A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. A modern middle-class residential kitchen is equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, worktops and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher, other electric appliances; the main functions of a kitchen are to store and cook food. The room or area may be used for dining and laundry; the design and construction of kitchens is a huge market all over the world. The United States are expected to generate $47,730m in the kitchen furniture industry for 2018 alone. Commercial kitchens are found in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and workplace facilities, army barracks, similar establishments; these kitchens are larger and equipped with bigger and more heavy-duty equipment than a residential kitchen. For example, a large restaurant may have a huge walk-in refrigerator and a large commercial dishwasher machine.
In some instances commercial kitchen equipment such as commercial sinks are used in household settings as it offers ease of use for food preparation and high durability. In developed countries, commercial kitchens are subject to public health laws, they are inspected periodically by public-health officials, forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying running water to private homes. Food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs; the houses in Ancient Greece were of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard for women. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen.
Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room next to a bathroom, both rooms being accessible from the court. In such houses, there was a separate small storage room in the back of the kitchen used for storing food and kitchen utensils. In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities had no kitchen of their own; some had small mobile bronze stoves. Wealthy Romans had well-equipped kitchens. In a Roman villa, the kitchen was integrated into the main building as a separate room, set apart for practical reasons of smoke and sociological reasons of the kitchen being operated by slaves; the fireplace was on the floor, placed at a wall—sometimes raised a little bit—such that one had to kneel to cook. There were no chimneys. Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building; the "kitchen area" was between the fireplace. In wealthy homes there was more than one kitchen. In some homes there were upwards of three kitchens; the kitchens were divided based on the types of food prepared in them.
In place of a chimney, these early buildings had a hole in the roof through which some of the smoke could escape. Besides cooking, the fire served as a source of heat and light to the single-room building. A similar design can be found in the Iroquois longhouses of North America. In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate sunken floor building to keep the main building, which served social and official purposes, free from indoor smoke; the first known stoves in Japan date from about the same time. The earliest findings are from the Kofun period; these stoves, called kamado, were made of clay and mortar. This type of stove remained in use for centuries to come, with only minor modifications. Like in Europe, the wealthier homes had a separate building. A kind of open fire pit fired with charcoal, called irori, remained in use as the secondary stove in most homes until the Edo period. A kamado was used to cook the staple food, for instance rice, while irori served both to cook side dishes and as a heat source.
The kitchen remained unaffected by architectural advances throughout the Middle Ages. European medieval kitchens were dark and sooty places, whence their name "smoke kitchen". In European medieval cities around the 10th to 12th centuries, the kitchen still used an open fire hearth in the middle of the room. In wealthy homes, the ground floor was used as a stable while the kitchen was located on the floor above, like the bedroom and the hall. In castles and monasteries, the living and working areas were separated. In some castles the kitchen was retained in the same structure, but servants were separated from nobles, by constructing separate spiral stone staircases for use of servants to bring food to upper levels; the kitchen might be separate from the great hall due to the smoke from cooking fires and the chance the fires may get out of control. Few medieval kitchens survive as they were "notoriously ephemeral structures". An extant example of such a medieval kitchen with servants
A boudoir is a woman's private sitting room or salon in a furnished accommodation between the dining room and the bedroom, but can refer to a woman's private bedroom. The term derives from the French verb bouder or adjective boudeur —the room was a space for sulking in, or one to put away or withdraw to. A cognate of the English "bower" the boudoir formed part of the private suite of rooms of a "lady" or upper-class woman, for bathing and dressing, adjacent to her bedchamber, being the female equivalent of the male cabinet. In periods, the boudoir was used as a private drawing room, was used for other activities, such as embroidery or spending time with one's romantic partner. English-language usage varies between countries, is now historical. In the United Kingdom, in the period when the term was most used, a boudoir was a lady's evening sitting room, was separate from her morning room, her dressing room; as this multiplicity of rooms with overlapping functions suggests, boudoirs were found only in grand houses.
In the United States, in the same era, boudoir was an alternative term for dressing room, favored by those who felt that French terms conferred more prestige. In Caribbean English, a boudoir is the front room of the house where women entertain family and friends; the term boudoir has come to denote a style of furnishing for the bedroom, traditionally described as ornate or busy. The plethora of links available on the Internet to furnishing sites using the term boudoir tend to focus on Renaissance and French inspired bedroom styles. In recent times, they have been used to describe the'country cottage' style with whitewashed-style walls and heavy bed furniture, deep bedding; the term "boudoir" may be ascribed to a genre of photography. Boudoir photography is not a new concept and numerous examples including images of Clara Bow, Mae West and Jean Harlow photographed in a boudoir style from the 1920s through the 1940s. Shot in a photographer's studio or luxury hotel suites, it has become fashionable to create a set of sensual or sexually suggestive images of women in indoor "boudoir style" environments.
The most common manifestation of contemporary boudoir photography is to take variations of candid and posed photographs of the subject clothed or in lingerie. Nudity is more implied than explicit. Commercially the genre is derived from a market for brides to surprise their future husbands by gifting the images on or before their wedding day. Other motivations or inspiration for boudoir photography shoots include anniversaries, Valentine's Day, weight loss regimes, other form of body change or alteration and for servicemen and women overseas. Boudoir photography may, in some cases, be distinguished from other photography genres such as glamour photography, fine art nude photography and erotic photography; the Marquis de Sade in his literary works helped develop a reputation in this small room dedicated to the privacy of female talks. Since the success of his book Philosophy in the Bedroom, the small sitting room or salon has a scandalous reputation combined with those of all exchanges and frolics.
Harem Ladyfinger, which translates as boudoirs in French
In architecture, a deck is a flat surface capable of supporting weight, similar to a floor, but constructed outdoors elevated from the ground, connected to a building. The term is a generalization of decks. Wood or timber "decking" can be used in a number of ways: as part of garden landscaping, to extend living areas of houses, as an alternative to stone based features such as patios. Decks are made from treated lumber, composite lumber, composite material, Aluminum. Lumber may be Western red cedar, mahogany, ipê and other hardwoods. Recycled planks may be high-density polyethylene, polystyrene and PET plastic as well as mixed plastics and wood fiber. Artificial decking products are called "wood-plastic composites"; these days, WPC's have more known by different brands like Trex, Ecornboard etc. The softwoods used for decking were logged from old growth forests; these include Atlantic white cedar and Western red cedar. Atlantic City built the first coastal boardwalk in the United States constructed of Atlantic white cedar.
However, it was not long before the commercial logging of this tree and clearing of cedar swamps in New Jersey caused a decline in the availability of decking. Atlantic City and New York City both switched to Western red cedar. By the 1960s, Western red cedar from the US was declining due to over-logging. More expensive Western red cedar was available from western Canada but by pressure treated pine had become available, but with chemical treatments, pine decking is not as durable as cedars in an outdoor environment. Thus, many municipalities and homeowners are turning to hardwoods. Decks are built from pressure treated wood. Pressure holds up to wet and icey weather conditions. Pressure treated, it is important to note that both softwood and hardwood decks will need to be finished after installation using either an oil or varnish to prevent weathering, mould and wood boring insects. Hardwoods used for decking come from tropical forests. Much of the logging taking place to produce these woods teak, mahogany and ipê, is occurring illegally, as outlined in numerous reports by environmental organizations such as Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and Rainforest Relief.
US tropical wood imports are rising due to the demand for decking. Due to environmental and durability concerns, composite decking have appeared on the market. Proponents of composite decking have touted this as a much needed development as this helps to curb logging of trees for new decks; however composite decking has been found to contain harmful chemicals, cannot be refurbished, despite claims from decking companies, some composite decking still attracts mold. However newer more modern composites feature a shell that prevents mold and staining. Residential decks may contain spaces for cooking and seating. Cooking areas ideally should be situated near the patio door while out of the way from general foot traffic. Dining spaces will include patio tables. For a typical 6 person outdoor patio table building an area of 12' x 16' is ideal. If deck space is available, homeowners may choose to include a seating area for outdoor couches and benches; the deck of a house is a wooden platform built above the ground and connected to the main building.
It is enclosed by a railing for safety. Access may be from the house from the ground via a stairway. Residential decks can be constructed over steep areas or rough ground, otherwise unusable. Decks can be covered by a canopy or pergola to control sunlight. Deck designs can be found in numerous books, do-it-yourself magazines and web sites, from the USDA. Typical construction is either of a cantilever construction; the post and beam construction relies on posts anchored to piers in the ground. These types of structural decks are engineered and require an experienced construction company that specializes in structural decks. Cantilever decks rely on floor joists. While this type of construction is common, it raises significant safety issues if the decks are not properly waterproofed and flashed. There have been a growing number deck failures resulting in death and critical injuries. Another key component of decks are code compliant railings. Railings on decks above 30 inches are considered guard rails.
Guard rails have a specific building code requirement for structural strength. Most U. S. commercial building codes require a 42-inch guardrail on decks, 36 or 42 inches for residential code depending on the state. Typical railing assemblies must meet structural strength requirements of 200lbs of load force per foot. In short, decks are complex load bearing structures that most require structural engineering and permits. Larger buildings may have decks on the upper floors of the building which can be open to the public as observation decks or greeneries. A deck is the surface used to construct a boardwalk over sand on barrier islands. Laying deck or throwing deck refers to the act of placing and bolting down cold-formed steel beneath roofing and concrete floors; this is done by an ironworker, sometimes in conjunction with a cement mason or carpenter. It regarded as one of the most physically demanding jobs in the iron working industry. In the
A pergola is an outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained. The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula; as a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, with a green tunnel being a type of road under a canopy of trees. Pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours, the terms are used interchangeably. An arbour is regarded as a wooden bench seat with a roof enclosed by lattice panels forming a framework for climbing plants. A pergola, on the other hand, is a much larger and more open structure and does not include integral seating. A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained.
As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a building's door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide a sitting area that allows for breeze and light sun, but offer protection from the harsh glare of direct sunlight. Pergolas give climbing plants a structure on which to grow. Pergolas are more permanent architectural features than the green tunnels of late medieval and early Renaissance gardens, which were formed of springy withies—easily replaced shoots of willow or hazel—bound together at the heads to form a series of arches loosely woven with long slats on which climbers were grown, to make a passage, both cool and shaded and moderately dry in a shower. At the Medici villa, La Petraia and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern, which can be viewed from the long terrace above it..
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula. The English term was borrowed from Italian, it was mentioned in an Italian context in 1645 by John Evelyn at the cloister of Trinità dei Monti in Rome He used the term in an English context in 1654 when, in the company of the fifth Earl of Pembroke, Evelyn watched the coursing of hares from a "pergola" built on the downs near Salisbury for that purpose. The artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the 18th and 19th centuries, yet handsome pergolas on brick and stone pillars with powerful cross-beams were a feature of the gardens designed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll and epitomize their trademark of firm structure luxuriantly planted. A extensive pergola features at the gardens of The Hill, designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Modern pergola design material including wood, fiberglass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride rather than brick or stone pillars, are more affordable and are increasing in popularity.
Wooden pergolas are either made from a weather-resistant wood, such as western redcedar or of coast redwood, are painted or stained, or use wood treated with preservatives for outdoor use. For a low maintenance alternative to wood, fiberglass, aluminum and CPVC can be used; these materials do not require yearly paint or stain like a wooden pergola and their manufacture can make them stronger and longer-lasting than a wooden pergola. Breezeway Brise soleil Latticework Patio Trellis Vine training systems Media related to Pergolas at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of pergola at Wiktionary
A cabinet was a private room in the houses and palaces of early modern Europe serving as a study or retreat for a man. The cabinet would be furnished with books and works of art, sited adjacent to his bedchamber, the equivalent of the Italian Renaissance studiolo. In the Late Medieval period, such newly perceived requirements for privacy had been served by the solar of the English gentry house, a similar, less secular purpose had been served by a private oratory; such a room might be used as a office, or just a sitting room. Heating the main rooms in large palaces or mansions in the winter was difficult, small rooms were more comfortable, they offered more privacy from servants, other household members, visitors. Such a room would be for the use of a single individual, so that a house might have at least two and more. Names varied: cabinet, study, a range of more female equivalents, such as a boudoir. With its origins in requirements for increased privacy for reading and meditation engendered by the humanist avocation of many of the Italian noble and mercantile elite in the Quattrocento, the studiolo provided a retreat reachable only through the, comparatively public, bedroom.
This was true for the elaborate Studiolo of Francesco I de' Medici located in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. The standard fittings of the late medieval and early modern study can be inventoried among the conventional trappings in portrayals of Saint Jerome in illuminated manuscripts, in paintings, or in engravings like those of Albrecht Dürer: a chair. In Domenico Ghirlandaio's Saint Jerome in his Study, shelving runs around the room at the level of the frieze, on it are curious objects, containers of various types, large volumes lying on their sides. Studioli inlaid in intarsia for the ducal palaces of Urbino and Gubbio with simulated shelves and built-in cabinets filled with books, scientific instruments and examples of geometric solids, all rendered in striking trompe-l'oeil evoke the character of the pursuits of the cabinet. For Ferdinando Gonzaga's studiolo at Mantua, in about 1619, Domenico Fetti painted a series of New Testament parables, suitable for private contemplation. Isabella d'Este called her room with paintings commissioned from Andrea Mantegna and others a studiolo.
A studiolo would have a Latin motto painted or inlaid round the frieze. Heraldry and personal devices and emblems would remind the occupant of his station in life. Series of portraits of exemplary figures were popular, whether the Nine Worthies or the classical philosophers, in imaginary ideal portrait heads; the grandest studiolo was the Camerino of Alfonso d'Este in Ferrara, for which the greatest painters of the day were commissioned from about 1512-1525 to paint mythological canvases large by the standards of the time. Fra Bartolommeo died before starting work, Raphael got no further than a drawing, but Giovanni Bellini completed The Feast of the Gods in 1514. Titian was brought in and added three of his finest works: Bacchus and Ariadne, The Andrians and The Worship of Venus, as well as repainting the background of the Bellini to match his own works better. Dosso Dossi, Alphonso's court painter, completed the room with a large painting and ten small oblong subjects to go as a frieze above the others.
In Elizabethan England, such a private retreat would most be termed a closet, the most recent in a series of developments in which people of means found ways to withdraw by degrees from the public life of the household as it was lived in the late medieval great hall. This sense of "closet" has continued use in the term "closet drama", a literary work in the form of theatre, intended not to be mounted nor publicly presented, but to be read and visualised in privacy. Two people in intimate private conversation were until said to be "closetted". In his closet at Christ Church, Robert Burton wrote The Anatomie of Melancholy. Cabinet in English was used for strongrooms, or treasure-stores - the tiny but exquisite Elizabethan tower strongroom at Lacock Abbey might have been so called - but in the wider sense. David Rizzio was murdered when dining with his putative lover Mary, Queen of Scots in "a cabinet abowte xii footes square, in the same a little low reposinge bedde, a table". A rare surviving cabinet, or closet, with its contents little changed since the early 18th century, is at Ham House in Richmond, England.
It is less than 10 feet square, leads off from the Long Gallery, well over 100 feet long by 20 feet wide, giving a rather startling change in scale and atmosphere. As is the case, it has an excellent view of the front entrance to the house, so that comings and goings can be discreetly observed. Most surviving large houses or palaces from before 1700, have such rooms, but they are often not displayed to visitors. Since the reign of King George I, the Cabinet – derived from the room – has been the principal e
A carport is a covered structure used to offer limited protection to vehicles cars, from rain and snow. The structure can either attached to a wall. Unlike most structures, a carport does not have four walls, has one or two. Carports allow for more ventilation. In particular, a carport prevents frost on the windshield. A "mobile" and/or "enclosed" carport has the same purpose as a standard carport. However, it may be removed/relocated and is framed with tubular steel and may have canvas or vinyl type covering which encloses the complete frame, including walls, it may have an accessible front entry or open entryway not attached to any structure or fastened in place by permanent means put held in place by stakes. It motorized equipment; the term "carport" comes from the French term "porte-cochère". Renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright coined the term when he used a carport in the first of his "Usonian" home designs: the house of Herbert Jacobs, built in Madison, Wisconsin, in 1936. Quoting from the Carport Integrity Policy for the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office: As early as 1909, carports were used by the Prairie School architect Walter Burley Griffin in his design for the Sloane House in Elmhurst, Illinois.
By 1913, carports were being employed by other Prairie School architects such as the Minneapolis firm of Purcell, Feick & Elmslie in their design for a residence at Lockwood Lake, Wisconsin. In this instance, the carport was termed an "Auto Space"; the late architectural historian David Gebhard suggested that the term "carport" originated from the feature’s use in 1930s Streamline Moderne residences. This term, which entered popular jargon in 1939, stemmed from the visual connection between these streamlined residences and nautical imagery. In the 1930s through the 1950s, carports were being used by Frank Lloyd Wright in his Usonian Houses, an idea that he may have gotten from Griffin, a former associate; the W. B. Sloane House in Elmhurst, Illinois, in 1910, is credited as being the first known home designed with a carport. In describing the carport to Mr. Jacob, architect Wright said, "A car is not a horse, it doesn't need a barn." He added, "Cars are built well enough now so that they do not require elaborate shelter."
Cars prior to this time were not water tight. The carport was therefore a effective device for protecting a car. Mr. Jacobs added: "Our cheap second-hand car had stood out all winter at the curb in weather far below zero. A carport was a downright luxury for it." Modern carports are made of metal and are modular in style in the USA, while remaining flat-roofed permanent structures in much of the rest of the world. The carport is considered to be an economical method of protecting cars from the weather and sun damage; the metal carports in USA can be divided into Regular, Boxed-Eave, Vertical roof styles. They differ in the sturdiness; the carport and shadeport industry has modernized quite a lot over time. It is no longer just a roof covering for a car or vehicle but has extended itself to leisure uses such as awnings for a patio at home or a more modern designer shade sail. Variations of carports includes: - Shadeports - Carports - Patio Covers & Awnings - Outdoor Walkway Covers - Designer Shade Sails - Under decks
An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation device that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are powered by electric motors that drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, although some pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. In agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes' screw, or the chain and paddles or forks of hay elevators. Languages other than English may lift; because of wheelchair access laws, elevators are a legal requirement in new multistory buildings where wheelchair ramps would be impractical. There are some elevators which can go sideways in addition to the usual up-and-down motion; the earliest known reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported that Archimedes built his first elevator in 236 BC.
Some sources from historical periods mention elevators as cabs on a hemp rope powered by hand or by animals. In 1000, the Book of Secrets by al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of an elevator-like lifting device, in order to raise a large battering ram to destroy a fortress. In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the palace buildings of England and France. Louis XV of France had a so-called'flying chair' built for one of his mistresses at the Chateau de Versailles in 1743. Ancient and medieval elevators used drive systems based on windlasses; the invention of a system based on the screw drive was the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, leading to the creation of modern passenger elevators. The first screw drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in 1793. Several years another of Kulibin's elevators was installed in the Arkhangelskoye near Moscow; the development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal and lumber from hillsides.
The technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today. Starting in the coal mines, by the mid-19th century elevators were operated with steam power and were used for moving goods in bulk in mines and factories; these steam driven devices were soon being applied to a diverse set of purposes—in 1823, two architects working in London and Hormer, built and operated a novel tourist attraction, which they called the "ascending room". It elevated paying customers to a considerable height in the center of London, allowing them a magnificent panoramic view of downtown. Early, crude steam-driven elevators were refined in the ensuing decade; the elevator used a counterweight for extra power. The hydraulic crane was invented by Sir William Armstrong in 1846 for use at the Tyneside docks for loading cargo; these supplanted the earlier steam driven elevators: exploiting Pascal's law, they provided a much greater force.
A water pump supplied a variable level of water pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder, allowing the level of the platform to be raised and lowered. Counterweights and balances were used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus. Henry Waterman of New York is credited with inventing the "standing rope control" for an elevator in 1850. In 1845, the Neapolitan architect Gaetano Genovese installed in the Royal Palace of Caserta the "Flying Chair", an elevator ahead of its time, covered with chestnut wood outside and with maple wood inside, it included a light, two benches and a hand operated signal, could be activated from the outside, without any effort on the part of the occupants. Traction was controlled by a motor mechanic utilizing a system of toothed wheels. A safety system was designed to take effect, it consisted of a beam pushed outwards by a steel spring. In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke, he demonstrated it at the New York exposition in the Crystal Palace in a dramatic, death-defying presentation in 1854, the first such passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City on 23 March 1857.
The first elevator shaft preceded the first elevator by four years. Construction for Peter Cooper's Cooper Union Foundation building in New York began in 1853. An elevator shaft was included in the design, because Cooper was confident that a safe passenger elevator would soon be invented; the shaft was cylindrical. Otis designed a special elevator for the building; the Equitable Life Building completed in 1870 in New York City was thought to be the first office building to have passenger elevators. However Peter Ellis, an English architect, installed the first elevators that could be described as paternoster elevators in Oriel Chambers in Liverpool in 1868; the first electric elevator was built by Werner von Siemens in 1880 in Germany. The inventor Anton Freissler developed the ideas of von Siemens and built up a successful enterprise in Austria-Hungary; the safety and speed of electric elevators were enhanced by Frank Sprague who added floor control, automatic elevators, acceleration control of cars, safeties.
His elevator ran faster and with larger loads than hyd