Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, KG, KT, PC, ADC is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. He is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews. He spent parts of a gap year in Chile, Belize, in December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, he qualified as a pilot by completing training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell. He underwent helicopter flying training in order to become a pilot with the RAF Search. His service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013, William married Catherine Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. Hours before the wedding, he was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, the couples first child, Prince George, was born on 22 July 2013, and their second, Princess Charlotte, was born on 2 May 2015.
William, the first child of the Prince and Princess of Wales, was born at St Marys Hospital and his names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace a week on 28 June. He was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August by the Archbishop of Canterbury and he was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William was affectionately called Wombat by his parents or Wills, Williams first public appearance was on 1 March 1991, during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff, Wales. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors book, on 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the side of the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club. He did not lose consciousness, but suffered a fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a Harry Potter scar and he was reported to have said, I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they dont notice it at all.
His mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children and she took them to Walt Disney World and McDonalds as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless. She bought them typical teenage items, such as video games, who was by divorced from the Prince of Wales, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William, aged 15, along with his brother who was 12, the Prince of Wales waited until his sons woke the following morning to tell them about their mothers death. At his mothers funeral, William accompanied his father, paternal grandfather, William began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age. William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors nursery school, following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham and was privately tutored during summers by Rory Stewart
Secret Garden (duo)
The group has sold over 3 million albums since having won the 1995 Eurovision Song Contest, representing Norway with the composition Nocturne. The group won the Eurovision Melody Grand Prix Contest for Norways second time in 1995 with the composition Nocturne. Norwegian singer Gunnhild Tvinnereim sang the song in the Eurovision Song Contest and Swedish nyckelharpist Åsa Jinder guested on the occasion, ten years earlier, Rolf Løvland wrote the song La det swinge that secured Norway its first Eurovision Song Contest victory in 1985. Their success at Eurovision spearheaded the success of their first album Songs from a Secret Garden. It sold a million copies around the world going platinum in Norway and Korea, gold in Ireland, Hong Kong and New Zealand, barbra Streisand adapted Heartstrings from this album as the song Ive Dreamed of You on her A Love Like Ours album. She used Heartstrings in her wedding to James Brolin, the album White Stones followed in 1997 making the top ten on Billboard New Age charts.
Secret Garden has released a Dreamcatcher, Best Of album for its tour through Australia and it reached the top of the Australian New Age charts and the ARIA top 50 album charts. Their piece Adagio, with a cor anglais solo, was used in the Wong Kar-wai film 2046 released in 2004, in 2010, Fionnuala Sherry released her solo debut entitled Songs From Before. Secret Garden published a written by Rolf Løvland with Fionnuala Sherry as co-writer entitled You Raise Me Up. The book tells their story from the inside - their triumphs as well as the trials and tribulations theyve endured along two decades
Christopher Andrew Christy Moore is an Irish folk singer and guitarist. He is one of the members of Planxty and Moving Hearts. His first album, Paddy on the Road was recorded with Dominic Behan in 1969, in 2007, he was named as Irelands greatest living musician in RTÉs People of the Year Awards. Moore was born in Newbridge, County Kildare and attended Newbridge College and he was originally a bank employee who wanted to express himself using traditional music. During a bank strike in 1966, which lasted twelve weeks, he went to England, as many striking officials did, I had a wild and wonderful time in England, with no bank manager looking over my shoulder, he said. Doing general labouring work, he frequented the clubs and the Irish music pubs where he met Seamus Ennis, Margaret Barry, Luke Kelly, Martin Byrnes. 1972 brought his first major release, which brought together the four musicians who shortly thereafter formed Planxty, Liam OFlynn, Andy Irvine, for a time they called themselves CLAD, an acronym of their names, but soon decided on Planxty.
After leaving Planxty in 1975, Moore continued on his solo career and he formed the band Moving Hearts with Lunny and five other musicians in 1980. In 1987 he appeared on Gay Byrnes The Late Late Show performing with The Dubliners for their 25th Anniversary, in 2000, he published his autobiography, One Voice. Moores earlier years of drinking, sleeping dysfunctional hours, continual travelling and often eating takeaway foods resulted in a decline in health. Moores battle with alcohol, and subsequent heart operations, have taken their toll, at the end of the 1990s, Moore reduced his workload for medical reasons. Some of Moores songs are influenced by drink and the effects of drink. Listening to Johnny Mulherns song Hard Cases caused Moore to recall the Galway drinking scene with local musicians Mickey Finn, Pete Galligan and Terry Smith. On 17 April 2009, Moore released his first new album in four years, entitled Listen. In December 2011, Moore released the album Folk Tale and his most recent album Where I Come From was released in November 2013 and features a new protest song called Arthurs Day.
The album peaked at three in the Irish album charts. He supported the republican H-Block protestors with the albums H-Block in 1978, the launch of which was raided by the police, and The Spirit of Freedom. He has recorded songs by the hunger striker Bobby Sands and he ceased supporting the military activities of the IRA in 1987 as a result of the Enniskillen bombing
Eurovision Song Contest 1994
The Eurovision Song Contest 1994 was the 39th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 30 April 1994 in the Point Theatre in Dublin, Ireland. As of 2017, it was the last time the contest was held in April, the presenters were Cynthia Ní Mhurchú and Gerry Ryan. The pair hosted the evening in French and Irish, once again Ireland won the contest for the third time in a row, when Paul Harrington and Charlie McGettigan were the winners with a song written by Brendan Graham, Rock N Roll Kids. This was a sixth victory for Ireland, giving it the outright record number of victories at the Eurovision Song Contest. It was the first time — and to date the only time — that the contest had been won by the country in three consecutive years. The contest opened with a film of stars floating in water and caricatures dancing around, drinking coffee. The cameras went live to the venue itself, where dressed in white and wearing caricatured heads of well-known Irish figures. The presenters entered the stage spectacularly from a bridge which descended from the roof of the theatre and this year’s video postcards had a literary theme, showing contestants reading and doing other activities around Ireland.
The floor was painted with a dark blue paint to give a watery effect. Because Italy and Luxembourg withdrew voluntarily, the bottom 5 of the 1993 Contest were relegated and this meant that Belgium, Israel and Turkey did not participate this year opening spaces for the new countries. This contest saw Luxembourg withdraw from Eurovision indefinitely, Poland took part for the first time and caused a scandal when Edyta Górniak broke the rules by singing her song in English during the dress rehearsal. Only six countries demanded that Poland should be disqualified, though the rules required 13 countries to complain before Poland could be removed from the competition. The proposed removal did not occur and Poland went on to come 2nd in the contest, for the first time in Eurovision history, voting was done via satellite instead of by telephone, and as a result, viewers could see the spokespersons onscreen. When the voting started, Hungary took the lead from the first six juries and was ahead of all the other countries.
However, Ireland powered their way through the board ending up the winners with a 60-point lead over second-placed Poland. The interval act was the first ever performance of the Irish dancing spectacular Riverdance, featuring Michael Flatley, ^ Contains some words in English. Each country had a jury who awarded 12,10,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1 point for their top ten songs. With advances in technology, this was the first contest in which the spokesperson for each national jury appeared on-screen, live from their own countries
Prince George of Cambridge
Prince George of Cambridge is the elder child and only son of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. He is third in line to succeed his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, after his grandfather, Prince of Wales. On 3 December 2012, Clarence House announced that the Duke, at less than twelve weeks, the announcement was made earlier in the pregnancy than is traditional because of the Duchesss admission to hospital with hyperemesis gravidarum. During this time, a couple of Australian radio jockeys attempted to ring up the Hospital and they tried to put on fake British accents and mimicked the Queen and Prince Charles. The nurse who answered their call committed suicide, before the birth, there was speculation the event would boost the British national economy and provide a focus for national pride. Welsh composer Paul Mealor, who composed Ubi Caritas et Amor for the wedding of the Duke and Duchess, composed a lullaby entitled Sleep On, a recording was made of it by New Zealand soprano Hayley Westenra as a gift for the baby.
Commemorative coins were issued by the Royal Mint, Royal Canadian Mint, and Royal Australian Mint, the Duchess was admitted to St Marys Hospital, London, in the early stages of labour on 22 July 2013. She gave birth to a boy weighing 8 pounds 6 ounces at 16,24 BST the same day, Queen Elizabeth IIs former gynaecologist, Marcus Setchell, delivered the baby assisted by Guy Thorpe-Beeston, Sunit Godambe and Physician to the Queen John Cunningham. The midwifery team accompanying the gynaecologists was led by Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trusts director of midwifery Professor Jackie Dunkley-Bent, William was by his wifes side when she gave birth. The Duchess and her baby, accompanied by the Duke, left hospital on 23 July, William took the full two weeks paternity leave from his job allowed by the Ministry of Defence. Julia Samuel, William van Cutsem and Zara Tindall serving as godparents, the ceremony used a font that was made for Queen Victorias first child and water from the River Jordan. The Royal Mint issued a set of coins to celebrate the christening.
George, with his parents, embarked on his first royal tour in April 2014 and his first public engagement of the tour was on 9 April at a playdate at Government House, organised by the New Zealand parenting organisation, Plunket. On 20 April, Easter Sunday, he met a bilby named after him at Taronga Zoo in Sydney, the BBC said at the end of the tour theres no doubt Prince George stole the limelight. Georges first birthday party was themed around childrens author Beatrix Potter, on 2 May 2015, George visited the hospital of his birth after the birth of his sister Charlotte, his first public appearance in the United Kingdom. In January 2016, George started his education at the Westacre Montessori School Nursery and that April, he was photographed for postage stamps to mark his great-grandmothers 90th birthday, alongside his father and grandfather. On 22 April of that year, he met President of the United States Barack Obama and he was photographed with a rocking horse that Obama had given him when he was born.
The encounter prompted Obama to joke that Prince George showed up to our meeting in his bathrobe, in March 2017, it was announced that George would begin primary school in September at the private Thomass School in Battersea
You Raise Me Up
You Raise Me Up is a song originally composed by Irish-Norwegian duo Secret Garden. The music was written by Secret Gardens Rolf Løvland and the lyrics by Brendan Graham, after the song was performed early in 2002 by the Secret Garden and their invited lead singer, Brian Kennedy, the song only became a minor UK hit. The song has been recorded by more than a hundred other artists including Josh Groban, the Irish band Westlife popularized the song in the UK two years later. You Raise Me Up is sung as a hymn in church services. The song was written as an instrumental piece and titled Silent Story. Parts of the melody resemble the traditional Irish tune Londonderry Air, Løvland approached Irish novelist and songwriter Brendan Graham to write the lyrics to his melody after reading Grahams novels. The song was written by and for Løvland himself and performed for the very first time at the funeral of Løvlands mother, here he noted “theres something about the song people are embracing - which becomes emotionally strong. I believe people think of it as a song they use for their own stuff. ”.
In 2002, it was released on the Secret Garden album Once in a Red Moon, with the vocals sung by Irish singer Brian Kennedy, and sold well in both Ireland and Norway. Originally, Brian Kennedy was supposed to follow Secret Garden on their Asian tour in 2002, but fell ill and he was replaced by Norwegian singer Jan Werner Danielsen, who later recorded the song together with Secret Garden. A demo version of this recording was released in 2010, on Danielsens posthumous compilation album One More Time - The Very Best Of, which included several previously unpublished recordings. The song has found success as part of a three-song EP entitled George Best - A Tribute by Peter Corry and the songs original vocalist Brian Kennedy. In 2004, the song was played more than 500,000 times on American radio, in late 2005, there were over 80 versions available in USA alone, and it has been nominated for Gospel Music Awards four times, including Song of the Year. On 21 September 2006, You Raise Me Up became the first song to have sold over 76,000 copies of the score on the sheet music website musicnotes. com.
In 2003, David Foster decided to produce the song after being introduced to it by Frank Petrone of peermusic and he chose the up-and-coming Josh Groban to record the song, which was accompanied by the tenor Craig Von Vennik of the Establishment. Grobans version made it to #1 on the Billboard adult contemporary chart in early 2004 and this version peaked at #73 on the Billboard Hot 100, his first single to do so, and was nominated for a 2005 Grammy award. Groban performed the song at Super Bowl XXXVIII, in a special NASA commemoration for the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, a special surprise performance by Groban, for Oprah Winfreys 50th birthday, gave You Raise Me Up massive international prominence. On April 25,2007, Groban performed it at the first Idol Gives Back Concert and this version was released as a single and peaked at #76 on the Billboard Hot 100
Eurovision Song Contest
The competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951. The contest has been broadcast every year for sixty years, since its inauguration in 1956 and it is one of the most watched non-sporting events in the world, with audience figures having been quoted in recent years as anything between 100 million and 600 million internationally. Eurovision has been broadcast outside Europe to several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, New Zealand, and China. An exception was made in 2015, when Australia was allowed to compete as a guest entrant as part of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the event. In November 2015, the EBU announced that Australia was invited back as a participant in the 2016 contest after their success in 2015, following their success again in 2016, Australia will compete again in 2017. Since 2000, the contest has been broadcast over the Internet via the Eurovision website, winning the Eurovision Song Contest provides a short-term boost to the winning artists career, but rarely results in long-term success.
Notable exceptions are ABBA, Bucks Fizz and Céline Dion, all of whom launched successful careers after their wins. Ireland holds the record for the highest number of wins, having won the contest seven times—including four times in five years in 1992,1993,1994 and 1996. Under the current voting system, the highest scoring winner is Jamala of Ukraine who won the 2016 contest in Stockholm, under the previous system, in place from 1975 to 2015, the highest scoring winner is Alexander Rybak of Norway with 387 points in 2009. Satellite television did not exist, and the Eurovision Network comprised a terrestrial microwave network, the name Eurovision was first used in relation to the EBUs network by British journalist George Campey in the London Evening Standard in 1951. The first contest was held in the town of Lugano, seven countries participated—each submitting two songs, for a total of 14. This was the only contest in more than one song per country was performed, since 1957. The 1956 contest was won by the host nation, the programme was first known as the Eurovision Grand Prix.
This Grand Prix name was adopted by Denmark and the Francophone countries, the Grand Prix has since been dropped and replaced with Concours in French, but not in Danish or Norwegian. The Eurovision network is used to carry news and sports programmes internationally. However, in the minds of the public, the name Eurovision is most closely associated with the Song Contest, a country as a participant is represented by one television broadcaster from that country, but not always, that countrys national public broadcasting organisation. The programme is hosted by one of the participant countries, during this programme, after all the songs have been performed, the countries proceed to cast votes for the other countries songs, nations are not allowed to vote for their own song. At the end of the programme, the song with the most points is declared as the winner, the programme is invariably opened by one or more presenters, welcoming viewers to the show
Being vocal groups, most boy band members do not play musical instruments, either in recording sessions or on stage, making the term something of a misnomer. Many boy bands dance as well as sing, usually giving highly choreographed performances, some such bands form on their own. They can evolve out of church choral or gospel music groups, due to this and their general commercial orientation towards a female audience of preteens, teenyboppers, or teens, the term may be used with negative connotations in music journalism. Boy bands are similar in concept to their counterparts, girl groups, the earliest forerunner of boy band music began in the late 19th century as a cappella barbershop quartets. They were usually a group of males and sang in four part harmonies, the popularity of barbershop quartets had been prominent into the earlier part of the 20th century. A revival of the vocal group took place in the late 1940s and 1950s with the use of doo-wop music. Doo-wop bands sang about topics such as love and other used in pop music.
The earliest traces of boy bands were in the mid-1950s although the boy band was not used. African American vocal group The Ink Spots was one of the first of what would now be called boy bands, the term boy band was not established until the late 1980s as before that they were called male vocal groups or hep harmony singing groups. For instance, their music featured close harmonies from soul music and catchy pop hooks influenced as much as they were by Motown and acts like the Supremes. All members of the band sang, which is a convention of a boy band, as opposed to having a front man. Even so, the members conveniently fitted into the convention of having stereotypical personality types, the Beatles were a direct influence on the conception of the Monkees, as they used rock band instrumentation and played more rock oriented music. With music produced by Don Kirshner, The Monkees became eventually dissatisfied with Kirshners control over them and they became independent two years later, working on their own up to 1970, when the group first dissolved.
Other antecedents exist throughout the history of pop music, the genre has been copied into languages and cultures other than the Anglo-American. The Puerto Rican boy band Menudo, appealing to young Latina audiences, was founded in 1977, Menudo had a convention unique among boy bands, when a member turned 16, became too tall, or their voice changed, they were replaced. The members of Menudo were generally aged 12–17, the Bay City Rollers were a Scottish pop band who were most popular in the mid-1970s. For a relatively brief but fervent period, they were worldwide teen idols, the group were one of the first bands like The Monkees before them to take the formula shown by The Beatles and apply it to a teen market. The group achieved the same amount of success but for a period of time
The Irish Times
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859. The editor is Kevin OSullivan who succeeded Geraldine Kennedy in 2011, the Irish Times is published every day except Sundays. Though formed as a Protestant nationalist paper, within two decades and under new owners it had become the voice of Irish unionism. It is no longer considered a unionist paper, it is perceived as being politically liberal and progressive. The papers most prominent columnists include writer and arts commentator Fintan OToole, former Taoiseach, Garret FitzGerald was a columnist. Senior international figures, including Tony Blair and Bill Clinton, have written for its op-ed page and its most prominent columns have included Drapier and Reason and the long-running An Irishmans Diary. An Irishmans Diary was penned by Patrick Campbell in the forties, by Seamus Kelly from 1949-1979, since Myers move to the rival Irish Independent, An Irishmans Diary is usually the work of Frank McNally. On the sports pages, Philip Reid is the papers golf correspondent, one of its most famous columns was the biting and humorous Cruiskeen Lawn satire column written by Myles na gCopaleen, the pen name of Brian ONolan who wrote books using the name Flann OBrien.
Cruiskeen Lawn is an Anglicised spelling of the Irish words cruiscín lán, Cruiskeen Lawn made its debut in October 1940 and appeared with varying regularity until ONolans death in 1966. The first appearance of a newspaper using the name The Irish Times occurred in 1823, the title was revived as a thrice weekly publication by Major Lawrence E. Knox, with the first edition being published on 29 March 1859. It was founded as a moderate Protestant Nationalist newspaper, reflecting the politics of Knox and its headquarters were at 4 Lower Abbey Street in Dublin. In its early days, its main competitor was the Dublin Daily Express, after Knoxs death in 1873 the paper was sold to the widow of Sir John Arnott, MP, a former Lord Mayor of Cork and owner of Arnotts, one of Dublins major Department stores. The sale, for £35,000, led to two major changes and its headquarters was shifted to 31 Westmoreland Street, remaining in buildings on or near that site until 2005. Its politics shifted dramatically, becoming predominantly Protestant and Unionist, the paper, along with the Irish Independent and various regional papers, called for the execution of the leaders of the failed 1916 Easter Rising.
Though the paper became a listed company in 1900, the family continued to hold a majority shareholding until the 1960s. The last member of the Arnott family to sit on the board was Sir Lauriston Arnott. The editor during the 1930s, R. M. Smyllie, had strong anti-fascist views, The Irish Times, like other national newspapers, had problems with Irish Government censorship during World War II. The Times was largely pro-Allied and was opposed to the Éamon de Valera governments policy of neutrality, in 1974, ownership was transferred to a non-charitable trust, The Irish Times Trust
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Brian Red Hurley is an Irish popular singer whose career has spanned several decades from the 1970s to 2016. In 1976 he represented Ireland at the Eurovision Song Contest with the song When, Red Hurley tours regularly, performing at some of Irelands principal concert venues. In August 2014 Hurley was one of the musical soloists chosen to perform at the State Funeral of former Irish Prime Minister, Albert Reynolds. Hurley was born in 1949 and grew up in Milltown, with four brothers, Liam and Fran and his sister Olive is an Irish dance teacher. His father spent some time as a musician, but worked as a public servant. His brother Fran has been his manager at different times and his brother Liam was Reds record producer and arranger in the phase of his career. Red has been married twice, first to top Dublin model Patricia Ward and to his partner and performance coach. He has 3 daughters, Stephanie and Kimberley and his youngest daughter Stephanie has begun to pursue a career in the music business.
Hurley started his career in 1969 as lead vocalist with The Colours, kiss Me Goodbye and I never said Goodbye. He enjoyed success with The Nevada until he left in 1974 to form his own Red Hurley Band. The hits continued during the subsequent decade with Love Is All, Broken Promises, Tennessee Special, Youre my Day Youre my Night and many others, Red toured extensively right up to the late 1980s. Throughout this time, despite success in Ireland, where he was a major star. Reds overall record in the Irish Charts places him among the biggest chart acts of all time in Ireland, with over 20 hits, altogether he has recorded over 500 songs in a career spanning the early seventies to the present day. He is still having chart hits in the 21st century giving him one of the longest chart careers in Irish show-business history, in 1976 Hurley represented Ireland at the Eurovision Song Contest. Though one of the favourites to win the contest, his song was beaten on the night by the strong UK entry Brotherhood of Man with their song.
Reds song When became a chart hit in Ireland and is still popular today with Eurovision fans. When was written by Brendan Graham, who composed two Eurovision winning songs for Ireland and Roll Kids in 1994 and The Voice for mezzo-soprano Eimear Quinn in 1996. He composed the worldwide hit You raise me up a hit for Josh Groban in the U. S and for Westlife