The Griffith Observatory is a facility in Los Angeles, sitting on the south-facing slope of Mount Hollywood in Los Angeles' Griffith Park. It commands a view of the Los Angeles Basin, including Downtown Los Angeles to the southeast, Hollywood to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest; the observatory is a popular tourist attraction with a close view of the Hollywood Sign and an extensive array of space and science-related displays. Admission has been free since the observatory's opening in 1935, in accordance with the will of Griffith J. Griffith, the benefactor after whom the observatory is named. On December 16, 1896, 3,015 acres of land surrounding the observatory was donated to the City of Los Angeles by Griffith J. Griffith. In his will Griffith donated funds to build an observatory, exhibit hall, planetarium on the donated land. Griffith's objective was to make astronomy accessible by the public, as opposed to the prevailing idea that observatories should be located on remote mountaintops and restricted to scientists.
Griffith drafted detailed specifications for the observatory. In drafting the plans, he consulted with Walter Adams, the future director of Mount Wilson Observatory, George Ellery Hale, who founded the first astrophysical telescope in Los Angeles; as a Works Progress Administration project, construction began on June 20, 1933, using a design developed by architect John C. Austin based on preliminary sketches by Russell W. Porter; the observatory and accompanying exhibits were opened to the public on May 14, 1935, as the country's third planetarium. In its first five days of operation the observatory logged more than 13,000 visitors. Dinsmore Alter was the museum's director during its first years; the building combines Greek and Beaux-Arts influences, the exterior is embellished with the Greek key pattern. During World War II the planetarium was used to train pilots in celestial navigation; the planetarium was again used for this purpose in the 1960s to train Apollo program astronauts for the first lunar missions.
The observatory closed in 2002 for a major expansion of exhibit space. It reopened to the public on November 2006, retaining its art deco exterior; the $93 million renovation, paid by a public bond issue, restored the building, as well as replaced the aging planetarium dome. The building was expanded underground, with new exhibits, a café, gift shop, the new Leonard Nimoy Event Horizon Theater. A wildfire in the hills came dangerously close to the observatory on May 10, 2007. On October 15, 2017, brush fires approached the Observatory Trail, but were extinguished before causing any structural damage. On July 10, 2018, the Griffith Park Observatory was evacuated after a brush fire burned 25 acres and damaged cars but was extinguished before it damaged any buildings. On May 25, 2008, the Observatory offered. Ed Krupp is the current director of the Observatory; the first exhibit visitors encountered in 1935 was the Foucault pendulum, designed to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. The exhibits included a 12-inch Zeiss refracting telescope in the east dome, a triple-beam coelostat in the west dome, a thirty-eight foot relief model of the moon's north polar region.
Col. Griffith requested that the observatory include a display on evolution, accomplished with the Cosmochron exhibit which included a narration from Caltech Professor Chester Stock and an accompanying slide show; the evolution exhibit existed from 1937 to the mid-1960s. Included in the original design was a planetarium under the large central dome; the first shows covered topics including the Moon, worlds of the solar system, eclipses. The planetarium theater was renovated in 1964 and a Mark IV Zeiss projector was installed; the Café at the End of the Universe, an homage to Restaurant at the End of the Universe, is one of the many cafés run by celebrity chef Wolfgang Puck. One wall inside the building is covered with the largest astronomically accurate image constructed, called "The Big Picture", depicting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies; the 1964-vintage Zeiss Mark IV star projector was replaced with a Zeiss Mark IX Universarium. The former planetarium projector is part of the underground exhibit on ways in which humanity has visualized the skies.
Centered in the Universe features a high-resolution immersive video projected by an innovative laser system developed by Evans and Sutherland Corporation, along with a short night sky simulation projected by the Zeiss Universarium. A team of animators worked more than two years to create the 30-minute program. Actors, holding a glowing orb, perform the presentation, under the direction of Chris Shelton. Tickets for the show are purchased separately at the box office within the observatory. Tickets are sold on a first-served basis. Children under 5 are admitted to only the first planetarium show of the day. Only members of the observatory's support group, Friends Of The Observatory, may reserve tickets for the planetarium show; the observatory is split up into six sections: The Wilder Hall of the Eye, the Ahmanson Hall of the Sky, the W. M. Keck Foundation Central Rotunda, the Cosmic Connection, the Gunther Depths of Space Hall, the Edge of Space Mezzanine; the Wilder Hall of the Eye, located in the east wing of the main level focuses on astronomical tools like telescopes and how they evolved over time so people can see further into space.
Interactive features there include a Tesla coil and a "Camera Obscura", which uses mirrors and lenses to focus
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D. C. the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry; the AIA is headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and William J. Bates, FAIA as 2019 AIA President; the American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president.
They met on February 23, 1857, decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture or architectural licensing laws in the United States, they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10, 1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Thomas U. Walter, of Philadelphia suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects; the members signed the new constitution on April 15, 1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. The constitution was amended the following year with the mission "to promote the artistic and practical profession of its members. Architects in other cities were asking to join in the 1860s, by the 1880s chapters had been formed in Albany, Boston, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Rhode Island, San Francisco, St. Louis, Washington, D. C; as of 2008, AIA had more than 300 chapters.
The AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C. A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington. Mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts; the firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building. The design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. In honor of the 150th anniversary of the organization, the building was formally renamed in 2007 the "American Center for Architecture" and is home to the American Institute of Architecture Students, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture and the National Architectural Accrediting Board. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members. AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, colleagues of an architect's dedication to the highest standards in professional practice.
There are five levels of membership in the AIA: Architect members are licensed to practice architecture by a licensing authority in the United States. Associate members are not licensed to practice architecture but they are working under the supervision of an architect in a professional or technical capacity, have earned professional degrees in architecture, are faculty members in a university program in architecture, or are interns earning credit toward licensure. International associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States. Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 70 years of age or are incapacitated and unable to work in the architecture profession. Allied members are individuals whose professions are related to the building and design community, such as engineers, landscape architects, or planners. Allied membership is a partnership with the American Architectural Foundation. There is no National AIA membership category for students, but they can become members of the American Institute of Architecture Students and many local and state chapters of the AIA have student membership categories.
The AIA's most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. This membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. More than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have been elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA; the AIA has a staff of more than 200 employees. Although the AIA functions as a national organization, its 217 local and state chapters provide members with programming and direct services to support them throughout their professional lives; the chapters cover the entirety of its territories. Components operate in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, the Middle East, Hong Kong and Canada. By speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life; the AIA monitors legislative and regulator
Harvard Graduate School of Design
The Harvard Graduate School of Design is a professional graduate school at Harvard University, located at Gund Hall, Massachusetts. The GSD offers masters and doctoral programs in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, real estate, design engineering, design studies; the GSD has over 13,000 alumni and has graduated many famous architects, urban planners, landscape architects. The school is considered a global academic leader in the design fields; the GSD has the world's oldest landscape architecture program, North America's oldest urban planning program. Architecture courses were first taught at Harvard University in 1874; the Graduate School of Design was established in 1936, combining the three fields of architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture under one graduate school. The market value of the school's endowment for the fiscal year 2016 was $428 million. Charles Eliot Norton brought the first architecture classes to Harvard University in 1874. In 1900, the first urban planning courses were taught at Harvard University, by 1909, urban planning courses taught by James Sturgis Pray were added into Harvard's design curriculum as part of the landscape architecture department.
In 1923, North America's first urban planning degree was established at Harvard. In 1980, the program was temporarily moved to the Harvard Kennedy School of Government until it returned to the GSD in 1984. In 1893, the nation's first professional course in landscape architecture was offered at Harvard University. In 1900, the world's first landscape architecture program was established by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Arthur A. Shurcliff; the School of Landscape Architecture was established in 1913. The three major design professions were united in 1936 to form the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In 1937, Walter Gropius joined the GSD faculty as chair of the Department of Architecture and brought modern designers, including Marcel Breuer to help revamp the curriculum. In 1960, Josep Lluís Sert established the nation's first Urban Design program. George Gund Hall, the present iconic home GSD, opened in 1972 and was designed by Australian architect and GSD graduate John Andrews; the school's now defunct Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis is recognized as the research/development environment from which the now-commercialized technology of geographic information systems emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s.
More recent research initiatives include the Design Robotics Group, a unit that investigates new material systems and fabrication technologies in the context of architectural design and construction. The degrees granted in the masters programs include the Master of Architecture, Master in Landscape Architecture, Master of Architecture in Urban Design, Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design, Master in Urban Planning, Master in Design Engineering, Master in Design Studies in more than eight concentrations; the school offers a doctoral degree, Doctor of Design, jointly administers a Doctor of Philosophy degree in architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Master of Architecture Master in Urban Planning Master of Landscape Architecture Master of Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Engineering Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Studies with distinct concentrations:Art and the Public Domain Critical Conservation Energy and Environments History and Philosophy of Design Real Estate and the Built Environment Risk and Resilience Technology Urbanism, Ecology Doctor of Design Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture, Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture As of 2016, the program's ten-year average ranking, places it 1st, overall, on DesignIntelligence's ranking of programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.
Executive Education operates within GSD providing continuing education classes, they are located at 7 Sumner Rd. Advanced Management Development Program in Real Estate is a six-week executive development course; the program is open to established professionals with 15+ years of experience in real estate. Upon graduating from AMDP, participants are full-fledged Harvard University Alumni; as of 2013, AMDP is in its 13th year. The other large program organized by Executive Education is summer Open Enrollment. In 2013, Executive Education held 18 classes throughout the month of July; each class lasts from 1 to 3 days and is eligible for continuing education credits through American Institute of Architects, American Society of Landscape Architects and/or American Planning Association. Open Enrollment classes are open to everyone; as of 2012–2013, there were 878 students enrolled. 362 students or 42% were enrolled in architecture, 182 students or 21% in landscape architecture, 161 students or 18% in urban planning, 173 students or 20% in doctoral or design studies programs.
65% of students were Americans. The average student is 27 years old. GSD students are represented by the Harvard Graduate Council, the main university-wide student government organization. There are several dozen internal GSD student clubs. In addition to its degree programs, the GSD administers the Loeb Fellowship, numerous research initiatives such as the Zofnass Program for Sustainable Infrastructure; the school publishes the bi-annual Harvard Design Magazine and other design books and studio work
Historic preservation, heritage preservation or heritage conservation, is an endeavour that seeks to preserve and protect buildings, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance. This term refers to the preservation of the built environment, not to preservation of, for example, primeval forests or wilderness. In England, antiquarian interests were a familiar gentleman's pursuit since the mid 17th century, developing in tandem with the rise in scientific curiosity. Fellows of the Royal Society were also Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries. Many historic sites were damaged as the railways began to spread across the UK. In 1833 Berkhamsted Castle became the first historic site in England protected by statute under the London and Birmingham Railway Acts of 1833–1837, though the new railway line in 1834 did demolish the castle's gatehouse and outer earthworks to the south. Another early preservation event occurred at Berkhamsted. In 1866, Lord Brownlow who lived at Ashridge, tried to enclose the adjoining Berkhamsted Common with 5-foot steel fences in an attempt to claim it as part of his estate.
In England from early Anglo-Saxon times, Common land was an area of land which the local community could use as a resource. Across England between 1660 and 1845, 7 million acres of Common land had been enclosed by private land owners by application to parliament. On the night of 6 March 1866, Augustus Smith MP led gangs of local folk and hired men from London's East End in direct action to break the enclosure fences and protect Berkhamsted Common for the people of Berkhamsted in what became known nationally as the Battle of Berkhamsted Common. In 1870, Sir Robert Hunter and the Commons Preservation Society succeed in legal action that ensured protection of Berkhamsted Common and other open spaces threatened with enclosure. In 1926 the common was acquired by the National Trust. By the mid 19th century, much of Britain's unprotected cultural heritage was being destroyed. Well-meaning archaeologists like William Greenwell excavated sites with no attempt at their preservation, Stonehenge came under increasing threat by the 1870s.
Tourists were carving their initials into the rock. The private owners of the monument decided to sell the land to the London and South-Western Railway as the monument was "not the slightest use to anyone now". John Lubbock, an MP and botanist emerged as the champion of the country's national heritage. In 1872 he bought private land that housed ancient monuments in Avebury, Silbury Hill and elsewhere, from the owners who were threatening to have them cleared away to make room for housing. Soon, he began campaigning in Parliament for legislation to protect monuments from destruction; this led to the legislative milestone under the Liberal government of William Gladstone of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. The first government appointed inspector for this job was the archaeologist Augustus Pitt-Rivers; this legislation was regarded by conservative political elements as a grave assault on the individual rights of property of the owner, the inspector only had the power to identify endangered landmarks and offer to purchase them from the owner with his consent.
The Act only covered ancient monuments and explicitly did not cover historic buildings or structures. In 1877 the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings was founded by the Arts and Crafts designer William Morris to prevent the destruction of historic buildings, followed by the National Trust in 1895 that bought estates from their owners for preservation; the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 had only given legal protection to prehistoric sites, such as ancient tumuli. The Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900 took this further by empowering the government's Commissioners of Work and local County Councils to protect a wider range of properties. Further updates were made in 1910. Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire, a medieval manor house had been put up for sale in 1910 with its greatest treasures, the huge medieval fireplaces, still intact. However, when an American bought the house they were packaged up for shipping; the former viceroy of India, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, was outraged at this cultural destruction and stepped in to buy back the castle and reinstall the fireplaces.
After a nationwide hunt for them they were found in London and returned. He restored the castle and left it to the National Trust on his death in 1925, his experience at Tattershall influenced Lord Curzon to push for tougher heritage protection laws in Britain, which saw passage as the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913. The new structure involved the creation of the Ancient Monuments Board to oversee the protection of such monuments. Powers were given for the board, with Parliamentary approval, to issue preservation orders to protect monuments, extended the public right of access to these; the term "monument" was extended to include the lands around it, allowing the protection of the wider landscape. The National Trust was founded in 1894 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter, Hardwicke Canon Rawnsley as the first organisation of its type in the world, its formal purpose is: The preservation for the benefit of the Nation of lands and tenements of beauty or historic interest and, as regards lands, for the preservation of their natural aspect and animal and plant life.
The preservation of furniture and chattels of any description having
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Playa Vista, Los Angeles
Playa Vista is a neighborhood located in the Westside of the City of Los Angeles, United States, north of LAX, sitting just below the Loyola Marymount University campus. Prior to the development of Playa Vista, the area was the headquarters of Hughes Aircraft Company from 1941 to 1985, was the site of the construction of the Hughes H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose" aircraft; the area began development in 2002 as a planned community with residential and retail components. The community has become a choice address for businesses in technology and entertainment and, along with Santa Monica and Venice, has become known as Silicon Beach; the Tongva Native Americans once inhabited the location now occupied by Playa Vista. There was a Tongvan sacred burial site located here: "about 1,000 Native American remains had been exhumed during construction," grave sites that were deemed sacred by the Tongva people; the remains were discovered. In 2008, the remains "were laid to rest and covered with white seashells during a sacred burial ceremony near the Westchester bluffs."
In addition, "Playa Vista plans to complete a museum dubbed the Discovery Center to educate people about the Ballona wetlands and the Gabrieliño-Tongva tribe. It is expected to be completed at the end of." In 1839 the land was part of Rancho La Ballona in 1887, it became part of the Port Ballona. Prior to its development as headquarters for Hughes Aircraft Company, much of the land occupied by Playa Vista was a wetlands connected with a large salt-marsh in what is now Marina Del Rey; these wetlands were part of the larger Ballona Creek watershed that occupied these areas along with what is now Playa Del Rey, much of Venice, Los Angeles. In the 1940s, the aviator Howard Hughes bought the site and constructed a private airfield runway, named Hughes Airport, an aircraft factory with large hangars for his Hughes Aircraft Company production; the famous Spruce Goose, with the largest wingspan and height of any aircraft in history, was built in the hangar and transported to Long Beach Harbor for its only flight in 1947.
During the late 1990s, DreamWorks failed in its attempt to build a studio in Playa Vista. Phase One of Playa Vista began in 2001 as "a mix of affordable and luxury housing and commercial space and open spaces and recreational amenities, all set next to a restored wetlands and wildlife preserve." In October, Steve Soboroff was named president of Playa Vista. It was one of "six communities in the nation selected by President Bill Clinton in 1998 as a National Pilot Project of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing." As such it is, "one of the most technologically advanced communities planned" and is "fully connected via telecommunications and broadband capabilities." It was constructed as, "a model for green development energy saving systems, non-toxic and recycled materials, product selections and design techniques that promote conservation minimizing the impacts of development on the environment." However, some environmentalists and residents in the nearby communities of Mar Vista and Venice oppose the development arguing that it will increase traffic congestion throughout the Los Angeles Westside.
Beginning in 1994, developers and some environmentalists worked together to restore the Ballona Wetlands. Other environmentalists, oppose development in the wetlands. A controversy surrounding methane at Playa Vista developed around 2000. On April 17, 2000, Exploration Technologies, "found methane seeps much larger than any reported, one about 1,000 feet long, a second smaller, in the area east of Lincoln Boulevard and south of Jefferson Boulevard." The City Council asked Playa Vista to conduct more studies with ETI as a peer reviewer. This study found that ETI's original hypothesis was incorrect, stated that a fault zone did not exist under Lincoln Boulevard; the study further showed that gas seepage from the southern California gas storage facility was not occurring. The report concluded that "no significant fault is possible under the entire Playa Vista development project site." In 2002, the Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety required the installation of gas mitigation systems at Playa Vista, consisting of a membrane shield under the buildings, a series of alarms.
According to officials at the L. A. Department of Building and Safety, "Methane is an old story in Los Angeles and the standards the city requires at Playa Vista are the strictest in the country. Hence, Playa residents we spoke to cited areas where the gas has not been mitigated - such as Venice, Santa Monica, nearly all of the Westside - as more dangerous." Many argue that "much of the methane is natural - not the kind that comes from the gas company."The Los Angeles City Council has voted in favor of the developers of the project. The development has a government-mandated blend of high- and low-income housing. According to the Los Angeles Times, "ver the last decade, government agencies and courts have ruled in Playa Vista's favor Engineers and consultants for the project have joined the city of Los Angeles in saying the safety measures are the most elaborate the city has required." Playa Vista's parks and landscaped areas are serviced with 100% recycled water. The boundaries of the developed portion are Lincoln Boulevard and the Ballona Wetlands on the west, Ballona Creek on the north, Centinela Avenue on the east, the Del Rey Hills bluffs on the south.
Playa Vista is bordered by the unincorporated enclave of Marina Del Rey to the northwest, by the community of Playa del R
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of