' 1972 song "Think"; the Winstons have not received royalties for third-party use of samples of the break recorded on their original music release. With the rise in popularity of breakbeat music and the advent of digital audio samplers, companies started selling "breakbeat packages" for the express purpose of helping artists create breakbeats.

A breakbeat kit CD would contain many breakbeat samples from different songs and artists without the artist's permission or knowledge. Big beat is a term employed since the mid-1990s by the British music press to describe much of the music by artists such as The Prodigy, Cut La Roc, Fatboy

Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company

The Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company was the first company to manufacture and sell gasoline powered farm tractors. Based in Waterloo, the company was created by John Froelich and a group of Iowa businessmen in 1893, was named the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company. In 1892, Froelich had invented the first practical gasoline-powered tractor, the new company was given the opportunity to manufacture and sell the tractor Froelich designed; the tractor was not successful commercially, of the four tractors built by the company only two were purchased, these were returned to the company by unsatisfied customers. In 1895, the company was renamed the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company. Miller decided to stop producing tractors and instead focus on building plain gasoline engines. Following several years of research and development, the company once again began to manufacture tractors in 1911, but none would sell well until 1913, when twenty “Waterloo Boy” tractors were produced. In 1914 the company introduced the Model R Waterloo Boy.

This tractor proved immensely popular, over eight thousand were sold before the line was discontinued in 1923. The company had great success with the Model N, introduced in late 1916. Despite the company's name, both the Model R and Model N burned kerosene for fuel. By this time, several other companies had begun to build and sell tractors, but the Waterloo Boy was one of the most popular. In 1918, Deere & Company, a farm equipment company based in Moline, Illinois purchased the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company for $2,100,000. Deere & Company had been anxious to enter the growing tractor market, but its own initial designs had proved unsuccessful. Executives at Deere & Company decided to purchase the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Co. because field tests indicated that the Waterloo Boy tractor had the best performance. After the sale was completed, the company became known as the John Deere Tractor Company, but tractors produced by the company continued to be sold under the Waterloo Boy name until 1923, when the John Deere Model D was introduced.

List of tractor manufacturers History of Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company

Tom McNamara (golfer)

Thomas Lawrence McNamara, Sr. was an American professional golfer. McNamara was born in Massachusetts to an immigrant Irish family, his parents were Mariah McNamara née Curry. McNamara was the head professional at Wollaston Golf Club. During the 1909 U. S. Open, McNamara became the first man to break 70 in a competitive American tournament. McNamara held a three-stroke lead in the 1909 U. S. Open heading to the back nine. Due to the hot temperatures, McNamara suffered a heatstroke on the 14th hole. After doctors treated him, he insisted on finishing the tournament, he succeeded in finishing. The following year, 1910, he served as the head golf professional at the Fall River Country Club in Fall River, Massachusetts. McNamara was considered one of American's best homegrown professionals during the early twentieth century, he was head professional at Siwanoy Country Club in New York. He proposed the idea of a national tournament to Rodman Wanamaker. McNamara was the manager of the golf department in Wanamaker's New York City department store.

Thus came the PGA Championship, first played in 1916 at Siwanoy Country Club. McNamara was born to Mariah McNamara née Curry. McNamara and his wife Mary had seven children. McNamara died, from coronary thrombosis, at his home in Mount Vernon, New York on July 21, 1939; this list may be incomplete 1912 North and South Open, Metropolitan Open 1913 North and South Open, Massachusetts Open 1914 Philadelphia Open Championship 1915 Western Open, Philadelphia Open Championship Note: The Masters Tournament was not founded until 1934. NYF = Tournament not yet founded NT = No tournament DNP = Did not play CUT = missed the half-way cut R64, R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in PGA Championship match play "T" indicates a tie for a place Yellow background for top-10 France–United States Professional Match: 1913

Gang de Roubaix

Gang de Roubaix was a terrorist cell tied with the Islamist group Al-Qaeda. Its members were suspected of various bloody bank attacks, murder and a missed car bombing attack against a G7 Finance ministers meeting in Lille, their violent story ended with a R. A. I. D. Assault against their Roubaix HQ in 1996. In 1992, a Civil war began in Bosnia and Herzegovina between three ethnic groups: The Bosnian Serbs, supported by Serbia, the Bosnian Croats supported by Croatia and Bosnian Muslims. Bosnian Muslims received some international support from Muslim countries. A lot of foreigners arrived in the country. Among them, Christophe Caze, a French medicine student, began taking care of the multiple casualties in Zenica, considered as one of the primary radical areas. Soon afterwards, he radicalized slowly. During his stay in Zenica, he made friends with Fateh Kamel, Mohammed Omary and Lionel Dumont, members of the Bosnian mujahideen and participated in the war. In 1995, the Bosnian War ended with the Dayton Agreement.

All the mujahideen, including Caze who joined them, were requested to leave Bosnia. Kamel, working for the GIA, convinced Caze and Dumont, an idealist, to commit terrorist attacks in their hometown country because of the diplomatic relationships between France and Algeria. Kamel organized counterfeited administrative documents in his home country of Canada to allow his associates to escape safely after the attacks. Meanwhile and Dumont began recruiting in Roubaix and went to Bosnia in order to buy heavy weaponry thanks to the financial help of a radical imam in London. In late 1996, the newly created cell began spreading terror. In order to fund their future attacks, they planned several criminal acts. On 27 January 1996, some of their members, including Dumont, stole an Audi car but encountered a police patrol, who thought that they were dealing with minor criminals; the group fired on the police with assault rifles, injuring one of the police officers, hit twice. However, the attackers' weapons malfunctioned and the police were able to escape.

On 8 February 1996, they had to flee when the police arrived. The ensuing chase ended with the group's car crashing. While firing on the police, they stole his car. On 25 March eight members of the gang assaulted a Brink's armoured truck near a shopping mall, injuring the driver in the leg; the attackers fled. On 28 March the group parked a Peugeot 205, with 4 gas tanks linked to a detonator in the boot, beside a police precinct in Lille; the whole building was supposed to be destroyed by the blast. However, the bomb malfunctioned. For several days, the gang had been under surveillance after the failed assault against the Brink's truck; the police officers succeeded in locating the gang's: the house of one of the members in Roubaix. The day following the failed attack of 28 March, the police decided to intervene; the RAID, a French anti-terrorist Special unit and stormed the house. The four men who were inside fought back with assault rifles, screaming that they'd rather die than surrender; the RAID team launched smoke grenades.

A grenade, launched by the group, started a fire in the house. After several minutes of heavy gunfighting, the roof of the building, weakened by the fire, collapsed on the 3 remaining gang members; the toll of the assault was 4 dead and two police officers injured, including one seriously. The others members of the gang, who were located in several other locations, managed to escape. All the police units were scrambled. Several hours Caze, who had managed to escape, was killed by Belgian police. An electronic address book was found on Caze's body which permitted the arrest of Fateh Kamel and Mohammed Omary. Kamel was the leader of a terrorist cell in Montreal, suspected of planning terrorist attacks in Los Angeles. After escaping all across Europe, Dumont was arrested in Germany in 2003, he is serving a 25-year sentence in France

Izgi Amal

Izgi Amal, construed in the native Kazakh language as Ізгі амал, is a Quranist organization based in Kazakhstan. The group is led by Aslbek Musin, the son of the former Speaker of the Majlis, Aslan Musin, both of whom are Quranists. In 2009, there was a public debate on the religious status of Quranists in Kazakhstan, who are represented by the representatives of Izgi Amal within the country. During the public debate chaired by the Tolerance Society and the National Security Committee, other religious minorities were scrutinized with probes into their religious status, such as the Krishna Consciousness Society and Salafism. With regard to the Quranists, concern was raised as the leading base for Islamic scholarship based at Azhar University had issued a fatwa declaring the Quranist denomination as being illegal within the country, furthermore imprisoned the leading Quranist personality within the country called Ahmed Mansour. Nonetheless, spokesmen of Izgi Amal have argued that it isn't a religious organization and rather engages in activities associated with societal and economic upliftment within Kazakhstan.

The main concentration of Quranists in Kazakhstan is in the western parts of the Mangystau Region. The are two main strands in the Izgi Amal movement, the Quran aloners and the Quran-centric Izgi Amalists; the are two main strands among the Izgi Amalist Quranists. One strand is the one that uses terms such as "Quran alone"; some Izgi Amalists use the self-identifiers of Quranites, Quran aloners or Quraniyoon to describe themselves, while retorts such as munkirū al-ḥadīṯ, have in turn been levelled at them. The other set of Quranists in Izgi Amal take a less sweeping stance and avoids usage of the term "Quran alone", instead using terms such as Quranist or may avoid using self-identifiers altogether; the set of IZgi Amal Quranists who avoid usage of the word "Quran alone", specify their doctrine as one, Quran focused rather than exterior texts. For Izgi Amalists who utilize the application of additional sources besides the Quran, their standpoint is that unlike hadithists, they do not consider such texts as canonical to the faith.

From the perspective of some Quran centric Izgi Amalists, the usage of tafsir is permitted, reliance on hadith texts as a primary source runs the risk of insinuating that the Quran needs supplemental text, or suggestive of additional religious texts or the peril of abrogating the Quran. As such, Izgi Amal Quranists view the term hadith in its modern usage as a canonical collection as a misnomer, as from their perspective, the original archaic sense referred to the Quran itself; as such, Izgi Amal Quranists use the classical, obsolete or archaic sense of the word hadith

...Burn, Piano Island, Burn

... Burn, Piano Island, Burn is the third full-length studio album by the American post-hardcore band The Blood Brothers, released in March 2003. Produced by Ross Robinson, the album was recorded over two months with a $25,000 budget and serves as the band's first major label album, bringing them the attention of the mainstream media; the album drew widespread critical acclaim, reflected by an average score 82 on Metacritic. To promote the album, "Ambulance vs. Ambulance" was released as a single and had a music video produced for it. In 2009, Epitaph Records reissued the album including bonus tracks as well as the Jungle Rules Live DVD packaged with the CD edition. All tracks are written by The Blood Brothers; the Blood BrothersJordan Blilie – vocals Mark Gajadhar – drums Morgan Henderson – bass, Nord II, piano, G4 Cody Votolatoguitar Johnny Whitney – vocals, guitar on "Salesman, Denver Max", Wurlitzer piano, Lawnmower Chava Mirel – backing vocalsProduction and designRoss Robinson – Producer The Blood Brothers – Co-Producer Mike Fraser – Engineer, Mixer Mike Terry – Engineer, Pro Tools George MarinoMastering Yaeger Rosenberg – Layout Concept and Design Cody Votolato – Layout Concept and Design Johnny Whitney – Layout Concept and Design Kirk Huffman – Cursive/Flakiness Sean McGahan – Bluest/Love 1st pressing: 500 on 180 gram vinyl.2nd pressing: 200 on red vinyl with red labels.3rd pressing: 378 on white vinyl.4th pressing: 819 on blue/white swirl vinyl.5th pressing: 1024 copies 505 on clear vinyl.

519 on opaque light green vinyl.6th pressing: 1604 copies 528 on light blue vinyl. 524 on pink vinyl. 552 on half pink/half blue "cotton candy" vinyl.7th pressing: 200 on screen-printed 2 x LP.8th pressing: 265 Translucent Red w/ Translucent Orange & Black Splatter 265 Opaque Yellow w/ Red & Black Speckles9th pressing: 490 Grey/Red/Black Marble10th pressing: 524 Yellow 524 Orange