Tiznow is an American Thoroughbred racehorse best known for his wins in the Breeders' Cup Classic in 2000 and 2001, becoming the only horse to win this race twice. He was the 2000 American Horse of the Year and was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2009. Tiznow is a bay horse with four white socks. A California bred, he was sired by Cee's Tizzy out of the Seattle Song mare Cee's Song. A full brother, finished second in the 1999 Breeders' Cup Classic. Tiznow's unraced full sister Tizamazing produced 2013 Preakness Stakes winner Oxbow, by the stallion Awesome Again. Tiznow was ridden by Chris McCarron in his major races, he was owned by his breeder, Cecilia Straub-Rubens, Michael L. Cooper; when Straub-Rubens died shortly after the 2000 Breeders' Cup Classic, Tiznow's ownership was changed to Cee's Stable. At maturity, he reached 16.3 hands high. His frame is rather angular but his conformation is correct. Tiznow is known as a quirky horse. Towards the end of his career, he was sometimes reluctant to work in the mornings, including one occasion before the 2001 Breeders' Cup where he spent 40 minutes resisting jockey Chris McCarron's urging to break into a gallop.
In the WinStar stallion barn, Tiznow learned how to unlatch his door to let himself out into the main hall. He does not like the feel of concrete on his feet and will adjust his steps so he doesn’t have to walk over it. Tiznow does not like cold weather and is kept inside if the temperature goes below freezing. "He's a California horse all the way," said Amy Nave, a bloodstock assistant at WinStar. "I think in a way it shows how intelligent he is." Tiznow missed his two year old season due to a leg fracture. At three, it took him three tries to break his maiden winning for the first time on May 31, 2000 by 8 1⁄2 lengths. In his next start, the Affirmed Handicap on July 1, he defeated grade 1 winner Dixie Union by a neck, displaying what would become his trademark quality, gameness. In his next start, the Swaps Stakes on July 23, Tiznow finished second behind Captain Steve after a troubled trip. In the Pacific Classic, Tiznow faced older horses for the first time and finished second when Skimming got an early lead and kicked clear of the field.
This was the first time he was ridden by McCarron, who learned that Tiznow disliked the whip and adjusted tactics accordingly. Said McCarron, "From that point on, that's the way. I didn’t hit him a whole lot. I just tried to encourage him to run by chirping to him and moving my hands and if I felt it was necessary, to show him the stick and tap."For his next race, Tiznow shipped to Louisiana for the $500,000 Super Derby a Grade 1 race. He won in wire to wire fashion by six lengths under a hand ride, breaking the course record for 1 1⁄8 miles in the process. Returning to California for the Goodwood Breeders' Cup Handicap, Tiznow grabbed the early lead and withstood a challenge down the stretch from Captain Steve to win by 1⁄2 length, his final start of 2000 was in the Breeders' Cup Classic, held that year at Churchill Downs. Tiznow had to be supplemented to the field at a cost of $360,000; the field included Irish champion Giant's Causeway, Kentucky Derby winner Fusaichi Pegasus, Belmont Stakes winner Lemon Drop Kid and Jockey Club Gold Cup winner Albert the Great.
Tiznow and Albert the Great went to the early lead. As they entered the stretch, Albert the Great started to give way, but Giant's Causeway was closing fast on the outside. Giant's Causeway got but Tiznow rallied gamely to win by a neck; the race was voted the NTRA Moment of the Year. Days after the Breeders' Cup, Straub-Reubens died. In January 2001, Tiznow received Eclipse Awards for 2000 Horse of the Year and champion three-year-old, he was the first California-bred to receive these honors since Swaps in 1956. Tiznow started his 4-year-old campaign by winning the San Fernando Breeders' Cup Stakes finishing second to Wooden Phone in the Strub Stakes; as high weight in the Santa Anita Handicap, Tiznow dueled with Wooden Phone for a mile before drawing away to win by 5 lengths. Tiznow missed a good portion of the year due to back problems, came into the Classic off defeats in the Woodward Stakes and the Goodwood Handicap; the 2001 Breeders' Cup was held in October at Belmont Park, just twelve miles away from Ground Zero and under heavy security.
The field for the Classic included European superstars Galileo, winner of the Epsom and Irish Derbies, Sakhee, winner of the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, both trying dirt for the first time. The American contingent was led by Aptitude, winner of three straight races including the Jockey Club Gold Cup. Tiznow was the fourth betting choice in a field of thirteen, he made his move on the turn where he swung five wide. He dueled with Albert the Great but could not get by, both were overtaken mid-stretch by Sakhee. McCarron hit Tiznow once left-handed and the colt responded with a final lunge, winning by a nose over Sakhee, with Albert the Great two lengths back in third. Track announcer Tom Durkin called, "Tiznow wins it for America!" The race was again voted the NTRA Moment of the Year. Tiznow is the only racehorse to date to have won the Breeders' Cup Classic twice, he was inducted into racing's Hall of Fame in 2009. Retired to stud at WinStar Farm, Tiznow was considered an uncertain stallion prospect due to his modest California breeding.
His pedigree is unusual for a great horse.
Mine That Bird
Mine That Bird is an American Thoroughbred racehorse who had a racing career in both Canada and the United States from 2008 to 2010. He is best known for pulling off a monumental upset, at 50-to-1 odds, by winning the Kentucky Derby in 2009, he became one of only nine geldings to win the Kentucky Derby and the second gelding to win the race since 1929. He continued to have success in the two remaining races of the American Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing by finishing second in the 2009 Preakness Stakes and third in the 2009 Belmont Stakes. On November 6, 2010, Mine That Bird was retired from racing after being winless in nine starts following the Kentucky Derby, he amassed $2,228,637 in earnings and won five of eighteen starts during his three-year racing career. Mine That Bird was born in Kentucky, his sire is Birdstone, his dam is Mining My Own. He is related to Northern Dancer from both of his parents and is related to Native Dancer and Mr. Prospector on his dam's side. Canadian trainer David Cotey purchased Mine That Bird for $9,500 from the 2007 Fasig-Tipton Kentucky October Yearling Sale.
He and his partners raced the gelding at Woodbine Racetrack in Toronto, where he won four of six starts and was voted the 2008 Canadian Champion 2-yr-old Male Horse. Cotey nominated the horse for the Kentucky Derby. Chantal Sutherland rode him to victory in the Swynford Stakes. After she and the horse won the Grey Stakes on October 11, 2008, the partnership accepted a $400,000 offer from the New Mexico partnership of Double Eagle Ranch and Buena Suerte Equine, his new owners turned the gelding over to U. S. Racing Hall of Fame trainer Richard Mandella. In the 2008 Breeders' Cup Juvenile, Mine That Bird finished last of the twelve starters. Racing in the United States at age three for new trainer Chip Woolley, in his 2009 debut on February 28, Mine That Bird finished second in the Borderland Derby, on March 29 had a fourth-place finish in the Sunland Derby. Based on his career earnings in graded stakes races, he qualified as one of the twenty Kentucky Derby starters. Woolley, who had a broken foot at the time and was in a cast, loaded Mine That Bird into a horse trailer attached to his pickup truck and drove over 1,200 miles over 21 hours from New Mexico to get to the race.
Following overnight rain, the Churchill Downs natural dirt track was rated as "sloppy" for the 2009 Kentucky Derby. Ridden by Calvin Borel, Mine That Bird had trouble out of the starting gate and was left about eight lengths behind the rest of the field. By the time the pack of horses was running down the backstretch, Mine That Bird was so far back that NBC's announcer Tom Durkin at first missed seeing him. Calvin Borel, using the ground-saving, rail-skimming riding technique that won him the 2007 Derby with Street Sense, charged past horses along the backstretch and at the turn for home moved into contention. Borel kept Mine That Bird on the rail, leaving it to go around just one tiring horse before ducking back onto the rail, where he exploded past Pioneerof the Nile and Musket Man so fast on the inside that Durkin, focused on the other two horses, did not see "Bird" come through until he was three lengths in the lead. Mine That Bird pulled away to win by 63⁄4 lengths for the longest margin of victory in over 60 years.
He ran the Derby's mile-and-a-quarter distance in 2 minutes 2.66 seconds. A two-dollar win wager returned $103.20, making Mine That Bird the second-biggest upset winner in Kentucky Derby history, behind 91-1 longshot Donerail in 1913. Mine That Bird had the third longest odds in the 19-horse field, with only Atomic Rain and Join in the Dance being higher; the day after his Derby win, Mine That Bird's connections were uncertain if they would come back two weeks and try for the Preakness Stakes. They planned to assess the horse's condition first. Co-owner Mark Allen said, "The plan was that if he showed something here, to skip the Preakness and go to the Belmont, like his dad." His sire Birdstone won the Belmont Stakes in 2004, suggesting that Mine That Bird's breeding is for longer distances. Trainer Chip Woolley was concerned that the Preakness tends to have a quick pace that might not benefit his horse as much as the Belmont, it was announced on May 2009, on ESPN that Mine That Bird would run in the Preakness.
Borel opted to ride the filly Rachel Alexandra, in the Preakness. Rachel Alexandra had won the Kentucky Oaks by 20 lengths with Borel aboard and was the favorite in the Preakness; the mount on Mine That Bird went to Mike Smith. Mine That Bird finished a length behind Rachel Alexandra; as with the Derby, Mine That Bird came from far back in the field on the final turn and was closing but the finish line came before he could catch the filly. Mine That Bird ran in the Belmont Stakes on June 2009, where he was again ridden by Borel. After starting last, he began moving up along the backside. After taking the lead at the top of the stretch, he battled with Dunkirk and Charitable Man down the lane but was beaten by Summer Bird and Dunkirk to finish third. Mine That Bird returned to racing with a 3rd-place finish in the West Virginia Derby on August 1, 2009, he finished 9th in the 2009 Breeders' Cup Classic on November 7, 2009. On February 11, 2010, Mine That Bird was unanimously voted New Mexico Horse of the Year for 2009 by the New Mexico State House of Representatives.
The bill was introduced by state representative Candy Spence Ezzell, who explained that "Dr. Leonard Blach and Mark Allen have brought New Mexico positive worldwide recognition." Dr. Blach, present for the proceedings, received a standing ovation from House members. On May 19
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
The Kentucky Derby is a horse race, held annually in Louisville, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and a quarter miles at Churchill Downs. Colts and geldings fillies 121 pounds; the race is called "The Run for the Roses" on account of the blanket of roses draped over the winner. It is known in the United States as "The Most Exciting Two Minutes In Sports" or "The Fastest Two Minutes in Sports" in reference to its approximate duration, it is the first leg of the American Triple Crown and is followed by the Preakness Stakes the Belmont Stakes. Unlike the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, which took hiatuses in 1891–1893 and 1911–1912 the Kentucky Derby has been run every consecutive year since 1875; the Derby and Belmont all were run every year throughout the Great Depression and both World Wars. A horse must win all three races to win the Triple Crown.
In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, the Kentucky Derby tied with the Whitney Handicap as the top Grade 1 race in the United States outside the Breeders' Cup races. The attendance at the Kentucky Derby ranks first in North America and surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, the Breeders' Cup. In 1872, Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition, traveled to England, visiting Epsom in Surrey where The Derby had been running annually since 1780. From there, Clark went on to Paris, where in 1863, a group of racing enthusiasts had formed the French Jockey Club and had organized the Grand Prix de Paris at Longchamp, which at the time was the greatest race in France. Returning home to Kentucky, Clark organized the Louisville Jockey Club for the purpose of raising money to build quality racing facilities just outside the city; the track would soon become known as Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who provided the land for the racetrack.
The racetrack was incorporated as Churchill Downs in 1937. The Kentucky Derby was first run at 1 1/2 miles the same distance as the Epsom Derby; the distance was changed in 1896 to its current 1 1/4 miles. On May 17, 1875, in front of an estimated crowd of 10,000 people, a field of 15 three-year-old horses contested the first Derby. Under jockey Oliver Lewis, a colt named Aristides, trained by future Hall of Famer Ansel Williamson, won the inaugural Derby; that year, Lewis rode Aristides to a second-place finish in the Belmont Stakes. Although the first race meeting proved a success, the track ran into financial difficulties and in 1894 the New Louisville Jockey Club was incorporated with new capitalization and improved facilities. Despite this, the business floundered until 1902 when Col. Matt Winn of Louisville put together a syndicate of businessmen to acquire the facility. Under Winn, Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses in North America.
Thoroughbred owners began sending their successful Derby horses to compete in the Preakness Stakes at the Pimlico Race Course, in Baltimore, followed by the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, New York. The three races offered large purses and in 1919 Sir Barton became the first horse to win all three races. However, the term Triple Crown didn't come into use for another eleven years. In 1930, when Gallant Fox became the second horse to win all three races, sportswriter Charles Hatton brought the phrase into American usage. Fueled by the media, public interest in the possibility of a "superhorse" that could win the Triple Crown began in the weeks leading up to the Derby. Two years after the term was coined, the race, run in mid-May since inception, was changed to the first Saturday in May to allow for a specific schedule for the Triple Crown races. Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes. Prior to 1931, eleven times the Preakness was run before the Derby.
On May 12, 1917 and again on May 13, 1922, the Preakness and the Derby were run on the same day. On eleven occasions the Belmont Stakes was run before the Preakness Stakes. On May 16, 1925, the first live radio broadcast of the Kentucky Derby was originated by WHAS and was carried by WGN in Chicago. On May 7, 1949, the first television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, produced by WAVE-TV, the NBC affiliate in Louisville; this coverage was aired live in the Louisville market and sent to NBC as a kinescope newsreel recording for national broadcast. On May 3, 1952, the first national television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, aired from then-CBS affiliate WHAS-TV. In 1954, the purse exceeded $100,000 for the first time. In 1968, Dancer's Image became the first horse to win the race and be disqualified after traces of phenylbutazone, an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, were found in the horse's urinalysis. Forward Pass thus became the eighth winner for Calumet Farm. Unexpectedly, the regulations at Kentucky thoroughbred race tracks were changed some years allowing horses to run on phenylbutazone.
In 1970, Diane Crump became the first female jockey to ride in the Derby, finishing 15th aboard Fathom. The fastest time run in the Derby was set in 1973 at 1
Invasor is a Thoroughbred racehorse bred in Argentina by Haras Clausan. The winner of the 2005 Triple Crown in Uruguay, he was purchased by Sheik Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who paid US$1.4 million for the horse. His two biggest wins were the 2006 Breeders' Cup Classic, in which he defeated favored Bernardini and fancied Lava Man, the 2007 Dubai World Cup, the world's richest horse race, he finished racing with a record of eleven wins in twelve starts and career earnings of $7,804,070. He was voted the Eclipse Award for American Horse of the Year and led the year-end World Thoroughbred Racehorse Rankings in 2006. In 2013 he was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, New York. A bay stallion with a small white star, Invasor was foaled in Argentina, sired by the famous Candy Stripes out of Quendom by Interprete. Candy Stripes was the sire of such notable horses as Criollito, Leroidesanimaux, Lundy's Liability, Sweetest Thing, Victory Stripes. Quendom and Invasor's maternal line are at Haras Santa Ines, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Invasor was bought as a two-year-old by Pablo Hernandez and brothers Juan Luis and Luis Alberto Vio Bado, Uruguayans who brought him to their home country. Pablo Hernandez remembers the day he and the two brothers first saw Invasor, their friend, Miguel Ezcurra from Bullrich Auctioneers, took them by car to visit some smaller farms near Buenos Aires. After looking at 80 colts and fillies at several farms, they went to Haras Clausan in Duggan, Province of Buenos Aires and saw Invasor. "It was as if we had been hit with Cupid's arrow," said Hernandez. "We just fell in love with him." Sandro Miserocchi, owner of Haras Clausan, said the horse would cost them $25,000. The three Uruguayans countered with $18,000, they all settled for $20,000. Hernandez said, "We purchased him and exported him to Maronas Racetrack in Uruguay."Quendom, Invasor's mother, the rest of his family are still at Haras Santa Ines. Trained by Anibal San Martin, Invasor was ridden by Gustavo Duarte, one of Uruguay's leading jockeys.
Duarte called Invasor the best horse he's ridden. Invasor broke his maiden in his debut in Maroñas in late February 2005, winning a 5½ furlong maiden race by 6¾ lengths, but fractured his right hind sesamoid and required surgery, he did not race again until August. Invasor won the first leg of the Uruguayan Triple Crown, the one mile Gran Premio Polla de Potrillos run on September 10, by 5¾ lengths under heavy rain on a muddy track. One month on October 9, he won the 2000 m Gran Premio Jockey Club by 3½ lengths, completed the sweep, winning the Gran Premio Nacional by 6½ lengths. In all three races, Potri Flash came second. With this sweep, Invasor became a favorite of the public, a favorite to win Uruguay's most important race, the championship Gran Premio Internacional José Pedro Ramírez, run every January 6 in Maroñas, his total earnings for taking the Triple Crown amounted to $113,866. Invasor was sold after winning the Uruguayan Triple Crown to Sheik Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who paid around US $1,400,000 to have the horse run for Shadwell Stable.
Although one Vio Brado brother was reluctant to sell, the deal was made, Invasor was flown into Florida, southernmost of the contiguous US states, to be trained by Kiaran McLaughlin at the Palm Meadows Thoroughbred Training Center in Florida. There, the horse prepared for the UAE Derby. After training in Florida, Invasor was sent to Dubai to compete in the UAE Derby, running into traffic problems but coming on again to end up only a half length behind the 3rd and 2nd horses, albeit far from the winner, Discreet Cat. Returning to the United States, he returned to the track in May to win the Grade I Pimlico Special by 1¼ lengths over Wanderin Boy, after stalking the leader through most of the race. On July 1, Invasor won the Grade I Suburban Handicap by 4 lengths at Belmont Park. On 6 August, he won his third straight Grade I race, holding off a hard-charging Sun King to win a photo finish in the Whitney Handicap at Saratoga. Invasor was pointed to the Jockey Club Gold Cup but developed a fever a week prior to the race, so his trainer decided to skip it and point him to the Breeders' Cup Classic to be run in November 2006.
Though he was now owned by a sheikh and raced in the United States, Invasor was Uruguay's national hero. In Uruguay, whenever the horse ran, people flocked to their nearest simulcast provider. "There was great anticipation here for the Jockey Club Gold Cup," said Pablo Roig, editor of Uruguay Turf Line. "Here in Montevideo, we follow all his races through the OTB simulcasts, the people are enjoying all his victories." "In Uruguay, soccer is our main sport," said Luis Costa Baleta, a horse owner from a long-time Uruguayan racing family. "Whenever the national team plays, the entire country stops to watch the match. Since Invasor has gone to the United States, every time he runs, all the simulcast halls are crowded with people who come to see him and bet on him, they cheer for him as if Uruguay was playing in the finals of the World Cup. They treat the horse. No one can imagine. He's become a national hero."The racing journalist and writer Miguel Aguirre Bayley wrote: "In my opinion, Invasor excelled because of his refined qualities, his endurance, his outstanding intelligence.
Invasor may well become one of the best racehorses in the history of the American Turf." On November 4, 2006, ridden by Fernando
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
Monmouth Park Racetrack
Monmouth Park Racetrack is an American race track for thoroughbred horse racing in Oceanport, New Jersey, United States. It is owned by the New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority and is operated under a five-year lease as a partnership with Darby Development, LLC. Monmouth Park's marquee event is the Haskell Invitational, named after Amory L. Haskell; the Haskell was first run in 1968 as a handicap, but was made into an Invitational Handicap in 1981. It is now a 1⅛-mile test for three-year-olds run in late July. Monmouth Park now showcases the Jersey Derby run at Garden State Park until its closure in 2001; the original thoroughbred racing track was opened by the Monmouth Park Association on July 30, 1870 in Eatontown, New Jersey. In 1878 it was bought by David D. Withers, George L. Lorillard, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. and George P. Wetmore. From 1882 to 1890, the track increased in popularity, but legislation proposed in 1891 and enacted in 1894 barred parimutuel betting in New Jersey, the track closed its doors.
In May 1894, the Township Committee at Eatontown, New Jersey ordered the seizure and sale of the Monmouth Park Association's grandstand and other property for the payment of back taxes and on May 7 was sold at a public auction. Some of the major races held at the Long Branch track included the Champion Stakes, the Freehold Stakes, the Monmouth Cup; the United States Department of the Army constructed Fort Monmouth on the site of the former racetrack. In 1946, the New Jersey Legislature passed a bill providing for state regulation of horse racing. Spurred on by Amory L. Haskell, who led the legislative charge to once again permit wagering on horse racing in New Jersey and Philip H. Iselin, a New York City textile magnate, along with the backing of Reeve Schley, Joseph M. Roebling, John M. MacDonald, Townsend B. Martin, James Cox Brady, Jr.. Now called the Monmouth Park Jockey Club, it opened on June 19, 1946. Thoroughbred racing was back at the facility after a 53-year hiatus with 18,724 in attendance.
The New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority purchased Monmouth Park from its previous owners, the Monmouth Park Jockey Club, in 1985, in a deal valued at $45 million. The NJSEA still retains the corporate name "Monmouth Park Jockey Club"; the Vans Warped Tour, a touring music and extreme sports festival, was held at the racetrack in 2010 and 2011. It marks the New York stop on the nationwide tour. In 2012, the festival moved to the PNC Bank Arts Center in nearby Holmdel, New Jersey due to financial considerations. In 2011, a five-year lease was signed with Morris Bailey, co-owner of Resorts Casino Hotel in Atlantic City, to provide a marketing partnership between the casino and racetrack; the agreement allowed Resorts to sponsor the Haskell Invitational, possibilities include a merging of loyalty programs as well as bringing entertainers' appearances at the casino to the racetrack. The program is part of a strategy to mesh horse racing with casino gambling. In April 2013, Monmouth Park opened the Bluegrass Miniature Golf Course near the Port-au-Peck Ave. entrance.
The Course features the Haskell Course and the Triple Crown Course. In July 2016, the luxury restaurant Blu Grotto, named after the Blue Grotto sea cave on the Italian island of Capri, opened at Monmouth Park; the restaurant is located near the racetrack's quarter-pole. The Beer Garden at Blu Grotto opened in 2017. On June 14, 2018, the Monmouth Park Sports Book by William Hill sportsbook opened and Monmouth Park became the first location in New Jersey to offer sports betting. Monmouth Park had pushed to legalize sports betting, legalized by the U. S. Supreme Court in the case Murphy v. National Collegiate Athletic Association; the main track is a one-mile dirt oval with 1 1/4 mile races. The turf course is seven furlongs in circumference, with a diagonal chute for races between 1-mile and 1⅛ miles. A re-design of the grass course for the 2006 season brought with it a new, second chute to accommodate 5½ furlong sprint races. Turf races can be run with the portable rail out 12 feet, 24 feet or 36 feet.
The Stable Area, located directly to the north of the back stretch of the main track, contains a total of forty barns and stables, twelve north of the New Jersey Transit's North Jersey Coast Line and twenty eight on the main complex. The Wolf Hill Farm, which served Monmouth Park as a private stable and practice facility, is located adjacent to and west of the main complex. Wolf Hill and operated by the Valentino Family from the nearby City of Long Branch, New Jersey featured barns, stables and a practice track featuring a dirt oval and turf course identical to that at Monmouth Park's main facility only built to 50% scale; the Valentino Family sold Wolf Hill Farm to the Monmouth Park Jockey Club in 1963 which became part of the greater Monmouth Park Complex. It was transferred to state ownership in the 1986 takeover by the NJSEA and was sold to the Monmouth County Park System in 1998 which now operates the site as Wolf Hill Recreation Area that features a 4-acre dog park, an 18-hole disc golf course, a baseball field and two softball fields.
While Wolf Hill ceased operating as a farm following the 1963 sale and trainers continued to use Wolf Hill's practice track well into the 1990s. Remnants of the practice were visible on the site until after the 2009 meet. After the 2009 meet, construction began in the Wolf Hill area, eliminating the last of the practice track. Grade 1: Haskell Invitational Handicap United Nations Stakes Grade 2: Molly Pitcher Stakes Monmouth C