Church of Our Lady, Bremen
The Church of Our Lady is an Evangelical Protestant church situated northwest of the Market Square in Bremen, Germany. Like Bremen Cathedral, today's building dates from the 13th century; the brightly coloured stained-glass windows are the work of the French artist Alfred Manessier. In 1973, the church was listed under the monument protection act; the church was dedicated to Saint Vitus. It served as market church of the city and also as church of the city council. Around 1020, a new building was erected of which only the crypt still exists, decorated with medieval frescos; the church was extended to form a basilica in the middle of the 12th century. Around 1220, it was consecrated to the Virgin Mary. From 1230 onwards, it was rebuilt in the early Gothic style as a hall church. A westwork with two towers was added. For many years, the northern tower contained the archive of the city council of Bremen, known as the Tresekammer. In the 14th century, the choir was extended; the interior was damaged by fire in 1944, but much less than the other medieval churches of the city.
When the new organ was installed in 1953, the acoustics were so poor that in 1958 the city assigned Dieter Oesterlen to manage the church's refurbishment. The residual medieval plastering and the remains of the frescos were removed, leaving plain brick walls. In 1966, the French artist Alfred Manessier was charged with redesigning the 19 windows, destroyed during the Second World War. Inspired by verses from the Bible, he embarked first on the design of the four main windows, employing brightly coloured stained glass representations with expressive linear patterns. Together they depict various manifestations of the Word of God. At the end of the aisle to the north of the altar, the Christmas Window is inspired by "The Word became flesh", while the Pentecost Window at the east end of the chancel is inspired by the Miracle of Tongues; the Sermon Window symbolises the preached word: "We are ambassadors for Christ" while the Virgin Mary Window, a rose window at the opposite end of the church draws on the Christmas story: "Mary kept all these sayings, pondering them in her heart".
With the assistance of François Lorin from Chartres, Manessier completed his work in 1979. Since 1220, the church has been named after the mother of Jesus Christ; this name has been used by more than 250 churches in the world and by more than 150 religious orders or convents in Germany. In Bremen, the name is used: the space around the church is named Unser-Lieben-Frauen-Kirchhof there used to be a cellar, northwest of the church, named Liebfrauenkeller, used as a restaurant between 1948 and 2002 (ice cream parlour, confectionery Schnuchel, restaurant Liebfrauenkeller, Disco New Yorker. There used to be a school named Liebfrauenschule, taken over by the city in 1901 and subsequently abandoned and knocked down; the school was situated in the second aisle of the church and extended into an annexe at the western side of the church. The Liebfrauen-Restaurant, between 1871 and 1891 at the northwest corner of the Liebfrauen-churchyard; when the so-called 18th century Bickhaus was knocked down, the restaurant moved to the corner of Sögestrasse and Queerenstrasse.
It was destroyed by bombing in 1944. The Liebfrauenkirche has two steeples. Together with the weather vane which has a height of 6 m, the north steeple is 84.2 m, the third tallest steeple in the city. It has a width of 9.4 m. The church clock is situated at a height of 37.4 m. The smaller south steeple has a width of 8.3 m. The roof reaches a height of 22.9 m. The total length of the church amounts to the total width, 34 m; the flour of the church comprises some medieval tombstones, but there are no medieval sculptures, if there had been any, they have been removed during the reformation. But there are two sculptures from the 19th century; the equestrian sculpture on the wall of the southern steeple was placed there in 1909. It shows the Prussian field marshal Helmut Graf von Moltke and was donated by the banker Bernhard Loose from Bremen, who died on 31 March 1902, it was designed by Heinrich Jennen from Berlin-Charlottenburg and sculpted by Hermann Hahn of Munich. Like the sculpture itself, the inscription above it expresses the militarism of the period: "He who armed and protected you consider this, when you approach him: Peace has to be supported by the sword if you remain silent, the evil deed will grow."
After World War I, the architect Otto Blendermann from Bremen and the sculptor Friedrich Lommel from Munich created a war memorial in honour of the dead soldiers of Bremen garrison. In 2011, it was converted into a memorial for all victims of all wars. Since panes of opalescent glass on the walls bear a biblical admonition to keep peace, panes of opalescent glass hiding the sculpture bear the names of the soldiers; the organ was built in 1953 by Paul Ott. At the time, the steeple bay had been bricked up; as a result, the organ was situated on the west wall of the bay. In 1964, it was reinstalled in a new casing on the south aisle's west wall; the last readjustment took place in 1984 by the organ builder Karl Berlin. At that time, the disposition was changed; the church has only one bell in the south tower, cast in the 14th century. Apart from that, there is only a clock bell. Services are held in religious holidays at 10:30 am. Founded 1945 by the cantor Harald Wolf, the boys' choir is recognized throughout the region.
Official website History of the church bui
Gerhard Marcks was a German artist, known as a sculptor, but, known for his drawings, woodcuts and ceramics. Marcks was born in Berlin. In 1914, he married Maria Schmidtlein. During World War I, he served in the German army. With architect Walter Gropius, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger and others, Marcks was a member of two art-related political groups, the Novembergruppe and the Arbeitsrat für Kunst, he was affiliated with the Deutscher Werkbund, of which Gropius was a founding member. In 1919, when Gropius founded the Bauhaus, in Weimar, Marcks was one of the first three faculty members to be hired, along with Feininger and Johannes Itten. Marcks was appointed the Formmeister of the school’s Pottery Workshop, located not in Weimar but in an annex to the school in nearby Dornburg; the other teacher in that workshop, its Lehrmeister was Master Potter Max Krehan, the last of a long line of potters, whose workshop was in Dornburg. Krehan taught the students to throw pots on the wheel, to trim and glaze them, to fire the kiln.
Marcks, in addition to duties in Weimar, taught the history of the practice, encouraged experimentation, sometimes decorated pots. Earlier, Marcks had made the models for a series of animal sculptures, which were reproduced in China by a porcelain factory, his interest in animal forms is reflected in the work he made for his first Bauhaus portfolio, such as Die Katzen and Die Eule, both woodcuts. In time, his focus shifted to the human figure, it was this subject that continued to hold his attention for the rest of his life. In September 1925, the Bauhaus was relocated to Dessau, its Pottery Workshop was discontinued. Marcks moved instead to the Kunstgewerbeschule in Burg Giebichenstein near Halle. After the death of its director, Paul Thiersch, Marcks was named his replacement, a position he continued in until his dismissal in 1933, he was fired because his work was deemed unsuitable by the Nazis, with the result that several works were in the infamous exhibition of "degenerate art" in Munich in 1937, along with that of other Bauhaus artists, among them Herbert Bayer, Lyonel Feininger, Johannes Itten, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, László Moholy-Nagy, Oskar Schlemmer and Lothar Schreyer.
Despite such persecution, Marcks continued to live in Germany throughout World War II. In 1937, when twenty-four of his works were confiscated and destroyed by the Nazis, he was prohibited from exhibiting and threatened with being forbidden to work. During this period, he made several trips to Italy, where he worked in the Villa Romana in Florence and the Villa Massimo in Rome. In 1943, his studio in Berlin was bombed during an air raid, many of his works destroyed. After World War II, Marcks became Professor of Sculpture at the Landeskunstschule in Hamburg, where he taught for four years, before retiring to Cologne, he designed memorials for soldiers and civilians who had died in the war. Marcks died in 1981 in Eifel. A decade earlier, the museum called Gerhard Marcks Haus, which houses a permanent exhibition of his artwork, was established in his honor in Bremen, Germany. In this museum are 12,000 of his sketches and preparatory drawings, 900 prints, all his sculptures. In the U. S. there is a collection of Marcks' work at Luther College in Decorah, most of which were given to that school by his former student and close associate, Marguerite Wildenhain.
Of particular note is a monumental Marcks bronze statue titled Oedipus and Antigone, installed there in 2000. In 1914 Marcks participated in exhibitions of the Berlin Secession and the Deutscher Werkbund, after World War II at the Venice Biennale and the Documentas I, II and III in Kassel. In 1939 Robert Pudlich: paintings and drawings. In 1952 he was appointed a Knight of the Peace Class of the Order Pour le Mérite. In 1954 North Rhine-Westphalia awarded him its Grand Art Prize. In 1955 the city of Berlin awarded him its Art Prize. In 1962 the Academy of Fine Arts, made him an honorary member In 1979 he was honored on his 90th birthday by exhibitions in Berlin, Bremen and Nuremberg, as well as by the award of the Grand Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1980 the American Academy of Letters, New York, made him an honorary member, together with Max Ernst and Karlheinz Stockhausen. In 1991 10778 Marcks, a minor planet was discovered on April 9, named in his honor. Der Rufer Gerhard Marcks Haus, Bremen Works by Marcks on cats, at website The Great Cat Gerhard Marcks Collection at Luther College Marguerite Wildenhain and the Bauhaus
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this date being the most held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture; the Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, barrel vaults, large towers and decorative arcading; each building has defined forms of regular, symmetrical plan. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are outnumbered by churches.
The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which or rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal; the largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, rural Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque" means "descended from Roman" and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages; the French term "romane" was first used in the architectural sense by archaeologist Charles de Gerville in a letter of 18 December 1818 to Auguste Le Prévost to describe what Gerville sees as a debased Roman architecture.
In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained: The name Roman we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used to describe the language of the same period. Romance language is degenerated Latin language. Romanesque architecture is debased Roman architecture; the first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The word was used by Gunn to describe the style, identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building.
The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. The term "Pre-romanesque" is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods and Visigothic and Asturian constructions between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in north of Italy and Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. Typical Romanesque architectural forms Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, city walls, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Of these types of buildings and commercial buildings are the most rare, with only a handful of survivors in the United Kingdom, several clusters in France, isolated buildings across Europe and by far the largest number unidentified and altered over the centuries, in Italy.
Many castles exist, the foundations of. Most have been altered, many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches; these range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form and decoration of Romanesque church architecture; the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. In the more northern countries, Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. Although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost.
There was a loss of stylistic continuity apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders; some traditions of Rom
An avant-corps refers to a part of a building, such as a porch or pavilion, that juts out from the corps de logis over the full height of the building. It is common in façades in the Baroque period. A corner risalit is. Baroque three-winged constructions are incorporated as a median risalit in a main hall or a stairwell, such as in Weißenstein Palace and the Roßleben Convent School. Much of the text of this article comes from the equivalent German-language Wikipedia article retrieved on 18 March 2006
Weser Renaissance is a form of Renaissance architectural style, found in the area around the River Weser in central Germany and, well preserved in the towns and cities of the region. Between the start of the Reformation and the Thirty Years War the Weser region experienced a construction boom, in which the Weser, playing a significant role in the communication of both trade and ideas defined the north-south extent of a cultural region that stretched westwards to the city of Osnabrück and eastwards as far as Wolfsburg. Castles, manor houses, town halls, residential dwellings and religious buildings of the Renaissance period have been preserved in unusually high density, because the economy of the region recovered only from the consequences of the Thirty Years War and the means were not available for a baroque transformation such as that which occurred to a degree in South Germany; the term, coined around 1912 by Richard Klapheck, suggested that the Renaissance along the Weser independently developed its own distinct style.
Max Sonnen, who used the newly coined term in 1918 in his book Die Weserrenaissance, classified buildings, without regard for the circumstances of their historical background, but from a purely formal perspective in order to derive a history of the development of the style. The notion of a regional renaissance in the sense of an autonomous cultural phenomenon was based on a nationalistic mindset that had arisen since the end of the 19th century, in which things provincial had their place in establishing identity. In 1964 Jürgen Soenke and the photographer, Herbert Kreft, presented an inventory of Renaissance buildings, which went under the title of Die Weserrenaissance. In its closing remarks it said: This architecture is rooted in the landscape in which it stands, it is folksy because those. The Weser Renaissance is folk art. For Soenke an autochthonous evolution of architectural style lay hidden behind its common features, his work, that appeared in six editions up to 1986, helped to give this art-historical concept a level of popularity that went far beyond the realm of the specialist and became a kind of popular trademark.
The term Weser Renaissance gained international recognition thanks to Henry-Russel Hitchcock, who used it in his German Renaissance Architecture of 1981, although he stressed its distinctive regional features rather less and pointed out its more significant linkages with the overall historical development of Renaissance architecture. In more recent times the idea of a regional cultural identity, that did not exist in the Early Modern Period, was criticised in research by the Weser Renaissance Museum at Brake Castle, founded in 1986; this research highlighted the carriers of cultural transference, such as the architectural drawing business, non-local architects, pan-regional builders and the obligatory, Europe-wide requirements of court fashion. The hallmark of aristocratic building activity in the 16th century was the transformation of a medieval castle, the Burg, into a royal residence or Schloss; these were built with two wings, but the enclosed courtyard, with its wings joined in the corners by imposing towers with flights of stairs, became the preferred layout for the homes of the aristocracy in the Weser region during the course of the 16th century, a form of building, soon adopted by its lesser noblemen.
The characteristic Zwerchhaus with so-called welsch gables was well suited as a symbol of power, because on castles like those at Detmold, Celle or Bückeburg, which were surrounded by high ramparts, they could be seen from a long way off. In addition to four-sided castles, there were castles with three wings, either geometrically enclosed, like the Wewelsburg, or opening onto the castle farmyard as at Schwöbber. Double-winged and single-winged buildings were included in the repertoire of castle architecture along the Weser; these aristocratic designs were not only embraced by the lesser nobles. Town halls, like those in Celle and Lemgo, were designed with gables along the sides and sometimes faced with an entire renaissance façade, as occurred in Bremen. From Nienburg, to Minden, Hamelin and Höxter, Hannoversch Münden and Einbeck magnificent townhouses appeared, that were distinguished by their great gateway into the inner hall. Other important architectural features of the Weser Renaissance style are the ornately decorated gables, the use so-called Bossenquader or bossage stone, the alcoves and double windows.
Church builders were eager to explore new architectural designs. By elevating the position of the pulpit and placing it opposite to and facing the pews, the importance of the spoken word within the Christian faith was visible from the layout of the church interior; the castle chapels of Celle and Bückeburg are clear examples of this arrangement as are the important parish churches of Wolfenbüttel and Bückeburg. Protestant art experienced a high point in the Weser region under the Schaumburg prince, who at the beginning of the 17th century, had the Stadthagen Mausoleum and tomb built by Adriaen de Vries, which recalled the Florentine Renaissance. At the same time the goldsmith, Anton Eisenhoit created the altar decorations for the Catholic prince-bishop, Dietrich von Fürstenberg, the sculptor Heinrich Gröninger, whose monumental tomb lies in Paderborn Cathedral. Bad Hersfeld Bad Salzuflen (W
Town Musicians of Bremen
The "Town Musicians of Bremen" is a popular fairy tale retrieved and recorded by the Brothers Grimm. It was first published in Grimms' Fairy Tales in 1819, it tells the story of four aging domestic animals, who after a lifetime of hard work are neglected and mistreated by their former masters. They decide to run away and become town musicians in the city of Bremen. Contrary to the story's title the characters never arrive in Bremen, as they succeed in tricking and scaring off a band of robbers, capturing their spoils, moving into their house. According to the Aarne–Thompson classification system, the story qualifies as a Type 130 folktale. In the story, a donkey, a dog, a cat, a rooster, all past their prime years in life and usefulness on their respective farms, were soon to be discarded or mistreated by their masters. One by one, they set out together, they decide to go to Bremen, known for its freedom, to live without owners and become musicians there. On the way to Bremen, they see a lighted cottage.
Standing on each other's backs, they decide to scare the robbers away by making a din. The animals take possession of the house, eat a good meal, settle in for the evening; that night, the robbers return and send one of their members in to investigate. He sees the Cat's eyes shining in the darkness and the robber thinks he is seeing the coals of the fire, he reaches over to light his candle. Things happen in quick succession, he tells his companions that he was beset by a horrible witch who scratched him with her long fingernails, a man with a knife, a black monster who had hit him with a club, worst of all, the judge who screamed from the rooftop. The robbers abandon the cottage to the strange creatures who have taken it, where the animals live for the rest of their days. In the original version of this story, which dates from the twelfth century, the robbers are a bear, a lion, a wolf, all animals featured in heraldric devices; when the donkey and his friends arrive in Bremen, the townsfolk applaud them for having rid the district of the terrible beasts.
An alternate version involves the animals' master being deprived of his livelihood and having to send his animals away, unable to take care of them any further. After the animals dispatch the thieves, they take the ill-gotten gains back to their master so he can rebuild. Other versions involve at least one wild, non-livestock animal, such as a lizard, helping the domestic animals out in dispatching the thieves; the tale has been retold through motion pictures, theatre plays and operas. German-U. S. Composer Richard Mohaupt created the opera Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten, which premiered in Bremen 1949; the tale was adapted in humorous fashion for the British children's series Wolves and Giants narrated by Spike Milligan, but with the action taking place in'Brum' rather than Bremen. In the Soviet Union, the story was loosely adapted into an animated musical in 1969 by Yuri Entin and Vasily Livanov at the studio Soyuzmultfilm, The Bremen Town Musicians, it was followed by a sequel called On the Trail of the Town Musicians of Bremen.
In 2000, a second 56-minute sequel was called The New Bremen Musicians. In 1976, in Italy, Sergio Bardotti and Luis Enríquez Bacalov adapted the story into a musical play called I Musicanti, which two years was translated into Portuguese by the Brazilian composer Chico Buarque; the musical play was called Os Saltimbancos, was released as an album, became one of the greatest classics for children in Brazil. This version was made into a movie. In Spain, the story was made into an animated feature film, Los Trotamúsicos in 1989, directed by Cruz Delgado; this in itself inspired the Spanish animated series Los Trotamúsicos. The series follows the story of four animal friends: Koki the rooster, Lupo the dog, Burlón the cat and Tonto the donkey. Unlike in the original story, they arrive to Bremen, before going back to live in the robbers' house. In 1972, Jim Henson produced. In 1981 in Japan, Tezuka Productions made loose science fiction themed animated feature film adaptation titled Bremen 4: Angels in Hell revolving around an Alien visiting Earth, during a military invasion of a fictional Bremen and giving the 4 animals based on the ones from the original tale, a device that can transform them in to humans.
Despite being aimed at children the film has a substantial amount of gun violence and depictions of war crimes but its core theme is Anti-war. In Germany and the United States, the story was adapted into an animated feature in 1997 under the title The Fearless Four, though it varied from the source material, it starred R&B singer James Ingram as Buster the dog, guitarist B. B. King as Fred the donkey and pian
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an