Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly-inverted nipple, or a red or scaly patch of skin. In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin. Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, a lack of physical exercise, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, an early age at first menstruation, having children late in life or not at all, older age, having a prior history of breast cancer, a family history of breast cancer. About 5–10% of cases are the result of a genetic predisposition inherited from a person's parents, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others. Breast cancer most develops in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply these ducts with milk. Cancers developing from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those developing from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.
There are more than 18 other sub-types of breast cancer. Some, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions; the diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking a biopsy of the concerning tissue. Once the diagnosis is made, further tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast and which treatments are most to be effective; the balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial. A 2013 Cochrane review found that it was unclear if mammographic screening does more harm than good, in that a large proportion of women who test positive turn out not to have the disease. A 2009 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force found evidence of benefit in those 40 to 70 years of age, the organization recommends screening every two years in women 50 to 74 years of age; the medications tamoxifen or raloxifene may be used in an effort to prevent breast cancer in those who are at high risk of developing it. Surgical removal of both breasts is another preventative measure in some high risk women.
In those who have been diagnosed with cancer, a number of treatments may be used, including surgery, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy. Types of surgery vary from breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy. Breast reconstruction may take place at the time of surgery or at a date. In those in whom the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, treatments are aimed at improving quality of life and comfort. Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the cancer type, the extent of disease, the person's age; the five-year survival rates in England and the United states are between 80 and 90%. In developing countries, five-year survival rates are lower. Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in accounting for 25 % of all cases. In 2018 it resulted in 627,000 deaths, it is more common in developed countries and is more than 100 times more common in women than in men. Breast cancer most presents as a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue. More than 80 % of cases are discovered.
The earliest breast cancers, are detected by a mammogram. Lumps found in lymph nodes located in the armpits may indicate breast cancer. Indications of breast cancer other than a lump may include thickening different from the other breast tissue, one breast becoming larger or lower, a nipple changing position or shape or becoming inverted, skin puckering or dimpling, a rash on or around a nipple, discharge from nipple/s, constant pain in part of the breast or armpit and swelling beneath the armpit or around the collarbone. Pain is an unreliable tool in determining the presence or absence of breast cancer, but may be indicative of other breast health issues. Another symptom complex of breast cancer is Paget's disease of the breast; this syndrome presents as skin changes resembling eczema. As Paget's disease of the breast advances, symptoms may include tingling, increased sensitivity and pain. There may be discharge from the nipple. Half the women diagnosed with Paget's disease of the breast have a lump in the breast.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer presents with similar effects. Inflammatory Breast Cancer is a rare yet aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by the swollen, red areas formed on the top of the Breast; the visual effects of Inflammatory Breast Cancer is a result of a blockage of lymph vessels by cancer cells. This type of breast cancer is seen in more diagnosed in younger ages, obese women and African American women; as inflammatory breast cancer does not present as a lump there can sometimes be a delay in diagnosis. In rare cases, what appears as a fibroadenoma could in fact be a phyllodes tumor. Phyllodes tumors are formed within the stroma of the breast and contain glandular as well as stromal tissue. Phyllodes tumors are not staged in the usual sense. Malignant tumors can result in metastatic tumors— secondary tumors that spread beyond the site of origination; the symptoms caused by metastatic breast cancer will depend on the location of metastasis. Common sites of metastasis include bone, liver and brain.
When cancer has reached such an invasive state, it is categorized as a stage 4 cancer, cancers of this state are oftentimes fatal. Commo
Face to Face is a 1963 Yugoslavian political film. It is directed by Branko Bauer, written by Bogdan Jovanović, stars Ilija Džuvalekovski, Husein Čokić, Vladimir Popović. A worker named Milun is falsely charged by officials for writing an anonymous letter critical of the company. Company management subsequently fires Milun. Although other workers fail to come to his aid during the process, they afterwards come together in a demonstration of labor rights to vote to remove the manager. At the time of release, the film industry in Yugoslavia was controlled by the government, but individual filmmakers were given some autonomy. Face to Face was an early example of political criticism in Yugoslavian film; the film highlights conflict between workers fighting for democratization and self-management and the management structures of the socialist party, providing an optimistic story in support of self-management socialism. According to Daniel J. Goulding, Face to Face was "critically and popularly acclaimed".
Its entry in the Filmski leksikon of the Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography said it was a "great success has been emphasized as a positive example of society." The Ikon Arts Foundation said it was "the first political film in Yoguslavia."Face to Face won several Golden Arena awards at the 10th Pula Film Festival, including Best Film, Best Director, the Jelen audience award. Face to Face on IMDb
The Pantheon Fossae are a radial set of troughs in a region in the middle of Caloris Basin on Mercury. They appear to be a set of graben formed by extensional faults, with a 40 km crater located near the center of the pattern; the exact origin of this pattern of troughs is not known. The feature was nicknamed "the Spider" before receiving its official name; the name is taken from the Pantheon in an ancient temple with a classic domed roof. The dome of the Pantheon has a series of sunken panels that radiate from a central circular opening at the top of the dome, Mercury's Pantheon Fossae is reminiscent of this pattern; the crater near the center of Pantheon Fossae is now named Apollodorus, after the Greek engineer Apollodorus, credited by some as being the architect of the Pantheon. MESSENGER scientists are debating whether Apollodorus played a role in the formation of Pantheon Fossae or whether the crater is from a impact that occurred close to the center of the radial pattern