To green-light is to give permission or a go ahead to move forward with a project. The term is a reference to the green traffic signal, indicating "go ahead". In the context of the film and television industries, to green-light something is to formally approve its production finance and to commit to this financing, thereby allowing the project to move forward from the development phase to pre-production and principal photography; the power to green-light a project is reserved to those in a project or financial management role within an organization. The process of taking a project from pitch to green light formed the basis of a successful reality TV show titled Project Greenlight. At the Big Five major film studios in the United States and the mini-majors, green-light power is exercised by committees of the studios' high-level executives. However, the studio president, chairman, or chief executive is the person who makes the final judgment call. For the largest film budgets involving several hundred million U.
S. dollars, the chief executive officer or chief operating officer of the studio's parent conglomerate may hold final green-light authority
A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at Walt Disney Productions during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios. Many large budget silent films were storyboarded, but most of this material has been lost during the reduction of the studio archives during the 1970s and 1980s. Special effects pioneer Georges Méliès is known to have been among the first filmmakers to use storyboards and pre-production art to visualize planned effects. However, storyboarding in the form known today was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s. In the biography of her father, The Story of Walt Disney, Diane Disney Miller explains that the first complete storyboards were created for the 1933 Disney short Three Little Pigs.
According to John Canemaker, in Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Storyboards, the first storyboards at Disney evolved from comic-book like "story sketches" created in the 1920s to illustrate concepts for animated cartoon short subjects such as Plane Crazy and Steamboat Willie, within a few years the idea spread to other studios. According to Christopher Finch in The Art of Walt Disney, Disney credited animator Webb Smith with creating the idea of drawing scenes on separate sheets of paper and pinning them up on a bulletin board to tell a story in sequence, thus creating the first storyboard. Furthermore, it was Disney who first recognized the necessity for studios to maintain a separate "story department" with specialized storyboard artists, as he had realized that audiences would not watch a film unless its story gave them a reason to care about the characters; the second studio to switch from "story sketches" to storyboards was Walter Lantz Productions in early 1935. By 1937 or 1938, all American animation studios were using storyboards.
Gone with the Wind was one of the first live action films to be storyboarded. William Cameron Menzies, the film's production designer, was hired by producer David O. Selznick to design every shot of the film. Storyboarding became popular in live-action film production during the early 1940s and grew into a standard medium for previsualization of films. Pace Gallery curator Annette Micheloson, writing of the exhibition Drawing into Film: Director's Drawings, considered the 1940s to 1990s to be the period in which "production design was characterized by adoption of the storyboard". Storyboards are now an essential part of the creative process. A film storyboard known as a shooting board, is a series of frames, with drawings of the sequence of events in a film, similar to a comic book of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand, it helps film directors and television commercial advertising clients visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. Besides this, storyboards help estimate the cost of the overall production and saves time.
Storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement. For fast-paced action scenes, monochrome line art might suffice. For slower-paced dramatic films with emphasis on lighting, color impressionist style art might be necessary. In creating a motion picture with any degree of fidelity to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens, and in the case of interactive media, it is the layout and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding process, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture or in additional text. A common misconception is. Directors and playwrights use storyboards as special tools to understand the layout of the scene; the great Russian theatre practitioner Stanislavski developed storyboards in his detailed production plans for his Moscow Art Theatre performances. The German director and dramatist Bertolt Brecht developed detailed storyboards as part of his dramaturgical method of "fabels."
In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called "animatics" to give a better idea of how a scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a sequence of still images displayed in sync with rough dialogue and/or rough soundtrack providing a simplified overview of how various visual and auditory elements will work in conjunction to one another; this allows the animators and directors to work out any screenplay, camera positioning, shot list, timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, a new animatic may be created and reviewed by the production staff until the storyboard is finalized. Editing at the animatic stage can help a production avoid wasting time and resources on animation of scenes that would otherwise be edited out of the film at a stage. A few minutes of screen time in traditional animation equates to months of work for a team of traditional animators, who must painstakingly draw and paint countless frames, meaning that all that labor will have to be written off if the final scene does not work in the f
A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film; the crew is separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures. Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development and distribution. Within the production stage there are three defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases.
Distinctions are made between above-the-line personnel who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage. A film director is a person; the director most has the highest authority on a film set. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of film-making. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, film editors or actors.
Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners; some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. Production is not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups; these include the film's producers and executive producers and production office staff such as the production manager, the production coordinator, their assistants. Producer A film producer creates the conditions for film-making; the producer initiates, coordinates and controls matters such as fund raising, hiring key personnel, arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the film making process from development to completion of a project.
There may be several producers on a film who may take a role in a number of areas, such as development, financing or production. Executive producer An executive producer is a producer, not involved in the technical aspects of the film-making process in the original definition, but has played a financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production. Today, the title has become ambiguous in feature films. Since the 1980s, it has become common for the line producer to be given the title of executive producer, while the initiating producer takes the "produced by" credit. On other projects, the reverse happens, with the line producer taking the "produced by" credit. So the two credits have become interchangeable, with no precise definition. Line producer The line producer is the liaison between the studio or producer and the production manager, responsible for managing the production budget; the title is associated with the idea that they are the person, "on the line" on a day-to-day basis, responsible for lining up the resources needed.
Production assistant Production assistants, referred to as PAs, assist in the production office or in various departments with general tasks, such as assisting the first assistant director with set operations. Production manager The production manager supervises the physical aspects of the production including personnel, technology and scheduling, it is the production manager's responsibility to make sure the filming stays on schedule and within its budget. The PM helps manage the day-to-day budget by managing operating costs such as salaries, production costs, everyday equipment rental costs; the PM works under the supervision of a line producer and directly supervises the production coordinator. Assistant production manager The assistant production manager is the assistant to the production manager and carries out various jobs for the PM. Only big budget Hollywood feature films have an assistant PM. Unit manager The unit manager fulfils the same role as the production manager but for secondary "unit" shooting.
In some functional structures, the unit manager subsumes the role of the transport coordinator. Production coordinator The production coordinator is the information nexus of the production, responsible for organizing all the logistics from hiring crew, renting equipment, booking talent; the PC is an int
A rehearsal is an activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance in music, theatre and related arts, such as opera, musical theatre and film production. It is undertaken as a form of practising, to ensure that all details of the subsequent performance are adequately prepared and coordinated; the term "rehearsal" refers to ensemble activities undertaken by a group of people. For example, when a musician is preparing a piano concerto in their music studio, this is called "practicing", but when they practice the concerto with an orchestra, this is called a "rehearsal"; the music rehearsal takes place in a music rehearsal space. A rehearsal may involve as few as two people, as with a small play for two actors, an art song by a singer and pianist or a folk duo of a singer and guitarist. On the other end of the spectrum, a rehearsal can be held for a large orchestra with over 100 performers and a choir. A rehearsal can involve only performers of one type, as in an a cappella choir show, in which a group of singers perform without instrumental accompaniment or a play involving only theatre actors.
Rehearsals of small groups, such as small rock bands, jazz quartets or organ trios may be held without a leader. Some small groups may have their rehearsals led by a bandleader. All mid- to large-group performances have a person who leads the rehearsals. While the term is most used in the performing arts to refer to preparation for a public presentation, the term is used to refer to the preparation for other anticipated activities, such as wedding guests and couples practicing a wedding ceremony, paramedics practicing responding to a simulated emergency, or troops practicing for an attack using a mock-up of the building; the dress rehearsal is a full-scale rehearsal where the actors and/or musicians perform every detail of the performance. For a theatrical performance, cast members wear their costumes; the actors may use backdrops. For a musical performance, the dress rehearsal does not require wearing formal concert outfits. In music, the dress rehearsal is the final rehearsal before the performance.
In theatre, a performing arts ensemble rehearses a work in preparation for performance before an audience. Rehearsals that occur early in the production process are sometimes referred to as "run-throughs". A run-through does not contain many of the technical aspects of a performance, is used to assist performers in learning dialogue and to solidify aspects of blocking and stage movement. A "Q-2-Q" or "cue to cue" is a type of technical rehearsal and is intended for the lighting and audio technicians involved in a performance, although they are of great value to the entire ensemble, it is intended to allow the technicians and stage manager to rehearse the technical aspects of a performance—when lights have to be turned on, sound effects triggered, items rolled on and off the stage—and identify and resolve any glitches that might arise. Performers do not rehearse entire scenes during Q-2-Q's, but instead only perform dialogue or actions that are used by the stage manager as a marker for when to initiate technical sequences or cues.
Abbreviated Q-2-Q's in which only the opening and closing sequences of each act or scene are performed is sometimes referred to as "tops and tails". It is rare for any but the most technically complex performances to have Q-2-Q rehearsals outside of technical week. Cue to cues are preceded by a "dry tech", in which the technicians rehearse their technical cues without the actual performers present at the rehearsal. A "dress rehearsal" is a rehearsal or series of rehearsals in which the ensemble dresses in costume, as they will dress at the performance for the audience; the entire performance will be run from beginning to end as the real performances will be, including pauses for intermissions. An "open dress" is a dress rehearsal to which specific individuals have been invited to attend as audience members, they may include patrons and friends of the ensemble, or reviewers from the media. The dress rehearsal is the last set of rehearsals before the concert performance and falls at the end of technical week.
A "preview", although technically a performance as there is a full audience, including individuals who have paid for admission, is arguably a rehearsal in as far as it is not uncommon in complex performances for the production to stop, or return to an earlier point in the performance if there are unavoidable or unresolvable problems. Audience members pay a lower price to attend a preview performance. In traditional Japanese Noh theatre, performers rehearse separately, only rehearsing together once, a few days before the show; this is to emphasize the transience of the show, in the philosophy of "ichi-g
A videographer is a person who works in the field of videography and/or video production, recording moving images and sound on video tape, digital, or any future data storage medium, other electro-mechanical device. News broadcasting relies on live television where videographers engage in electronic news gathering of local news stories. On a set, in a television studio, the videographer is a camera operator of a professional video camera and lighting; as part of a typical electronic field production television crew, videographers work with a television producer. However, for smaller productions, a videographer works alone with a single-camera setup or in the case of a multiple-camera setup, as part of a larger television crew with lighting technician and sound operators. Videographers are distinguished from cinematographers in that they use digital hard-drive, flash cards or tape drive video cameras vs. 70mm IMAX, 35mm, 16mm or Super 8mm mechanical film cameras. Videographers manage smaller, event scale productions, differing from individualized large production team members.
The advent of high definition digital video cameras, has blurred this distinction. Further, it is becoming more and more common for people to talk about "filming" with a camcorder though no "film" is involved; the term "taping" is used though no tape is involved, where live video is recorded directly to video tape, a direct to disk recording using a hard disk recorder, or a tapeless camcorder using flash media. Videographers maintain and operate a variety of video camera equipment, sound recording devices, edit footage, stay up to date with technological advances. With modern video camcorders, professional studio quality videos can be produced at low cost rivaling large studios. Many major studios have stopped using film as a medium due to linear-editing devices no longer being made and the availability for amateurs to produce acceptable videos using DSLRs. Videographers use non-linear editing software on home computers. Camera coverage Camera operator Camera tracking Cinematic techniques Filmmaking
Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily