Bremen the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states. It is informally called Land Bremen; the state consists of the city of Bremen as well as the small exclave of Bremerhaven in Northern Germany, surrounded by the larger state of Lower Saxony. The state of Bremen consists of two separated enclaves; these enclaves contain Bremen the'City', the state capital and located in both enclaves, the city of Bremerhaven. Both are located on the River Weser. Both enclaves are surrounded by the neighbouring State of Lower Saxony; the two cities are the only administrative subdivisions. The highest point in the state is in Friedehorst Park. At the unwinding of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 the Free Imperial City of Bremen was not mediatised but became a sovereign state titled Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, its currency was the Bremen thaler. In 1811 the First French Empire annexed the city-state. Upon the first, albeit only preliminary, defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte, Bremen resumed its pre-1811 status as city-state in 1813.
The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Bremen's—as well as Frankfurt's, Hamburg's, Lübeck's—independence after pressuring by Bremen's emissary, burgomaster, Johann Smidt. Bremen became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation. In 1827 the state of Bremen bought the tract of land from the Kingdom of Hanover, where future Bremerhaven would be established. Bremen became part of the North German Confederation in 1867 and became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire in 1871 and stayed with Germany in its following forms of government. Bremen, which in 1935 had become a regular city at the de facto abolition of statehood of all component German states within the Third Reich, was reestablished as a state in 1947. Being—at that time—actually located in the British Zone of Occupation the Control Commission for Germany - British Element and the Office of Military Government for Germany, U. S. agreed in 1947 to constitute the cities of Bremen and Wesermünde—in their borders altered in 1939—as a German state named again Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, becoming at that occasion an exclave of the American Zone of Occupation within the British zone.
In 1949 the city-state joined the West German Federal Republic of Germany. The legislature of the state of Bremen is the 83-member Bürgerschaft, elected by the citizens in the two cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven; the executive is constituted by the Senate of Bremen, elected by the Bürgerschaft. The Senate is chaired by the President of the senate, one of the mayors of the city of Bremen and is elected directly by the Bürgerschaft; the Senate selects of its members as a second mayor. In contrast to the Federal Chancellor of Germany or other German states, the President of the Senate has no authority to override senators on policy, decided upon by the senate collectively. Since 1945, the Senate has continuously been dominated by the Social Democratic Party. On a municipal level, the two cities in the state are administered separately: The administration of the city of Bremen is headed by the two mayors and controlled by the portion of the Bürgerschaft elected in the city of Bremen. Bremerhaven, on the other hand, has a municipal assembly distinct from the state legislature and an administration under a distinct head mayor and a distinct second mayor.
Henning Scherf remained Senate President, in an SPD-CDU grand coalition. As promised he resigned after half of the legislative period; the Mayor and Senate President from 8 November 2005, until 17 July 2015, was Jens Böhrnsen. The 2007 elections were held on 13 May; the coat of arms and flag of Bremen state include: The unemployment rate stood at 9.5% in October 2018 and was the highest of all 16 German states. The University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen. Furthermore, Bremen has a University of the Arts Bremen, a University of Applied Sciences in Bremen and another one in Bremerhaven, more the Jacobs University Bremen. Bombing of Bremen in World War II Former countries in Europe after 1815 Timeline of Bremen history Official state portal Official governmental portal Constitution of the state, German only Geographic data related to Bremen at OpenStreetMap
Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region
The Berlin/Brandenburg metropolitan region or capital region is one of eleven metropolitan regions of Germany, consisting of the entire territories of the city-state of Berlin and the surrounding state of Brandenburg. The region covers an area of 30,370 square kilometres with a total population of about 6 million; the metropolitan region should be distinguished from Berlin's immediate agglomeration, dubbed Berliner Umland which comprises the city and the nearby Brandenburg municipalities. Berliner Umland is smaller and much more densely populated than the metropolitan region, accounting for the vast majority of the region's population over a fraction of its total land area. Within the metropolitan region, there is a much smaller and much more densely populated area called Berliner Umland, which comprises the city of Berlin and the immediate Brandenburg municipalities surrounding it. With over 4.46 million people living in its 3,743 km2 area, Berliner Umland accounts for the vast majority of the population of the entire metropolitan region over 12% of the entire area.
The region contains five independent cities – of which the Brandenburg capital Potsdam is the only one with a population greater than 100,000 – and 14 districts. The inhabitants of Berlin and Potsdam account for more than 80 percent of the region's total population; the Brandenburg area is characterized by suburban settlements on the Berlin city limits and small towns in the rural outer area. Beside Berlin and Potsdam, Berliner Umland comprises the following 67 municipalities: These other communes are listed below, subdivided per district; the municipalities marked with have city status: Barnim: Ahrensfelde, Panketal, Rüdnitz, Werneuchen. Dahme-Spreewald: Bestensee, Heidesee, Königs Wusterhausen, Schönefeld, Wildau, Zeuthen. Havelland: Brieselang, Dallgow-Döberitz, Ketzin, Paulinenaue, Retzow, Schönwalde-Glien, Wustermark. Märkisch-Oderland: Altlandsberg, Fredersdorf-Vogelsdorf, Neuenhagen, Petershagen-Eggersdorf, Rüdersdorf, Strausberg. Oberhavel: Birkenwerder, Glienicke/Nordbahn, Hohen Neuendorf, Leegebruch, Mühlenbecker Land, Velten.
Oder-Spree: Erkner, Fürstenwalde, Gosen-Neu Zittau, Grünheide, Rauen, Schöneiche, Woltersdorf Potsdam-Mittelmark: Beelitz, Groß Kreutz, Michendorf, Schwielowsee, Seddiner See, Teltow, Werder. Teltow-Fläming: Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Großbeeren, Rangsdorf, Zossen; the metropolitan region counts three levels of centralities: The metropolis of Berlin, the four upper level regional centres of Potsdam, Brandenburg an der Havel and Frankfurt, as well as 42 secondary centres allocated to 50 towns. The Berlin agglomeration comprises the metropolis Berlin, the regional centre of Potsdam and 17 secondary centres: Bernau Strausberg Fürstenwalde Königs Wusterhausen Ludwigsfelde Nauen Oranienburg Erkner Neuenhagen Zossen Teltow Falkensee Hennigsdorf Wildau and Schönefeld Werder and Beelitz The following list contains the most populated towns and municipalities in the Berliner Umland: Berlin Potsdam Oranienburg Falkensee Bernau Königs Wusterhausen Fürstenwalde Strausberg Hennigsdorf Blankenfelde-Mahlow Hohen Neuendorf Ludwigsfelde Werder Teltow Wandlitz Kleinmachnow Panketal Zossen Neuenhagen Hoppegarten Nauen Rüdersdorf Metropolitan regions in Germany Metropolregion Berlin/Brandenburg
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Munich Metropolitan Region
The Munich Metropolitan Region is one of eleven metropolitan regions in Germany, consisting of the agglomeration areas of Munich, Ingolstadt, Landshut and Landsberg am Lech. It is Germany's fifth most populous metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan-Region, the Frankfurt Rhine-Main-Region, the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan-Region and the Stuttgart Metropolitan-Region. State: Bavaria Districts: Lower Bavaria, Upper Bavaria, Swabia Area: 27,700 km² Population: 5,203,738 GDP: 210 billion euro In comparison to the other ten German Metropolitan Regions, the Munich Metropolitan Region had: the highest population growth the largest increase in employment the highest gross value added per employed person the highest tax revenue per inhabitant The Munich Larger Urban Zone as defined by Eurostat's Urban Audit covers an area of 5,500 km² and in 2004 contained 2,531,706 inhabitants; the Larger Urban Zone covers the following cities and districts: Stadt München Landkreis Dachau Landkreis Ebersberg Landkreis Erding Landkreis Freising Landkreis Fürstenfeldbruck Landkreis Landsberg am Lech Landkreis München Landkreis Starnberg Official website Initiative for European Metropolitan Regions in Germany
Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region
The Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region is an economic and cultural region in Northern Germany. The metropolitan area comprises one third of the area of Lower Saxony, with half the inhabitants of the state, it has about 3.9 million people in 20 districts and counties with a total of 431 municipalities and is defined by the German Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung as a medium urban area in Germany. The application for recognition as a European metropolitan region with the German Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung responsible for regional planning was made early; the recognition should help the region internationally and improve coordination and development of cities. Although the importance of the region and the developments relating to the citynetwork Expo 2000 she was still the smallest of the metropolitan regions. In 2005 a loose co-operation was initiated with the nearby city regions of Braunschweig and Salzgitter and up in the area of Göttingen. Between the cities of the region there are large predominantly agricultural areas.
The urban infrastructure network consist of the highways A2, A7 and A39 and fast rail links, in particular some high speed rail. The region is based on the service sector and manufacturing; the largest group is the Volkswagen AG headquarters in Wolfsburg. The science and research landscape of the region includes seven universities, nine colleges, an art college, a music and theater school, 60 other research institutions. Radioactive waste is transported in the area to the city of Salzgitter, for the deep geological repository Schacht Konrad and between Schacht Asse II in the Wolfenbüttel district and Lindwedel and Höfer. Members of the Metropolitan Region Hannover-Brunswick-Göttingen-Wolfsburg are: Celle Gifhorn Göttingen Goslar Hamelin-Pyrmont Hildesheim Holzminden Nienburg Northeim Osterode Peine Schaumburg Soltau-Fallingbostel City Alfeld City Bad Pyrmont City Braunschweig City Celle City Einbeck City Garbsen City Göttingen City Hann. Münden Landeshauptstadt Hannover City Hildesheim City Holzminden City Laatzen City Langenhagen City Lehrte Municipality Lengede City Nienburg/Weser City Northeim Oberharz City Osterode am Harz City Pattensen City Peine City Salzgitter City Seesen City Stadthagen City Walsrode City Wolfenbüttel City Wolfsburg Hanover Zweckverband Großraum Braunschweig Expo-Region, Hameln Metropolitan regions in Germany Homepage der Metropolregion Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg Raum Hannover - Braunschweig - Göttingen auf dem Weg zur Metropolregion - PDF der Region Hannover Information der Stadt Braunschweig über die Gründung der Metropolregion
The Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region simply referred to as Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main area or Rhine-Main area is the third largest metropolitan region in Germany, with a total population exceeding 5.8 million. The metropolitan region is located in the central western part of Germany, stretches over parts of three federal states: Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate and Bavaria, as well as the cities of Frankfurt am Main, Offenbach, Mainz and Aschaffenburg; the polycentric region is named after its core city Frankfurt am Main and the two rivers Rhine and Main. The Frankfurt Rhine-Main area is designated as a European Metropolitan region by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Urban Affairs and covers an area of 13,000 square kilometers. Rhine-Main is a polycentric metropolitan region, but the economic size and political weight of the city of Frankfurt sets it into a monocentric relation with her commuter belt. Since the early 1970s the Frankfurt am Main metropolitan area is defined as an area encompassing the cities of Frankfurt and Offenbach and their directly neighboring districts.
The Regierungsbezirk Darmstadt of the state of Hesse could be seen as the next administrative division, as it lies within the metropolitan region and further includes the cities of Darmstadt and Wiesbaden and a number of larger districts. Only on a level further, the metropolitan region includes the cities and districts of Mainz and Aschaffenburg in the two adjoining federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Bavaria. Eurostat's Urban Audit splits the Frankfurt Rhine-Main region into four Larger Urban Zones; these zones do exclude a number of districts in the metropolitan area. The growth of the area is chiefly to be traced to the favorable communications, that promoted an early industrialization. Today however, the importance of industrial concerns has to a great extent been replaced by banking and logistics. Frankfurt lies within the populous Blue Banana region of Europe, which here runs along the Rhine valley, the city is a stepping stone from and to various parts of Switzerland and Southern Germany.
The Rhine-Ruhr is accessible via a one-hour trip on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line, the air route Frankfurt-Berlin is the busiest in German domestic air travel. Frankfurt Airport is the busiest airport by passenger traffic in Germany and one of the three busiest airports in Europe. Thereby, along with a strong railway connection, the area serves as a major transportation hub; the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main metropolitan region is home to five universities and over 20 postgraduate colleges, with a total of over 200,000 students. The region's three public research universities, the Goethe University Frankfurt, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,and TU Darmstadt,make up the Rhine Main Universities alliance. Private universities in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main metropolitan region are EBS University of Business and Law Frankfurt School of Finance & Management. Notable colleges and universities of applied sciences include: Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences RheinMain University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt University of Music and Performing Arts Städelschule University of Applied Sciences, Mainz Catholic University of Applied Sciences, Mainz Global city Planungsverband Ballungsraum Frankfurt/Rhein-Main Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Conurbation Planning Association Region Frankfurt RheinMain online - Gateway to Europe Frankfurt International Airport Rhein-Main Metropolitan Transit Frankfurt Economic Support Frankfurt/Rhein-Main 2020 – the European metropolitan region One region - Boundless possibilities
Metropolitan regions in Germany
The metropolitan regions in Germany are eleven densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany. They comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country; the eleven metropolitan regions in Germany were organised into political units for planning purposes. Using a narrower definition of metropolises, only four cities surpass the threshold of at least one million inhabitants within its administrative borders, namely: Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006. Sorted alphabetically: Berlin Metropolitan Region Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region Central German Metropolitan Region Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region Hamburg Metropolitan Region Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region Munich Metropolitan Region Nuremberg Metropolitan Region Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region Stuttgart Metropolitan Region The five most important regions, collectively called the "Big Five", are compared with other European metropolitan areas for investments and market development.
They are: Hamburg, the polycentric Ruhr/Düsseldorf/Cologne region, Frankfurt/Rhine-Main and Munich. The Globalization and World Cities Study Group considers Frankfurt "α" Global Cities, while the others are considered "β" global cities; each of them forms types of clusters and achieves varying levels of performance in areas such as business activity, human capital and technology exchange, cultural experience, political engagement. Hamburg, for its importance in global logistics Berlin, for its political and cultural importance Rhine-Ruhr, for its logistics and industry Frankfurt/Rhine-Main, for its financial economy and human transport Munich, for its business and technology community highest score of all metropolitan regions highest score of all metropolitan areas Largest European metropolitan areas Largest urban areas of the European Union Demographics of Germany Tourism in Germany Initiativkreises Europäischer Metropolregionen in Deutschland