The Breeders' Cup World Championships is an annual series of Grade I Thoroughbred horse races, operated by Breeders' Cup Limited, a company formed in 1982. From its inception in 1984 through 2006, it was a single-day event. All sites have been in the United States, except in 1996, when the races were at the Woodbine Racetrack in Canada; the attendance at the Breeders' Cup varies, depending on the capacity of the host track. Santa Anita Park set the highest two-day attendance figure of 118,484 in 2016; the lowest two-day attendance was 69,584 in 2007 at Monmouth Park. The attendance only trails the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes and the Kentucky Oaks. With the addition of three races for 2008, a total of $25.5 million was awarded over the two days, up from $23 million in 2007. With the subsequent removal of two races, the purses for the remaining thirteen races totaled $24.5 million in 2014, plus awards for foal and stallion nominators. Prior to the 2016 running, the total purses were raised from $26 million to $28 million.
The purse of the Classic was raised from $5 million to $6 million, the purse of the Longines Turf was increased from $3 million to $4 million. In 2018, total prizes and awards were increased to over $30 million after another race, the Juvenile Turf Sprint, was added and the purse for the Sprint was increased to $2 million; each Breeders' Cup race presents four Breeders' Cup trophies to the connections of the winner and a garland of flowers draped over the withers of the winning horse. Many Breeders' Cup winners will go on to win the Eclipse Award in their respective division. For example, of the eleven flat racehorse categories, seven of the Eclipse winners in 2015 had won a Breeders' Cup race, while three others were in the money. In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, three Breeders' Cup races are ranked among the top Grade 1 races in the world: the Classic, the Turf and the Mile; the Distaff is ranked second among the top Grade 1 races for mares. The event was created as a year-end championship for North American Thoroughbred racing, attracts top horses from other parts of the world Europe.
The idea for the Breeders' Cup was proposed at the 1982 awards luncheon for the Kentucky Derby Festival by pet food heir John R. Gaines, a leading Thoroughbred owner and breeder who wanted to clean up the sport's image; the Cup was faced with much skepticism in the racing community, however with the vocal support of legendary trainer John Nerud and others, the Breeders' Cup was carried out, subsequently experienced tremendous popularity domestically and abroad. The prize money is supported by nomination fees paid by breeders for stallions and the resultant foals. In North America, participating stud farms pay an annual nomination fee for a given stallions, equal to the stallion's advertised stud fee, plus an additional amount if the stallion has more than 50 foals in a given year; the cost to nominate a European stallion is 50% of their stud fee, while the nomination fee for a South American stallion is 25% of their stud fee. In North America, the breeders of the resultant foals must pay a one-time nomination fee by October 15 of the year of birth.
The races are operated by Breeders' Cup Limited, a company formed in 1982. The first event was in 1984. From its inception in 1984 through 2006, it was a single-day event. All sites have been in the United States, except in 1996, when the races were at the Woodbine Racetrack in Canada. In 2006 Greg Avioli began serving as interim President and CEO of the Breeders' Cup, he became the official CEO in April 2007. "This is an exciting time for the Breeders' Cup," said Avioli. "We will continue to focus on growing the international market for our championships, creating a successful two-day event and promoting the Breeders' Cup brand with both our television and sponsorship partners." In 2007, the event was expanded from one to two days and in 2008, the first day was devoted to female horses and the overall purse increased to over $25 million, making it what the New York Post called "the richest turf festival in the world." Before the Breeders' Cup expanded to two days, it was considered to be the richest day in sports.
Beginning in 2008, the second day of the Breeders' Cup became the second-richest. In 2008, a total of $17 million was awarded on that day, down from $20 million in 2007; the richest single day in sports is now Dubai World Cup Night. It features six races with a combined purse of $21 million in 2008. In 2008, the Breeders' Cup Marathon was added but was dropped in April 2014. 2008 marked the first time most of the races were run on an artificial surface, instead of the traditional dirt. On August 11, 2009 the Breeders' Cup announced that it would use the standard colored saddle towel system starting with the 2009 event; the new color-coded system replaces the standard purple saddle towels, used since 1985. The first Breeders' Cup in 1984 used yellow saddle towels. On October 22, 2009, the Breeders' Cup announced it had signed simulcasting and licensing agreements with Betfair, a company which in turn had purchased the horse-racing network TVG in January of that year; the agreement brought in Betfair's customer base of over 2.5 million, many of whom had legal access to common-pool betting.
Betfair handled common-pool wagering at the organization's November 2
Bombay Before the British was a three-year research project in the fields of History of Architecture and History of Urbanism, funded by the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Higher Education through its Science and Technology Foundation. The funding for the project began in September 2004 and ended in December 2007, when a final report was submitted containing the project's main conclusions; this report received the highest mark by FCT's evaluating panel. Both senior investigators of the "BBB", Dr. Walter Rossa and Dr. Paulo Varela Gomes and are professors at the Architecture Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra; the project's main object of study was the territory of Greater Mumbai and its surrounding hinterland during the time of Portuguese colonial rule. In 1997, Dr. Walter Rossa's book "Indo-portuguese Cities" was published by the Portuguese Discoveries Celebrations Committee; the following year, Dr. Rossa coordinated the topographical survey of the ruins of the Baçaim.
During this period, Dr. Paulo Varela Gomes was the delegate of the Oriente Foundation's branch in India. In 2000, both of them travelled to the area of Greater Mumbai, together with the second-year students of the Department of Architecture, University of Coimbra, visiting many of the historical sites pertaining to the territory's Indo-Portuguese layer; the research possibilities developed during this trip and the recent scholarly activity of both Rossa and Gomes led up to the proposal for a three-year scientific research project - the "BBB" The Portuguese presence in the Baçaim District of the Northern Province between 1534 and 1739 - which included the present day region of Greater Mumbai - has left considerable traces on the present-day territory. These include not only ruins of military and religious structures but structures founded by the Portuguese and modified or rebuilt by other administrations or communities. Most of the Churches that cater to the Catholic population of Greater Mumbai today - the East Indians - were founded by Portuguese missionaries.
Significant information exists within sixteenth and seventeenth century Portuguese sources to prove that Catholic Communities were inexistent in the Northern Province area at the time of Portuguese occupation in 1534. Beside the network of forts and churches, the Portuguese Northern Province presented a network of villages that developed under colonial rule. Most of these villages were leased to Indo-Portuguese landed gentry. In Salsette Island, this network of villages was still in place during the first decades of the 20th century and would become the most important territorial matrix for the development of Suburban Mumbai. Indeed, the two main railway lines built during the 19th century in Salsette followed a pre-existing road pattern that crossed many East-Indian villages, with their distinct landscape and churches, it was only during the 1960s and 1970s that Mumbai's exponential growth submerged and, in many cases, erased this network of villages. A few survive along the northwestern coast of Salsette Island, with their unique East Indian communities and traditions.
The BBB's methodology included two main tasks: data gathering. Data gathered during the project's timeline included various documents from libraries and archives in Portugal and the United Kingdom and material gathered first-hand directly at the sites, through the project's field missions; this data was stored in a Database and connected to a GIS interactive map. The GIS map used satellite imagery acquired through the European Space Agency. Over the layer of satellite imagery was added a number of layers of vectorial information, using the symbology of present-day cartography; the GIS map's interface allowed for each symbol to be connected to a number of documents stored in the Database. This methodology allowed the team to confirm the matricial importance on the East-Indian village network upon the suburban growth of Greater Mumbai all along the 20th century, among other things The original BBB team consisted of: Dr. Walter Rossa, Architecture Department, University of Coimbra. Tapping into the considerable amount of resources and new lines of research created by the ongoing "BBB", two PhD dissertations and one Master dissertation were started by the following team members: André Teixeira, Baçaim e o seu território: administração, economia e sociedade, séculos XVI a XVIII, tese de doutoramento em História, especialidade de História dos Descobrimentos
Ryan Rauschenberger is the current Tax Commissioner of North Dakota, the 24th person to serve in that role. Governor Jack Dalrymple appointed Rauschenberger, the son of Dalrymple's Chief of Staff Ron Rauschenberger, to the role in 2013 after the resignation of Cory Fong. While drinking on the afternoon of September 3, 2014, Rauschenberger lent his vehicle to his friend Jesse Larson, intoxicated. While driving Rauschenberger's vehicle, Larson rolled the vehicle. Police cited Larson for driving under the influence and reckless driving and had him taken to an emergency room for minor injuries. After the accident, Rauschenberger explained that he had been undergoing treatment for an alcohol addiction and that he met Larson while the two were undergoing inpatient treatment at a local drug and alcohol treatment center. Two days after the accident, Rauschenberger announced he was taking a leave of absence from his duties as Tax Commissioner and his reelection campaign to dedicate himself to his alcoholism treatment.
His official duties were given to Deputy Tax Commissioner Joe Morrissette, his reelection campaign continued without the candidate until his return. Rauschenberger was reelected that November. On September 30, 2017, a little more than three years after the previous incident, Rauschenberger was arrested and charged with driving under the influence of intoxicating liquors. According to police, Rauschenberger's blood alcohol content was.206, more than two and a half times North Dakota's legal limit
Manuel Antonio Matos Páez Tinoco was a Venezuelan politician, military leader and diplomat. Matos held a great political and economic influence on the country, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, having an extraordinary prestige and power in the banking and business fields. In addition to having various investments and influence over foreign and transnational companies operating in Venezuela, held a variety of positions in banking and disposing of what is estimated to be the greatest fortune in the history of Venezuela and of Latin America. A major figure of the political current denominated Liberalismo Amarillo, he served 3 times as Ministry of Finance, besides being the most powerful promoter of mixed and public banking institutions, conformed to become the arms of investment and financial management of the Treasury of the Republic and the Venezuelan private sector, such as The Caracas Credit Corporation, The Caracas Credit Company, The First Bank of Caracas, The Second Bank of Caracas, The Third Bank of Caracas and The Bank of Venezuela, all financial entities of a core nature for the country that were driven and directed by Matos.
He was the leader of the Revolución Libertadora, a major military movement that took place between 1901 and 1903, with the intention to overthrow Cipriano Castro's government. Major disagreements between Castro and the economic elite evolved into an open war that shook the country and brought the government to the brink of collapse, but after the revolution's defeat suffered in the Siege of La Victoria, the vast network of armies and its extraordinary power was weakened, being a wound that could not be recovered, succumbing in 1903 in the battle of Ciudad Bolivar, with which Matos decides to leave Venezuela, establishing itself in Paris. However, its power and political pre-eminence re-emerge with the arrival of the dictatorship of Juan Vicente Gómez, under whose government he serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs, taking on the responsibility of organizing the "Centennial of the Independence of Venezuela" in 1911 and directing a strong diplomatic attempt to consolidate relations between Venezuela and the United States, receiving an official visit to the Secretary of State of the United States, Philander C.
Knox, with whom he signs numerous bilateral agreements and treaties within the framework of the so-called Dollar Diplomacy sponsored by the President William Howard Taft. After his departure from the presidential cabinet in 1913, Matos continues to dedicate himself to the formation of a solid banking and financial structure for Venezuela, retiring from public life in 1920 and settling in Paris, where he died 9 years later. Http://www.efemeridesvenezolanas.com/html/revolucion.htm http://www.rena.edu.ve/cuartaEtapa/historia/tema2.html http://www.comdinero.com/articulistas/827/manuel-antonio-matos-y-el-poder-de-un-banquero-hasta-chavez/
Thomas Wignell was an English-born actor and theatre manager in the colonial United States. Thomas Wignell was born into a working theatre family, he was born in England to his parents John and Henrietta Wignell in 1753. His father John Wignell worked at The Covent Garden Theatre, his first appearance was at The Covent Garden in 1766. He was apprenticed as a seal cutter but left to become an actor. While acting in England, he was a member of Garrick's Company. Right before the Revolutionary War he came to North America in 1774 with his cousin Lewis Hallam. Wignell and the Hallam Company left for Jamaica Where they stayed until 1785. After performing in The Convent Garden and later in Jamaica he returned newly independent America, he worked with the Old American Company at the John Street Theatre in New York City, New York. He traveled with them often, but debatably the most important point of his career happened in 16 April 1787 in New York. It was the opening of the play The Contrast by Royall Tyler.
The Contrast was a five-act comedy of manners. The play was the first play to be written by an American citizen and professionally produced. One of the reasons for the plays success was because of Thomas Wignell in the role of Johnathan, the first stage yankee; the stage yankee became the first American stock character. He had American pride, twangy speech, terrible sense of fashion, was ignorant to a lot of things the other characters in the play found important. There is a scene in the play, famous for Johnathan describing the John Street Theatre, the theater that the play was being performed in at that time. Wignell had other roles. President George Washington came to see The Poor Soldier in May 1787. William Dunlap, the most prolific writer of his time, wrote a short comic sketch entitled "Darby's Return" for Wignell to perform for his benefit performance. With Wignell in the title role, this sketch was a spin-off of O'Keefe's The Poor Soldier. After separating from the American Company in 1793, Wignell teamed up with Alexander Reinagle and began to fund the building of a new theatre.
Reinagle, a prominent musician at the time, started a fund-raising campaign to build this first class theatre located west of sixth and Chestnut Street to be named The Chestnut Theatre. The founding of the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia created opportunities for many new plays to take off. Philadelphia became a capital for American theatre for many years; the Chestnut Street Theatre became Philadelphia's main playhouse and the first American theatre to be lit by gas. In the early 19th century, this theatre was where "many of the most important American plays…received their world premieres". Which under Wignell's and Reinalge's management, Philadelphia became the reigning theatrical capital in the United States for at least a decade, and with the help of Wignell, the Chestnut Street Theatre, the city of Philadelphia would remain in competition with New York until at least 1826. In Wignell's years he stopped acting and devoted his time to managing a number of different theatres. While back in London, Wignell married the popular female actress Ann Brunton Merry, popular at the Covent Garden, until she came to Philadelphia with Wignell.
His marriage was short lived because Wignell died about seven weeks after the marriage due to an infected arm. The city of Philadelphia gave him an excellent burial at the Episcopal Church of St. Peter. Hughes, Glenn. A History of the American Theatre: 1700-1950. New York, NY: French, 1951. Print. Quinn, Arthur Hobson. A History of the American Drama, from the Beginning to the Civil War. Second ed. New York: F. S. Crofts, 1943. 76-77,82,134-135+. Print. Witham, Barry. Theatre in the United States: A Documentary History. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. Print
This is a categorized list of notable onion services accessible through the Tor anonymity network. Defunct services are marked. Agora Atlantis AlphaBay Black Market Reloaded Dream Market Evolution The Farmer's Market Hansa Sheep Marketplace Silk Road TheRealDeal Utopia Cryptocat Ricochet Keybase TorChat Mailpile Bitmessage.ch ProtonMail Riseup Tor Mail SIGAINT Free Haven – A distributed anonymous file storage system that places focus on persistent availability of data. The MIT students' work on the project led to collaboration with DARPA to develop Tor; the Pirate Bay, a BitTorrent tracker Freedom Hosting – Formerly the largest Tor-specific web host, until the arrest of its owner in August 2013. KickassTorrents, a BitTorrent tracker Blockchain.info, a popular bitcoin blockchain explorer service. Helix. National Police and Public Prosecution Service of the Netherlands — official hidden service about darknet market takedown operations. Central Intelligence Agency The Hidden Wiki 22.214.171.124 Archive.is BBC News BuggedPlanet The New York Times Deutsche Welle Wikipedia DeepDotWeb Doxbin Tails OS - Live, amnesiac operating system Debian Qubes OS – security-focused desktop operating system Whonix – Debian-based security distribution GlobaLeaks Independent Media Center The Intercept Filtrala, a Spanish whistleblowing initiative operated by Associated Whistleblowing Press Ljost, an Icelandic whistleblowing initiative operated by Associated Whistleblowing Press NawaatLeaks, an Arabic whistleblowing initiative operated by Nawaat ProPublica WildLeaks, a wildlife-crime whistleblowing initiative operated by Elephant Action League WikiLeaks Courage Foundation Freedom of the Press Foundation Front Line Defenders La Quadrature du Net Telecomix Pornhub Lolita City Playpen Childs Play Ahmia, hidden service for search BTDigg Cliqz DuckDuckGo MetaGer Sci-Hub, search engine which bypasses paywalls to provide free access to scientific and academic research papers and articles Searx The Pirate Bay Grams 8chan – an imageboard facebookcorewwwi.onion – Facebook The Hub The Daily Stormer - Neo-Nazi website Darkode Dread HackBB Tor Carding Forum Russian Anonymous Marketplace Google Feud Darknet SecureDrop, a secure communications platform for use between journalists and sources.
The first implementation was The New Yorker's Strongbox website. Tor2web, clearnet to hidden service software Guide to Tor hidden services and elements of the Tor network at Wikibooks Media related to Tor hidden services at Wikimedia Commons Real-World Onion Sites on GitHub