Breda is a village in the province of Girona and autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 5.09 square kilometres and the population in 2014 was 3,751. Government data pages
Treaty of Breda (1667)
The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July, 1667, by England, the United Provinces and Denmark–Norway. It brought a hasty end to the Second Anglo-Dutch War in favour of the Dutch, as Louis XIV's forces began invading the Spanish Netherlands as part of the War of Devolution, but left many territorial disputes unresolved, it was thus a typical quick uti possidetis treaty. In the latter stages of the war, the Dutch had prevailed. Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter controlled the seas around the south coast of England, following his successful Raid on the Medway, his presence encouraged English commissioners to sue for peace quickly. Negotiations, long protracted, had begun in Breda before the raid, took only ten days to conclude after resumption of talks. During the negotiations, the English commissioners offered to return New Netherland in exchange for their sugar factories on the coast of Surinam, taken by Abraham Crijnssen earlier in 1667; the Dutch side declined. In the East Indies, the Dutch secured a worldwide monopoly on nutmeg by forcing England to give up their claim on Run, the most remote of the Banda Islands.
The Act of Navigation was moderated in that the Dutch were now allowed to ship German goods, if imported over the Rhine, to England. As communications were slow, special dates were established for the different parts of the world, on which legal hostilities would end: 5 September for the English Channel and the North Sea, 5 October for the other European seas, 2 November for the African coast north of the equator and 24 April 1668 for the rest of the world. In North America, Acadia was returned to France, without specifying what territories were involved on the ground. Thomas Temple, the proprietor, residing in Boston, had been given a charter by Cromwell, ignored in the Treaty, the actual handing off was delayed at the site until 1670. In addition, the conquest of New Netherland by the English was confirmed on 21 July 1667, producing the Colonies of New York, New Jersey and Delaware. In the Caribbean, the island of Saint Kitts was re-partitioned between French forces; the most complete contemporary account of the war was published first in Dutch in French in 1668 as a Description exacte de tout ce qui s'est passé dans les guerres.
It contains a list of Dutch vessels and goods lost in North America, an account of the 1664 capture of New Amsterdam with the articles of surrender to Governor Richard Nicolls, Michiel de Ruyter's voyage to the West Indies. The Dutch commemorated the Treaty of Breda with a patriotic engraving; the parties agreed to postpone a discussion of the pawnings of Orkney and Shetland until a future occasion. Such a discussion has yet to take place, leading some to argue that this constitutes a legal basis for regarding Orkney and Shetland as direct dependencies of the Scots crown, rather than parts of the UK
Società Italiana Ernesto Breda
Società Italiana Ernesto Breda, more referred to as Breda, was an Italian mechanical manufacturing company founded by Ernesto Breda in Milan in 1886. The firm was founded by Ernesto Breda in Milan in 1886, it manufactured locomotives and other railway machinery, but branched out into armaments and aircraft. Not continuously, the company built trolleybuses. In 1935, it acquired the railway division of Officine Ferroviarie Meridionali and, soon afterwards, the aircraft division of the same company. In 1962, Breda was liquidated in the 1990s; the train and tram manufacturing division fused with Ansaldo to form AnsaldoBreda, the armaments division became an independent entity as Breda Meccanica Bresciana, as did the research division as Istituto Scientifico Breda. A.2 A.4 A.7 A.8 A.9 A.10 A.14 Ba.15 Ba.19 CC.20 Ba.25 Ba.26 Ba.27 Ba.28 Ba.32 Ba.33 Ba.39 Ba.42 Ba.44 Ba.46 Ba.64 Ba.65 Ba.75 Ba.79S Ba.82 Ba.88 Ba.92 Ba.201 Ba.205 BP.471 BZ.308 BZ.309 Tebaldi-Zari South African Class 15CA 4-8-2 SEK class Μα E.330 D.341 D.345 D.443 E.424 E.428 E.636 HŽ series 1061 ETR 200 ETR 240 ETR 300 FNM Class E.750 The production of trolleybuses was a small part of Breda's output, carried out through its subsidiary Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie, was not under way continuously.
Between 1936 and 1940, the company built a total of 28 trolleybuses, most for the Rome system but including six for Genoa. At various times between 1938 and 1956, more trolleybuses were built, but totalling only 16. Production resumed in 1988. All of Breda's customers for trolleybuses were Italian trolleybus systems, but a notable exception was an order of 236 dual-mode buses that Breda built for the Seattle system between 1988 and 1991. Leonardo AnsaldoBreda IMAM Luigi Giugni, Le imprese a partecipazione statale, Jovene, 1972 Pasquale Saraceno, Il sistema delle imprese a partecipazione statale nell'esperienza italiana, Giuffrè, 1975 Bruno Amoroso - Ole Jess Olsen, Lo stato imprenditore, Laterza, 1978 Nico Perrone, Il dissesto programmato. Le partecipazioni statali nel sistema di consenso democristiano, Dedalo, 1991 Nico Perrone and American Patterns in a Conflictive Development, Roskilde Universitetscenter, 1992 La Breda produce, mostra fotografica, dal sito dell’Istituto per la Storia dell’Età Contemporanea La linea del fuoco Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. P. 56. Fondazione Isec - Breda Mostra fotografica online Fondazione Isec - La Breda produce Treccani.it BREDA, Ernesto
The Isère is a river in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France. Its source, a glacier known as the Sources de l'Isère, lies in the Vanoise National Park in the Graian Alps of Savoie, near the ski resort Val d'Isère on the border with Italy. An important left-bank tributary of the Rhône, the Isère merges with it a few kilometers north of Valence. Many riverside communes have incorporated the Isère's name into their own, for example, Sainte-Hélène-sur-Isère and Romans-sur-Isère; the department of Isère is named after the river. The name Isère was first recorded under the form Isara, which means "the impetuous one, the swift one." Not a Celtic word, it was likely assimilated by the Celts in ancient times. This word is related to the Indo-European *isərós, meaning "impetuous, vigorous,", similar to the Sanskrit isiráh with the same definition, it was based on the reconstructed Indo-European root *eis, which incidentally has not been found in the Celtic languages of the British Isles.
The word Isara figures in the etymology of many other river names, from ancient Gaul and its neighboring lands. Examples of this are the Ésera in Spain, the Isar in Germany, the small Franco-Belgian Yser, or the ancient name of the Oise, Isara. In non-Celtic countries, we find the Isarco, a river in Northern Italy, the Éisra and Istrà in Lithuania, the Jizera in the Czech Republic; the Isère's course measures 286 kilometers and runs through a wide variety of landscapes: from its source near the Italian border in the western Alps, it crosses the Pays de Savoie and the Tarentaise Valley, cuts between the Chartreuse and Belledonne mountain ranges, follows the Vercors Massif, passes through the Dauphiné province, meets with the Rhône at the foot of the Vivarais. The upper valley of the Isère is called the Tarentaise, its middle valley the Grésivaudan; the lower valley constitutes a section of the Plain of Valence and is characterized by the river's deep, winding channel. Instead of widening its banks over time, the Isère has dug deeper into its bed, forming stepped fluvial terraces.
The valley has defined borders and is narrow, not exceeding 2 km in breadth. The repetition of alluvial deposition and overdeepening, known as a fluvioglacial system, led to the formation of several stepped terraces in the lower Isère valley, like the one on which Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence is built; this occurred through the massive accumulation of alluvium from the Isère on top of a bed of Miocene molasse. Today, these terraces still define the geography of the Plain of Valence; the Isère merges with one of the Rhône's diversion canals, built for navigational purposes, at Pont-de-l'Isère. At the southern tip of La Roche-de-Glun, the Isère Dam drains part of the water back into the Rhône and permits the Isère to continue its course alone until it passes through the Bourg-lès-Valence Dam and reaches its final junction with the Rhône. Left-bank tributary. Doron de Bozel, 38.7 km Doron de Champagny, 15.9 km Doron des Allues, 20.9 km Doron de Belleville, 28.6 km Arly, 34.5 km Chaise, 24 km Doron de Beaufort, 24.1 km Arc, 127.5 km Drac, 130.3 km Séveraisse, 32.9 km Souloise, 25.6 km Bonne, 40.1 km Ébron, 32.1 km Romanche, 78.4 km Gresse, 34.6 km Vence, 17.2 km Morge, 27.2 km Fure, 25.3 km, via the Morge Canal Bourne, 43.1 km Vernaison, 32 km Herbasse, 40 km Savoie: Val-d'Isère, Bourg-Saint-Maurice, Aime, Moûtiers, Montmélian Isère: Pontcharra, Voreppe Drôme: Romans-sur-Isère, Pont-de-l'Isère, La Roche-de-Glun The length of the Isère is 286 km, its drainage basin covers 11,890 km2.
The vertical profile of the river is made up of several zones: From its sources to Sainte-Foy-Tarentaise, the average slope of the Isère is 5.1%, in a more or less confined valley. As far as Moûtiers, the slope measures 1.18%. Before the river's confluence with the Arly, its slope is only 0.53%. The slope decreases to 0.136% until Grenoble. Downstream from Grenoble, it measures 0.1%. The flow of the Isère was observed over a period of 58 years at Beaumont-Monteux in the Drôme department, situated near the river's confluence with the Rhône; the discharge of the river at Beaumont-Monteux measured 329 cubic meters per second. The Isère's large seasonal fluctuations are typical of rivers fed in large part by snowmelt, with springtime flooding raising the average monthly discharge between 382 and 500 m3/s from April to July, low water levels in autumn and winter, from August to February, with a minimum average monthly discharge of 246 m3/s in September. Speaking, this makes the Isère a plentiful watercourse throughout the year.
However, the VCN3 can drop to 110 m3/s during a five-year dry spell, low. On the other hand, severe flooding can result from torrential autumn rain. In fact, QIX 2 and QIX 5 are 1,500 m3/s, respectively. QIX 10 is 1,700 m3/s. QIX 20
Hitachi Rail Italy
Hitachi Rail Italy S.p. A. is a rail transport engineering company based in Italy whose main products are the design and manufacturing of railway and mass transit vehicles. AnsaldoBreda S.p. A. A subsidiary of Finmeccanica, the company was sold in 2015 to Hitachi Rail along with the 40% share of Ansaldo STS that Finmeccanica owned. After the deal was finalized, the current name was adapted in November 2015 to reflect the new ownership. In 1853, the company Gio. Ansaldo & C. was registered in Genoa as a manufacturer of steam locomotives, rail rolling stock and steam engines. The company was supported by the Minister of Finance, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who aimed to reduce the State of Savoy's dependence on imported trains and rolling stock. Ansaldo entered the age of the steam locomotive in 1854 with its model FS113 known as Sampierdarena. In 1886, Ernesto Breda founded Ing. Ernesto Breda and C. the company which became Società Italiana Ernesto Breda in 1899. In 1908 SIEB's thousandth locomotive was built, a model FS 685 with serial number 600 now preserved in the Leonardo da Vinci Museum of Science and Technology in Milan.
It used. Breda entered the electric locomotive era in 1936 with the production of the FS Class ETR 200 series electric multiple unit. In 1939 this type set the land speed record for rail vehicles at 203 km/h. Although only 18 trains of this type were constructed they remained in service for a long time until they were withdrawn from service in 1993. In 1976 the FS ETR 400 entered service. Fiat Ferroviaria manufactured the body and bogies, whilst Ansaldo produced the power unit, it was the first train in the world featuring active body tilting to enter commercial service and was capable of speeds of up to 250 km/h. AnsaldoBreda was formed in 2001 by the merger of Ansaldo Trasporti and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie, was part of the Finmeccanica group, it has production sites at four locations in Italy: Naples, Reggio Calabria and Pistoia. The TREVI Consortium, of which Ansaldo and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie were members, introduced the high speed FS ETR 500 series in 1989. AnsaldoBreda won the contract for 82 new IC4 trains for the Danish national operator DSB.
However, the introduction of the units was plagued by problems, whilst the trains were scheduled to come into service in 2003, the final unit was delivered in 2013. Following more train failures, DSB announced the fleet would be phased out from 2024; the first high-speed trains to run on Turkish rails were two ETR 500 train sets leased from Trenitalia of Italy and were used for testing the completed part of the high-speed railway network between Eskişehir and Ankara on April 23, 2007. During the tests, ETR 500 Y2 achieved the current rail speed record in Turkey; the train was capable of exceeding 300 km/h. It reached 362 km/h in the Monte Bibele tunnel between Florence and Bologna in 2009, setting a speed record for trains in a tunnel. Another high speed train Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train was developed in a consortium with Bombardier Transportation; the first ETR1000 was christened Mennea in honour of the Italian athlete Pietro Mennea who had died five days earlier. Besides the construction of locomotives, AnsaldoBreda manufactures railway cars and trains for commuter rail, high-speed rail, main lines.
Finmeccanica and Hitachi announced on 2 November 2015 the'closing of transactions' covering the acquisition by Hitachi of AnsaldoBreda and Finmeccanica’s 40% stake in Ansaldo STS. Under the agreements signed on 24 February 2015, following a dividend distribution announced on 6 March, the purchase price for Finmeccanica’s stake in Ansaldo STS has been set at €9.50 per share, amounting to a total of €761m. The total net consideration to be paid for AnsaldoBreda as a going concern, including property assets, amounts to around €30m; as a part of the deal Finmeccanica would keep the responsibility for some residual contracts. On 2 November 2015 AnsaldoBreda was changed its name to Hitachi Rail Italy. Since acquired by Hitachi, production of some British Rail Class 802 has been shifted to Hitachi Rail Italy's Pistoia plant due to Hitachi Rail's Newton Aycliffe, England plant being at capacity. Elettrotreno ETR 200 for Fortaleza Metro running in the Linha Sul AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Copenhagen Metro.
Diesel multiple unit IC4 for DSB AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Athens Tram. high-speed ETR 500 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. High-speed Frecciarossa 1000 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. Locomotive E.402 locomotive E.403 multiple unit Treno Servizio Regionale for LeNORD. Multiple unit Treno ad alta frequentazione for Ferrovie Nord Milano. Multiple unit Caravaggio for Trenitalia and FNM. three-car articulated units ETR 211 Metrostar for Circumvesuviana. The Circumvesuviana operate a fleet of twenty-six "Metrostar". Meneghino for Milan Metro. Leonardo for Milan Metro. AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Milan Metro and Brescia Metro. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Tramvie Elettriche Bergamasche of Bergamo. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Rete tranviaria di Firenze of Florence. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Naples tramway network of Naples and for Sassari metro-tramway. Multiple unit TAF Z2M for ONCF; the ONCF operates a fleet of 24 trains. Electric multiple unit NSB Class 72 for Norwegian State Railways.
The NSB operates a fleet of 36 trains. Multiple unit SL95 for Oslo Tramway. Sporveien Trikken operates a fleet of articulated trams. Over the years, AnsaldoBreda has updated the equipment to meet the requirements and demands of the operator in Norway. Multiple unit AnsaldoBreda series S7000 operates on the Line 10 Madrid Metro; the Madrid Metro operates a fleet of 37 trains
SS Breda was a Dutch cargo-passenger ship sunk in Scotland during World War II. The ship was built at the Nieuwe Waterweg Scheepsbouwmaatschappij yard at Schiedam for the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij. Laid down on 16 December 1919, she was not launched until 2 July 1921, completed on 10 December 1921; the 6,941 GRT ship was 122.69 metres long, 17.78 metres wide, was powered by two Metropolitan-Vickers steam turbine engines, giving her a top speed of 15 knots. She had five cargo holds, could accommodate up to 87 passengers. After the invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 the Breda fled to Britain, where she was placed under the control of the P&O Line, armed with a single 4.7-inch gun. On 23 December 1940 she was laying off Oban, part of a convoy being assembled, bound for Bombay, she carried a mixed general cargo that included 3,000 tons of cement, 175 tons of tobacco and cigarettes, three Hawker and 30 de Havilland Tiger Moth biplanes, Army lorries, NAAFI crockery, copper ingots, rubber-soled sandals, banknote paper, 10 horses and nine dogs.
At dusk a group of Heinkel He 111 bombers flying from Stavanger, swept across the anchorage, straddled the Breda with four 250-kilogram bombs. The force of the explosions ruptured a water inlet pipe, the engine room was flooded, depriving the ship of power, she was taken under tow, beached in shallow water in Ardmucknish Bay. The next day, only a small part of her cargo had been offloaded before a storm swept her into deeper water where she sank to a mean depth of 26 metres at position 56°28′32″N 5°25′04″W; the ship has since become a popular dive site, marked by buoys. List of shipwrecks Recreational diving Shipwrecks
Congress of Breda
The Congress of Breda also known as the Breda peace talks were a series of negotiations between representatives of Great Britain and France in the Dutch city of Breda that took place between 1746 and 1748. They were designed to bring an end to the Austrian War of Succession and laid the foundations for the ultimate peace settlement at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, they were not official peace talks and lacked the participation of the other warring European states. The War of the Austrian Succession had been raging since 1740 in one form or another, but Britain and France formally went to war with each other only in 1744. There was a strong antiwar faction in Britain, which grew in strength after a number of military setbacks. France had those who advocated peace because the war was draining French resources and money. Talks were arranged and agreed to be held by representatives of the two states in the Dutch Republic, which was, in practice, allied to Britain but neutral; the British were represented by the French by the Marquis de Puisieulx.
Sandwich and the British delegation set up their headquarters in the pavilion of Breda Castle, lent to them by their ally, William IV, Prince of Orange for the duration of the talks. Their instructions from the Duke of Newcastle were to prolong the talks until a significant British victory on the battlefield allowed them to negotiate from a position of strength. Although the French entered the talks following a string of victories, they had been beset by a financial crisis and wanted to bring the war to a swift conclusion; the discussions convened in August 1746. They started to flounder, as it became apparent to both sides that the other was holding something back. France wanted to negotiate a treaty there and on behalf of their respective coalitions, but the British insisted that any settlement had to involve all parties; the British rejected a French proposal to declare the Low Countries as "neutral territory" ending the war there because they believed they would need the Dutch as allies in future conflicts.
Unsatisfied by his performance, the French had replaced him. Sandwich stalled the talks for some time by demanding his replacement to prove his accreditation. There were further delays when a Spanish delegate turned up, claiming to have authority to represent the King of Spain; the British were aware of the French negotiating strategy, as letters to the French delegates were intercepted and copied by postmasters in British pay. While there, Sandwich was appointed British Ambassador to the Dutch Republic, he was instrumental in a coup, which helped the Prince of Orange take power in the Netherlands, a move designed to boost the anti-French coalition in Flanders. Still, by 1747, the Allied war situation had grown more grave following defeats at Lauffeld and Bergen op Zoom, the British were forced to take the talks more seriously. An offer was made to exchange Madras captured by the French for Louisbourg, captured by the British in 1745, providing a basis for further talks and agreements on the European state of affairs.
France would withdraw from the Low Countries, Prussian control over Silesia would be recognised. Despite their earlier insistence that any peace agreement must be drawn up between all parties, the British began to move towards agreeing the terms with France and presenting them to the other states to agree. To do so, a fresh congress at Aix-la-Chapelle was arranged, where all warring states would participate, to offer formal approval to the agreement between Britain and France; the peace was formally concluded with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 in which all parties participated although the terms had been agreed in advance by Britain and France at Breda. The terms proved unsatisfactory to Maria Theresa of Austria, outraged that Austria had lost Silesia and that the British had agreed so at Breda, without any Austrians being present. In the long run, that contributed to the breakdown of the Anglo-Austrian Alliance. Sandwich was rewarded for his role at the Congress by being made First Lord of the Admiralty, a post in the British cabinet.
Newcastle and he were attacked by the Opposition for giving up Louisbourg, Britain's only significant gain in the war, to France. In France, there was enormous disquiet about how France's advantageous position on the European continent had been given up. A phrase "as stupid as the peace" became popular, in France, to express contempt for the terms agreed at Breda and Aix-la-Chapelle. Baker-Smith Royal Discord: The Family of George III. Athena Press, 2008. Lodge, Sir Richard. Studies in Eighteenth Century Diplomacy 1740-1748. John Murray, 1930. McLynn, Frank. 1759: The Year Britain Became Master of the World. Pimlico, 2005. Rodger, N. A. M; the Insatiable Earl: A Life of John Montagu, Fourth Earl of Sandwich, 1718-1792. Harper Collins, 1993. Simms, Brendan. Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire. Penguin Books, 2008