Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Brenda Gilmore is a Democratic member of the Tennessee Senate, representing the 19th District since 2019. Brenda Gilmore graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Business degree from Tennessee State University in 1984, with a Master of Human Resource Development degree from Vanderbilt University in 1988, she is a graduate of the Tennessee Government Executive Institute, the Vanderbilt Leadership Development Forum, Leadership Nashville. From 1979 to 1987, she worked at the Tennessee Department of General Services, she is the Director of Mail Service at Vanderbilt University and has been director of State Postal Services. She has been a secretary of Fairfield Baptist Church and a Sunday School teacher, she served on the Nashville Metro Council from the 1st District from 1993-2003. She was elected to the Tennessee House. During the 2003-2007 session, she was the chairwoman of the Finance Committee, her daughter, Erica Gilmore, is a member of the Nashville Metro Council from the 19th district
Vanderbilt University is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1873, it was named in honor of New York shipping and rail magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, who provided the school its initial $1-million endowment despite having never been to the South. Vanderbilt hoped that his gift and the greater work of the university would help to heal the sectional wounds inflicted by the Civil War. Vanderbilt enrolls 12,800 students from all 50 U. S. states and over 100 foreign countries in four undergraduate and six graduate and professional schools. The university is in the process of converting its residence halls into an academic residential college system. Several research centers and institutes are affiliated with the university, including the Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities, the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Dyer Observatory. Vanderbilt University Medical Center part of the university, became a separate institution in 2016. With the exception of the off-campus observatory, all of the university's facilities are situated on its 330-acre campus in the heart of Nashville, 1.5 miles from downtown.
Despite its urban surroundings, the campus itself is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs. The Fugitives and Southern Agrarians were based at the university in the first half of the 20th century and helped revive Southern literature among others; the Jean and Alexander Heard Library, the campus library system, contains over 8 million items across ten libraries and stands as one of the nation's top research libraries. Vanderbilt Television News Archive holds the most extensive collection of television news coverage in the world, with over 40,000 hours of content. BioVU, Vanderbilt's DNA databank, is one of the largest of its kind in the world, running over 200 ongoing projects and holding over 225,000 samples. Additionally, Vanderbilt's Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, the largest of its type in the world, provides integral support to several companies and governmental units, including Boeing, NASA, the United States Department of Defense.
Vanderbilt has many distinguished alumni and affiliates, including 45 current and former members of the United States Congress, 17 U. S. Ambassadors, 13 governors, ten billionaires, seven Nobel Prize laureates, two Vice Presidents of the United States, two U. S. Supreme Court Justices. Other notable alumni include Rhodes Scholars, Pulitzer Prize winners, Academy Award winners, Grammy Award winners, MacArthur Fellows, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, heads of state and other leaders in foreign government, musicians, professional athletes, Olympians. Vanderbilt has more than 139,000 alumni, with 40 alumni clubs established worldwide. Vanderbilt is a founding member of the Southeastern Conference and has been the conference's only private school for a half-century. In the years prior to the American Civil War of 1861–1865, the Methodist Episcopal Church South had been considering the creation of a regional university for the training of ministers in a location central to its congregations. Following lobbying by Nashville bishop Holland Nimmons McTyeire, church leaders voted to found "The Central University of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South" in Nashville in 1872.
However, lack of funds and the ravaged state of the Reconstruction Era South delayed the opening of the college. The following year, McTyeire stayed at the New York City residence of Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose second wife was Frank Armstrong Crawford Vanderbilt, a cousin of McTyeire's wife, Amelia Townsend McTyeire. Cornelius Vanderbilt, the wealthiest man in the United States at the time, was considering philanthropy as he was at an advanced age, he had been planning to establish a university on New York, in honor of his mother. However, McTyeire convinced him to donate $500,000 to endow Central University in order to "contribute to strengthening the ties which should exist between all sections of our common country."The endowment was increased to $1 million and would be only one of two philanthropic causes financially supported by Vanderbilt. Though he never expressed any desire that the university be named after himself, McTyeire and his fellow trustees rechristened the school in his honor.
Vanderbilt died in 1877 without seeing the school named after him. They acquired land owned by Texas Senator John Boyd inherited by his granddaughter and her husband, Confederate Congressman Henry S. Foote, who had built Old Central, a house still standing on campus; the first building, Main Building known as Kirkland Hall, was designed by William Crawford Smith, a Confederate veteran who designed the Parthenon. In the fall of 1875, about 200 students enrolled at Vanderbilt, in October the university was dedicated. Bishop McTyeire was named Chairman of the Board of Trust for life by Vanderbilt as a stipulation of his endowment. McTyeire named Landon Garland, his mentor from Randolph-Macon College in Virginia and then-Chancellor of the University of Mississippi, as chancellor; as chancellor, he shaped the school's structure and hired the school's faculty, many of whom were renowned scholars in their respective fields. However, most of this faculty left after disputes including over pay rates; when the first fraternity chapter, Phi Delta Theta, was established on campus in 1876, it was shut down by the faculty, only to be reestablished as a secret society in 1877.
Meanwhile, Old Gym
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Sumner County, Tennessee
Sumner County is a county located on the central northern border of the U. S. state in what is called Middle Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 160,645, its county seat is Gallatin, its largest city is Hendersonville. The county is named for American Revolutionary War hero General Jethro Sumner. Sumner County is part of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is made up of eight cities, including Gallatin, Hendersonville, Mitchellville, Portland and White House. Sumner County is 25 miles northeast of Tennessee. Prior to the European colonization of North America, the county had been inhabited by various cultures of Native Americans for several thousand years. Nomadic Paleo and Archaic hunter-gatherer campsites, as well as substantial Woodland and Mississippian-period occupation sites and burial grounds, can be found scattered throughout the county along the waterways; the majority of these sites exist along natural waterways, with the highest concentration occurring along what is now known as the Cumberland River.
Mississippian period earthwork mounds can still be seen in Hendersonville, most notably, at Castalian Springs. Long before Europeans entered the area, Native Americans made use of the natural hot springs for their medicinal and healing properties. British colonial longhunters traveled into the area as early as the 1760s, following existing Indian and buffalo trails. By the early 1780s, they had erected several trading posts in the region; the most prominent was Mansker's Station, built by Kasper Mansker near a salt lick. Another was Bledsoe's Station, built by Isaac Bledsoe at Castilian Springs. Sumner County was organized in 1786, just 3 yeears after the end of the American Revolutionary War, when Tennessee was still the western part of North Carolina; the county was developed for agriculture: tobacco and hemp, blooded livestock. Numerous settlers came from central Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, where these were the most important products. Middle Tennessee had fertile lands that could be used for similar crops and supported high-quality livestock as well.
The larger planters depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans, but Middle Tennessee had a lower proportion of slaves in the population than in West Tennessee, the plantation area of Memphis and the Delta, where cotton was cultivated. During the American Civil War, most of Tennessee was occupied by Union troops from 1862; this led to a breakdown in civil order in many areas. The Union commander, Eleazer A. Paine, was based at the county seat, he had suspected spies publicly executed without trial in the town square. He was replaced because of his mistreatment of the people. In 1873 the county was hit hard by the fourth cholera pandemic of the century, which had begun about 1863 in Asia, it reached North America and was spread by steamboat passengers who traveled throughout the waterways in the South on the Mississippi River and its tributaries. An estimated 120 persons died of cholera in Sumner County in 1873 during the summer; the disease was spread through contaminated water, due to the lack of sanitation.
About four-fifths of the county's victims were African Americans. Many families, both black and white, lost multiple members. In the United States overall, about 50,000 persons died of cholera in the 1870s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 543 square miles, of which 529 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Sumner County is located in Middle Tennessee on the state's northern border with Kentucky; the Cumberland River was important in early trade and transportation for this area, as it flows into the Ohio River to the west. That leads to the Mississippi River, downriver to the major port of New Orleans. Sumner County is in the Greater Nashville metropolitan area. Davidson County Macon County Robertson County Trousdale County Wilson County Allen County, Kentucky Simpson County, Kentucky Bledsoe Creek State Park Cragfont State Historic Site Gallatin Steam Plant Wildlife Management Area Old Hickory Lock and Dam Wildlife Management Area Rock Castle State Historic Site Taylor Hollow State Natural Area Wynnewood State Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 130,449 people, 48,941 households, 37,048 families residing in the county.
The population density was 246 people per square mile. There were 51,657 housing units at an average density of 98 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.49% White, 5.78% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, 0.96% from two or more races. 1.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000 there were 48,941 households out of which 36.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.30% were non-families. 20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 10.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was
The Tennessee Senate is the upper house of the U. S. state of Tennessee's state legislature, known formally as the Tennessee General Assembly. The Tennessee Senate has the power to pass resolutions concerning any issue regarding the state, country, or world; the Senate has the power to create and enforce its own rules and qualifications for its members. The Senate shares these powers with the Tennessee House of Representatives; the Senate alone has the power to host impeachment proceeding and remove impeached members of office with a 2/3 majority. Tennessee Senate, according to the state constitution of 1870, is composed of 33 members, one-third the size of the Tennessee House of Representatives. Senators are to be elected from districts of equal population. According to the constitution, a county is not to be joined to a portion of another county for purposes of creating a district; the Tennessee constitution has been amended to allow that if these rulings are changed or reversed, a referendum may be held to allow the senate districts to be drawn on a basis other than equal population.
In 1921, Anna Lee Keys Worley became the first woman to serve in the Tennessee Senate. Until 1966, Tennessee state senators served two-year terms; that year the system was changed, by constitutional amendment. In that year, senators in even-numbered districts were elected to two-year terms and those in odd-numbered districts were elected to four-year terms; this created a staggered system. Senators from even-numbered districts are elected in the same years as Presidential election, Senators from odd-numbered districts are elected in the same years as mid-term elections. Districts are to be consecutively numbered. Republicans attained an elected majority in the Senate in the 104th General Assembly for the first time since Reconstruction. According to Article III, Section 12 of the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, the Speaker of the Senate assumes Office of Governor in the event of a Vacancy; the Senate elects one of its own members as Speakerand the Speaker automatically becomes Lieutenant Governor of Tennessee.
The Speaker appoints a Speaker Pro Tempore who presides over the Senate in the absence of the Speaker as well as a Deputy speaker to assist the Speaker in his or her duties. The current Speaker of the Senate and Lieutenant Governor is Randy McNally, elected to the position in 2017. One of the main duties of the Speaker is to preside over the Senate and make Senate committee appointments based upon ability and preference of members and party representation; the Speaker maintains the power to remove members from Committee appointments. The Speaker, in cohort with the Speaker of the House of Representatives, chairs the Joint Legislative Services Committee which provides assistance to the General Assembly; the Speaker controls staffing and office space with Senate staff. The Speaker serves as an ex-officio member of all standing committees. "I do solemnly swear that, as a member of this, the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, I will faithfully support the Constitution of this State and of the United States, I do solemnly affirm that as a member of this General Assembly, I will, in all appointments, vote without favor, partiality, or prejudice.
"“No person shall be a senator unless he shall be a citizen of the United States, of the age of thirty years, shall have resided three years in this state, one year in the county or district preceding the election.” Senate Leaders Speaker of the Senate/ Lieutenant Governor: Randy McNally Speaker Pro Tempore: Ferrell Haile Deputy Speaker: Janice Bowling The Tennessee State Senate has 12 committees in total: 9 standing Committees and 3 Select Committees. During the 111th General Assembly, they are: Official website
Thelma Harper (politician)
Thelma Harper is a former American politician and the first African-American woman state senator in Tennessee. First elected in 1991, she was the longest-serving female State Senator in Tennessee history, she continued to break the glass ceiling by becoming the first woman to preside over the Senate. She was the first African-American woman to serve as the Chair of the Senate Government Operations Committee. Harper a flamboyant legislator is known as a fighter and known for wearing many hats both and figurative is a Democratic member of the Tennessee Senate for the 19th district, composed of a large portion of Davidson County including the urban core of Nashville.. She began her public service in 1980 when she was elected as Executive Committee Woman for the 2nd district, she was next elected to the city council in 1983. She served as the 2nd District Councilwoman and as State Senator of the 19th District to complete her term in the city council, she possesses a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration/Accounting from Tennessee State University.
POLITICAL TIMELINE: Thelma Harper served as a state senator for 30 years. Thelma Harper began her extraordinary public service career when she was selected to serve as Grand Jury Foreman for Davidson County's 5th Circuit Court and subsequently sought election to the Metropolitan Nashville/Davidson County Council to represent the 2nd District. For eight years Thelma Harper served as a member of the Nashville/Davidson County Metropolitan Council. Senator Harper's eight-year tenure on the Metropolitan Council saw her lead the successful fight to close the Bordeaux Landfill via a number of protests and blockades of dump trucks, during which she was arrested along with her fellow community activists. Before the facility was closed she sponsored legislation that enacted to set fair and equitable standards relative to landfill locations. Virtuous Women Book: Voices of Wisdom She was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 2000, 2008, 2004, 2008, 2012. In 2000 she was one of the Convention speakers on day 4 of the convention speaking to "The Al Gore I Know"KEY POLITICAL LEGISLATION: Senator Harper has provided a strong, unwavering voice for women, our most vulnerable children, the elderly.
She has passed legislation on a range of causes, including the establishment of a fee waiver to provide students from low-income homes with school supplies and lunches. She sponsored the legislation that renamed a portion of U. S. Highway 41 in honor of civil rights legend Rosa Parks, Senator Harper has played an integral role in the economic development of the 19th Senate District, helping win passage of numerous amendments to state budgets to benefit the citizens of her district through job training programs, workforce development efforts, capital projects like the Nashville Music City Center, where she worked to amend Tennessee's usury law to allow Nashville to sell the bonds to build the facility; the 19th district includes Downtown Nashville, Senator Harper worked with 5 sitting Nashville Mayors & 4 Governors. She has been instrumental in some of Nashville’s Historical moments like the Development of the Music City Center, the Downtown Nashville Library and the facilitation to bringing the NFL Titans Football team to Nashville.
She was instrumental in getting funds for Tennessee State University, Meharry Medical College, many non-profit organizations throughout the years. In 2004, when asked by The Tennessean whether the Tennessee state constitution should be changed to say the right to an abortion is not guaranteed, she replied that the issue should not be written into the state constitution. In 1996, Thelma Harper was one of only two state senators that did not vote in support of a bill to ban gay marriage in Tennessee, instead choosing to abstain. Thelma Harper proposed legislation that would rename U. S. Highway 41 as Rosa Parks Boulevard, successfully passed in both the House and the Senate. COMMITTEES: Throughout her career in she has served in numerous committees, she was the first African-American woman to serve as the Chair of the Senate Government Operations Committee.