Prestwich is a surburban town in the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, Greater Manchester, England, 3.3 miles north of Manchester city centre, 3.1 miles north of Salford and 4.7 miles south of Bury. Part of Lancashire, Prestwich was the seat of the ancient parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldham, in the hundred of Salfordshire; the Church of St Mary the Virgin—a Grade I listed building—has lain at the centre of the community for centuries. The oldest part of Prestwich, around Bury New Road, is known as Prestwich Village. There is a large Jewish community in Prestwich and Whitefield, neighbouring Broughton Park in Salford and sections of Cheetham Hill and Crumpsall, which form the second-largest Jewish community in the United Kingdom. Prestwich is of Old English origin, derived from preost and wic, which translates to the priest's farm. Another possible derivation is priest's retreat. Wic was a place-name element derived from place, its most common meaning is dairy-farm. The township was variously recorded as Prestwich in 1194, Prestwic in 1202 and Prestewic in 1203.
Bury New Road follows the line of a Roman road connecting forts at Mamucium and Bremetennacum. It is possible that a Roman fort or encampment was built at "Castle Hill", near the Salford border, mirroring an encampment on Rainsough Hill equidistant from the Roman road. John Booker B. A. 19th century author and curate of the parish church, considered these were agrarian camps built to protect cattle kept in the woods of Broughton and Kersal. The camp was "just to the right of the old road to Bury beyond Singleton Brook, on the first field in the Parish of Prestwich, known as Lowcaster". Roman coins have been found off Bury New Road, near Prestwich Golf Course and some in Prestwich Clough. A hoard of 65 silver coins from the reign of King Stephen was found in the Sedgley Park area in 1972; the Prestwich manor emerged in the Middle Ages and in 1212 was assessed as four oxgangs of land held by Adam de Prestwich whose father, Robert held it in 1193. The lord of the manor held the advowson for the church.
Another Adam de Prestwich settled the manors of Prestwich and Pendlebury on his son John in 1297 but remarried and in 1313 settled the same manors on Thomas de Prestwich, his son by second wife. Thomas de Prestwich had daughters, Margaret who became a nun at Seaton Priory in 1360, but left the convent to marry Robert de Holland, Agnes who married John de Radcliffe but died childless in 1362. Thomas de Prestwich granted his manors to Richard de Radcliffe for life and after that the manor was held by Richard de Langley. In 1371 Robert de Holland claimed the manor as the right of his wife. Roger de Langley was a minor and ward of the Duke of Lancaster in 1372 when Robert de Holland and a troop of armed men took possession of the manor by force and retained it until 1389; the Langleys regained the manor after 1403. After Sir Robert Langley's death in 1561 the manor passed to his daughter Margaret, who married John Reddish, their granddaughter Sarah married Clement Coke and the manor descended in the Coke family, until 1777, when Thomas William Coke, Coke of Norfolk, a leader in the agricultural revolution sold the land in Prestwich to increase his Norfolk estates.
The manor was acquired by Peter Drinkwater of Irwell House in 1794 and it descended to his son Thomas who died in 1861. Irwell House and Drinkwater Park was sold to Prestwich Council. In the hearth tax of 1666 there were 97 hearths in the township, the rector's house was the largest with ten. In the 17th and 18th centuries local government was based on the parish structure; the lord of the manor administered land tenure and inheritance, but law and order was kept by parish constables assisted by the church wardens. The local justices sat in the "Star Chamber" in the Ostrich Inn, now the Church Inn, close to the parish church where the justices' seat can still be seen; the village had stocks which remained in use until 1800. The settlement grew to serve the parish church making Church Lane the historic centre. In the late 18th century the area was rural with scattered farms and small settlements grew at Great and Little Heaton; the population was estimated at 670. Rooden Lane which became part of Bury Old Road was a centre for hand loom weaving and at Simister and neighbouring Bowlee, silk weaving was established.
During the 19th century another settlement grew around the junction of Fairfax Road and Bury New Road along with another village centre on Bury Old Road. The area between these centres remained rural, the arrival of the railway in 1881 encouraged affluent merchants from Manchester to build villas and move to the town. By 1912 the population had increased to 12,800, from the 1930s onwards the remaining fields were developed and by 1961 the population reached 31,000 and Prestwich had become a suburb of Manchester. Prestwich Hospital was built as an asylum in 1851 and by 1900 it had grown into the largest asylum in Europe. Prestwich was the ecclesiastical centre of Prestwich-cum-Oldham an ancient parish in the Salford Hundred of Lancashire, it was in Manchester Poor Law Union from 1841 to 1850 and the Prestwich PLU from 1850 to 1915 when it rejoined Manchester PLU until its abolition in 1930. In 1867 the Prestwich Local Board of Health was established which, as a result of the Local Government Act 1894, became Prestwich Urban District to which parts of Great and Little Heaton townships were added.
In 1903 Heaton Park was added to the City of Manchester and in 1933 part of the urban district west of the Irwell was added to Swinton and Pendlebury Urban District. Prestwich became a municipal borough in 1939. Under the Local Government Act 1972 it became an unparishe
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
I Live in Grosvenor Square
I Live in Grosvenor Square is a British World War II romance directed and produced by Herbert Wilcox. It was the first of Wilcox's "London films" collaboration with actress Anna Neagle, her co-stars were Rex Harrison. The plot is set in a context of US-British wartime co-operation, displays icons of popular music with the purpose of harmonising relationships on both sides of the Atlantic. An edited version was distributed in the United States, with two additional scenes filmed in Hollywood, under the title A Yank in London. In the summer of 1943, after he is taken off combat operations for medical reasons, American SSgt John Patterson, an Army Air Force gunner, is billeted in the London home of the Duke of Exmoor in London's Grosvenor Square, he is befriended by the Duke and British paratrooper Major David Bruce, who has taken leave to contest a parliamentary by-election. On a weekend visit to the duke's estate near Exmoor in Devon, Patterson meets the duke's granddaughter, Lady Patricia Fairfax, a corporal in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, David's childhood sweetheart.
After a cool beginning based on cultural misunderstandings, they fall in love. David is unaware of what is happening until the final night before the election, when it becomes clear to him during a party on the estate; the next day, the duke learns that his estate has been appropriated by the American army for a base and that David has lost the election. When Patterson realizes that Pat and David have long expected to marry, he contrives to obtain medical clearance to go back to combat duty. David and Pat have an ugly showdown over Patterson. David realizes that Pat arranges for them to reunite. Returning from a mission with heavy battle damage, Patterson attempts to help his pilot land their B-17 Flying Fortress at an emergency landing strip at Exmoor, but is killed when the bomber stalls as they manoeuvre to avoid crashing in the village; the duke and his family mourn Patterson at a memorial service in the village church, while David takes off with his paratroop unit to parachute into France on D-Day.
Anna Neagle as Lady Patricia Fairfax, granddaughter of the Duke of Exmoor Rex Harrison as Major David Bruce Dean Jagger as Staff Sergeant John Patterson Robert Morley as the Duke of Exmoor Nancy Price as Mrs. Wilson Dame Irene Vanbrugh as Mrs. Mildred Catchpole, cousin of the Duke of Exmoor Jane Darwell as Mrs. Patterson Elliott Arluck as Sergeant Benjie Greenburg Walter Hudd as Vicar Edward Rigby as Innkeeper Cecil Ramage as Trewhewy Irene Manning as Herself - U. S. O. Singer Francis Pierlot as Postman Aubrey Mallalieu as Bates Michael Shepley as Lieutenant LutyensNotable supporting players included Charles Victor, Ronald Shiner, Percy Walsh, Brenda Bruce, Shelagh Fraser, John Slater, Alvar Lidell, David Horne, Robert Farnon and Carroll Gibbons; the Canadian Band of the AEF appears with bandleader/arranger Captain Robert Farnon. They filmed their sequence in late 1944. Wilcox said Rex Harrison was the greatest actor whom he had directed "without a doubt", he planned on making more films with Harrison but the actor received a contract offer from 20th Century Fox and left for Hollywood.
Critic Bosley Crowther wrote in The New York Times, "There is much, admirable about A Yank in London, the glimpses of Irene Manning singing for the boys at the Rainbow Corner in Piccadilly will stir memories. But the picture, like the script, is diffuse, Mr. Wilcox in his direction permits scenes to dissolve in a rambling, confusing style". I Live in Grosvenor Square at AllMovie I Live in Grosvenor Square at the British Film Institute's Film and TV Database I Live in Grosvenor Square on IMDb
Royal Shakespeare Theatre
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre is a 1,040+ seat thrust stage theatre owned by the Royal Shakespeare Company dedicated to the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is located in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon – Shakespeare's birthplace – in the English Midlands, beside the River Avon; the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres re-opened in November 2010 after undergoing a major renovation known as the Transformation Project. The Royal Shakespeare Theatre opened in 1932 on the site adjacent to the original Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, destroyed by fire on 6 March 1926, whose name it took; the architect was Elisabeth Scott, so the theatre became the first important work erected in Britain from the designs of a woman architect. It was renamed the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in 1961, following the establishment of the Royal Shakespeare Company the previous year. In the building designed by Scott, the theatre had a proscenium-arch stage, a seating capacity of about 1,400 people, on three tiers.
Two tiers of seating were added to the side walls of the theatre and the stage extended beyond the proscenium, by means of an'apron'. Balcony seats could only be accessed by means of a staircase to the side of the building, separate from the main foyer and bar; the theatre has several notable Art Deco features, including the staircase and corridors at either side of the auditorium. It is a Grade II* listed building; the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres are on the western bank of the River Avon, with the adjacent Bancroft Gardens providing a scenic riverside setting. The Rooftop Restaurant and Bar overlooks both the Bancroft Gardens; the Royal Shakespeare Company has renovated the Royal Shakespeare Theatre as part of a £112.8m Transformation project which included the creation of a new 1040+ seat, thrust stage auditorium which brings actors and audiences closer together, with the distance of the furthest seat from the stage being reduced from 27 metres to 15 metres. The Transformation project included improvements to the Swan Theatre, the creation of an array of new public spaces, including a new Riverside Cafe and Rooftop Restaurant, a 36-metre observation tower, improved backstage conditions for the actors and crew.
The new theatre is more accessible to people with disabilities and offers a more comfortable theatre experience. The theatre is a "one-room" theatre, which allows the actors and the audience to share the same space, as they did when Shakespeare's plays were first produced; the stage reaches out into the audience. This one-room theatre creates a more traditional Shakespearean performance area, allowing the audience to draw closer to the actors and creating a more personal theatre experience; the funding for the project came from many different sources including. The Transformation project incorporated the creation of the temporary Courtyard Theatre to house performances in Stratford-upon-Avon during the time the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres were closed, new offices at Chapel Lane, a nursery and refurbished rehearsal rooms at Arden Street; the project reached over a total of £100 million in cost and drew in financial support from RSC America and its own board members. Plans to redevelop the theatre were finalised and work commenced in 2007, with a scheduled completion date of 2010.
The RSC had its own project team, led by Project Director, Peter Wilson OBE. Other members of the project team included: Bennetts Associates, Buro Happold, Mace, Acoustic Dimensions, Drivers Jonas Deloitte and Gardiner and Theobald. An urn containing the ashes of Actor Ian Richardson who had died on 9 February 2007 was placed into the foundations of the auditorium of the building during its renovation in 2008 by his widow Maroussia Frank and his son Miles Richardson. Meanwhile, performances were transferred to the temporary Courtyard Theatre, a full-sized working prototype for the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, built on the site of the RSC's studio theatre, The Other Place; the new theatre opened in November 2010, with preview events and activities, in advance of the first full Shakespeare performances from the RSC's existing repertoire from February 2011. The first new productions designed for the Royal Shakespeare Theatre's stage began from April 2011, with Michael Boyd's Macbeth, part of the RSC's 50th Birthday Season celebrations, which ran from April to December 2011.
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre was opened on 4 March 2011 by Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, who were given a performance of the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet. The theatre has a new Rooftop Restaurant and Bar with views over the River Avon, a Riverside Cafe and Terrace, a Colonnade linking the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres together for the first time, the PACCAR Room exhibition space, a 36-metre-high tower which provides circulation and views across Stratford-upon-Avon and the surrounding area from its 32-metre-high viewing platform. There is a riverside walk which stretches from the Bancroft Gardens, past the theatre, towards Holy Trinity Church; the whole building is now accessible for the first time for visitors and staff with disabilities. There are three times as many dedicated wheelchair spaces in the new Royal Shakespeare Theatre auditorium in comparison to the previous auditor
They Came to a City
They Came to a City is a 1944 British film directed by Basil Dearden adapted from a J. B. Priestley play, it stars John Clements, Googie Withers, Raymond Huntley, Renee Gadd, A. E. Matthews and others, is notable for including a cameo guest appearance by Priestley as himself; the plot concerns the experiences of various people who have come to live in their "ideal" city, explores their hopes and reasons for doing so. Many of the cast had performed their roles in the original stage play; the film's art direction was by Michael Relph. In The New York Times, Bosley Crowther wrote, "as symbolism and an outlet for Priestley's philosophy, "They Came to a City" is eloquent and courageous, but as a motion picture it is immobile."