New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
The Masque (venue)
The Masque was a small punk rock club in central Hollywood, California which existed from 1977 to 1978. It is remembered as a key part of the early LA punk scene; the Masque was founded by Scottish-British-American rock promoter Brendan Mullen, opening on August 18, 1977. It became the nexus of the Los Angeles punk subculture, it was located between Hollywood Boulevard and Selma Avenue. Many LA bands performed there, including the Dickies, X, Bags, the Screamers, Black Randy and the Metrosquad, the Alley Cats, the Go-Go's, Suburban Lawns, the Mau-Mau's, the Weirdos, the Zeros, the Avengers, the Dils, the Skulls and the Controllers. Rhino 39, one of Long Beach, California's earliest punk rock bands played there often. Several bands rented practice space at the Masque, including the Motels, the Controllers, the Skulls and the Go-Go's. At least two compilation records featuring live performances at the Masque were released. First generation punk fanzines like Flipside and Slash covered the scene at the Masque.
The original Masque was closed by fire marshals on January 14, 1978. Mullen went on to open and promote shows at the Other Masque located in Hollywood, from December 1978 through spring 1979. Bands appearing at The Other Masque included the Dead Boys, the Cramps, Wall of Voodoo, the Flyboys, the Mutants, Dead Kennedys,The Red Army, X, Germs and others; the loss of the Other Masque resulted in punk bands having to move to the Sunset Strip clubs like the Whisky a Go Go or Gazzari's. This change in performance venues contributed to the fading of the LA punk scene in the early 1980s. After the second Masque closed, Mullen opened Club Lingerie, which lasted until 1991; the music video for "Perfect" by the Smashing Pumpkins, filmed in 1998, featured The Masque and its original graffiti. The building was renovated in 2001. While most of the walls were removed, the remaining walls in the basement continue to display much of the original graffiti. Mullen died of a stroke on October 12, 2009. Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist Flea wrote a two-page article on Mullen's passing along with his memories of the Masque in an October 2009 article for the Los Angeles Times.
Mullen had been one of the first club promoters to give the Chili Peppers their start in 1983, at Club Lingerie. The band included a tribute to Mullen, "Brendan's Death Song", on their 2011 album I'm with You. Footage of the remnants of the Masque, as it appeared in 2015, was featured in the documentary Who Is Billy Bones?, which included archival interview footage of Mullen discussing the formation of The Skulls. TLC. "Masque". The Go-Go's Notebook. Yampolsky, Michael. "Inside the Masque 1997". TranceWorks
Paisley is a town situated in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. Located on the northern edge of the Gleniffer Braes, the town borders the city of Glasgow to the east, straddles the banks of the White Cart Water, a tributary of the River Clyde, it serves as the administrative centre for the Renfrewshire council area, is the largest town in the historic county of the same name. Paisley is cited as "Scotland's largest town" and is the fifth largest settlement in the country, although it does not have city status; the town became prominent in the 12th century, with the establishment of Paisley Abbey, an important religious hub which had control over other local churches. By the 19th century, Paisley was a centre of the weaving industry, giving its name to the Paisley shawl and the Paisley Pattern; the town's associations with political Radicalism were highlighted by its involvement in the Radical War of 1820, with striking weavers being instrumental in the protests. As of 1993, all of Paisley's mills had closed, although they are memorialised in the town's museums and civic history.
And variously known as Paislay, Passelet and Passelay the burgh's name is of uncertain origin. However, some Scottish place-name books suggest "Pæssa's wood/clearing", from the Old English personal name Pæssa, "clearing", leāh, "wood". Pasilege and Paslie are recorded previous spellings of the name; the Gaelic translation is Pàislig. Paisley has monastic origins. A chapel is said to have been established by the 6th/7th century Irish monk, Saint Mirin at a site near a waterfall on the White Cart Water known as the Hammils. Though Paisley lacks contemporary documentation it may have been, along with Glasgow and Govan, a major religious centre of the Kingdom of Strathclyde. A priory was established in 1163 from the Cluniac priory at Wenlock in Shropshire, England at the behest of Walter fitz Alan, Steward of Scotland. In 1245 this was raised to the status of an Abbey; the restored Abbey and adjacent'Place', constructed out of part of the medieval claustral buildings, survive as a Church of Scotland parish church.
One of Scotland's major religious houses, Paisley Abbey was much favoured by the Bruce and Stewart royal families. King Robert III was buried in the Abbey, his tomb has not survived, but that of Princess Marjorie Bruce, ancestor of the Stewarts, is one of Scotland's few royal monuments to survive the Reformation. Paisley coalesced under James II's wish that the lands should become a single regality and, as a result, markets and commerce began to flourish. In 1488 the town's status was raised by James IV to Burgh of barony. Many trades sprang up and the first school was established in 1577 by the Town Council; the Paisley witches known as the Bargarran witches or the Renfrewshire witches, were tried in Paisley in 1697. Seven were convicted and five were hanged and burnt on the Gallow Green, their remains were buried at Maxwelton Cross in the west end of the town. This was the last mass execution for witchcraft in western Europe. A horse shoe was placed on top of the site to lock in the evil. A horse shoe is still visible in the middle of this busy road junction today—though not the original.
The modern shoe is made of bronze and bears the inscription, "Pain Inflicted, Suffering Endured, Injustice Done". The Industrial Revolution, based on the textile industry, turned Paisley from a small market town to an important industrial town in the late 18th century, its location attracted English mill owners. However, silk fell out of fashion in 1790; the mills switched to the imitation Kashmir shawls called "Paisley". Under the leadership of Thomas Coats, Paisley became the world centre for thread making; the high-status skilled weavers mobilised themselves in radical protests after 1790, culminating in the failed "Radical War" of 1820. Overproduction, the collapse of the shawl market and a general depression in the textile industry led to technical changes that reduced the importance of weavers. Politically the mill owners remained in control of the town. By the mid-19th century weaving had become the town's principal industry; the Paisley weavers' most famous products were the shawls, which bore the Paisley Pattern made fashionable after being worn by a young Queen Victoria.
Despite being of a Kashmiri design and manufactured in other parts of Europe, the teardrop-like pattern soon became known by Paisley's name across the western world. Although the shawls dropped out of fashion in the 1870s, the Paisley pattern remains an important symbol of the town: the Paisley Museum maintains a significant collection of the original shawls in this design, it has been used, for example, in the modern logo of Renfrewshire Council, the local authority. Through its weaving fraternity, Paisley gained notoriety as being a literate and somewhat radical town and between 1816 and 1820 became the scene of a Radical War. Political intrigue, early trades unionism and reforming zeal came together to produce mass demonstrations, cavalry charges down the high street, public riots and trials for treason. Documentation from the period indicates that overthrow of the government was contemplated by some; the weavers of Paisley were active in the'Radical War'. A mixture of religious opinions and healthy drink-fueled debate raged at night amongst the weavers, merchants and others.
The perceived radical n
I'm with You (album)
I'm with You is the tenth studio album by the American rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers. The album was released by Warner Bros. Records on August 26 in Europe and on August 29 in the US; the album made its debut at number one in 18 countries including the United Kingdom, while reaching number two in the United States and Canada. Produced by Rick Rubin, I'm with You was the band's first studio album since 2006's Stadium Arcadium, its first to feature guitarist Josh Klinghoffer, following the departure of John Frusciante in 2009, it is the final collaboration between Red Hot Chili Peppers and producer Rubin, whose relationship began with their fifth studio album Blood Sugar Sex Magik. The album received favorable reviews, with many praising newcomer Josh Klinghoffer for breathing new life into the veteran group; the album featured four singles, including alternative number-one hit, "The Adventures of Rain Dance Maggie," "Monarchy of Roses," "Look Around" and "Brendan's Death Song." "Did I Let You Know" was released in Brazil thanks to response from a poll voted on by the fans, though it was not considered a proper single.
A Rolling Stone Reader's Poll named I'm with You the 8th best album of 2011 and the album was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Rock Album. In August 2007, at the close of the band's world tour in support of Stadium Arcadium, the Peppers began a one-year hiatus, which subsequently stretched to more than two years. Bassist Flea stated, "some people were more prone to it than others. I just felt like I wanted to take two years away just to look and see if the band was something we should still be doing. Things had gotten dysfunctional and not fun." During this time, Flea studied music theory at the University of Southern California, drummer Chad Smith recorded and toured with hard rock supergroup Chickenfoot, while guitarist John Frusciante recorded and released his 10th solo album, The Empyrean. According to vocalist Anthony Kiedis, there was a collective decision "not do anything Red Hot Chili Peppers-related for a minimum of one year. We started in 1999, with the writing and the recording of Californication, we didn't stop until the tour ended last year.
We were all and mentally zapped at the end of that run." During the band's self-imposed hiatus, Frusciante departed from the band for a second time, stating, "There was no drama or anger involved, the other guys were understanding. They are supportive of my doing whatever makes me happy and that goes both ways." Regarding Frusciante's departure, Flea stated, "he just didn't want to do anymore. He wanted to do what he wants to do, on his own, without having to deal with the band dynamic, our band dynamic." Kiedis notes that, "John had become disenchanted with being in a touring rock band, understandable. He's a driven person in the world of music and sound, he wanted to change gears."Following Frusciante's departure, Kiedis stated that both he and Flea "had this intuitive feeling. We're not done. We wanted to maintain the Red Hot Chili Peppers if we could do it in a way that upheld what we had accomplished. There were some interesting conversations about, do we try to find someone we don't know, or maybe there is somebody right in our own backyard, the perfect solution?"
Flea commented on the band's eventual return stating, "For me, the biggest thing during the time off, what made me want to continue doing the band after John decided he didn't want to continue, I just realized, man, he's my brother, I love him so much, we started this band when we were kids. I wanted to keep that going, I never want to let that go."Frusciante was subsequently replaced by friend and frequent collaborator Josh Klinghoffer, performing alongside the band during the final legs of the Stadium Arcadium tour. Regarding Klinghoffer's entry into the band, Smith noted, "We've known him a long time. He's super-talented, handsome, he fits in, a good thing," and stated: "We couldn't have asked for a better person to play music with." Klinghoffer noted, "I've always been attracted to the idea of a tight-knit unit, a band of family, a brotherhood. Since my earliest memory, they always seemed like a band with a lot of love for each other."Joining the band in late 2009, Klinghoffer began writing and jamming with the band on October 12.
According to Flea, "it was a poignant moment for us. It was an emotional thing." Klinghoffer notes that: "It was sort of a sad hello. Everybody lost a good friend."Klinghoffer subsequently made his live debut with the band on January 29, 2010, performing a cover of the Neil Young song, "A Man Needs a Maid", at MusiCares event honouring Young. Prior to the event, Chad Smith noted, "it's the first time we've played out with Josh, just the four of us, so it'll be an exciting night for him. We're taking it slow. One song at a time." Flea commented on Josh's impact on the band, saying that "over time he revealed himself to be just the best person we could've got. And John Frusciante's such a powerful musician and left such an imprint on our band and gave so much as a writer, as a player, a serious part of our band, that no one could replace John. No one's going to step in and do what John did, but Josh came in and does what Josh does and does it in a beautiful way."Kiedis noted, "There is no question – this is a beginning," with Smith confirming that statement by adding, "this is a new band.
Same name, but it's a new band." The album was produced by Rick Rubin.
The Decline of Western Civilization
The Decline of Western Civilization is a 1981 American documentary filmed through 1979 and 1980. The movie was directed by Penelope Spheeris. In 1981, the LAPD Chief of Police Daryl Gates wrote a letter demanding the film not be shown again in the city; the film's title is a reference to music critic Lester Bangs' 1970 two-part review of the Stooges' album Fun House, for Creem magazine, where Bangs quotes a friend who had said the popularity of the Stooges signaled "the decline of Western civilization". Another possibility is that the title refers to Darby Crash's reading of Oswald Spengler's Der Untergang des Abendlandes. In We Got the Neutron Bomb, an oral history of the L. A. punk rock scene collected by Marc Spitz, Claude Bessy claims. The film is the opening act of a trilogy by Spheeris, depicting music scenes in Los Angeles during the late 20th century; the second film, The Decline of Western Civilization Part II: The Metal Years, covers the Los Angeles heavy metal scene of 1986–1988. The third film, The Decline of Western Civilization III, chronicles the gutter punk lifestyle of homeless teenagers in the late 1990s.
In 2016, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, as it was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant". Featuring concert footage of Los Angeles punk bands and interviews both with band members, the publishers of Slash fanzine, with the punks who made up their audience, the film offers a look into a subculture, ignored by the rock music press of the time; the promotional poster for The Decline featured a close-up frame of Germs singer Darby Crash supine on stage with his eyes closed. Crash died from a heroin-induced suicide shortly. Bands included are Black Flag, the Germs, X, Alice Bag Band, the Circle Jerks, Catholic Discipline, Fear; the Germs' performance was replicated in the 2007 Darby Crash biopic. Alice Bag Band "Gluttony" "Prowlers in the Night" Black Flag "Depression" "Revenge" "White Minority" Circle Jerks "Back Against the Wall" "Beverly Hills" "I Just Want Some Skank" "Red Tape" "Wasted" Catholic Discipline "Barbee Doll Lust" "Underground Babylon" Fear "Beef Bologna" "I Don't Care About You" "I Love Living in the City" "Let's Have a War" "Fear Anthem" Germs "Manimal" "Shutdown" X "Beyond and Back" "Johnny Hit and Run Paulene" "Nausea" "Unheard Music" "We're Desperate" The soundtrack was released in December 1980 by Slash Records on LP.
In the late 1990s it was released on CD as well. It is out of print. Germs singer Darby Crash appears on the soundtrack album cover, he died shortly before the film was released, though the promotional images for the film and album release had been designed before his death. Noticeably missing from the soundtrack is "Nausea" by X, prominently featured in the film over its opening credits. Repo Man soundtrack Official website of the series The Decline of Western Civilization on IMDb The Decline of Western Civilization at AllMovie
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833
Anthony Kiedis is an American musician, songwriter and actor. He is the lead vocalist of the band Red Hot Chili Peppers, which he has fronted since its inception in 1983. Kiedis and his fellow band members were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012. Kiedis spent his youth in Grand Rapids, Michigan with his mother moved shortly before his twelfth birthday to live with his father in Hollywood. While attending Fairfax High School, Kiedis developed close friendships with fellow students Flea and Hillel Slovak, who at the time were members of a band called Anthym. After high school, Kiedis dropped out early in his sophomore year, he received an offer to be the opening act for a local band, enlisted Flea and drummer Jack Irons to assist. After a show under the name "Tony Flow and the Miraculously Majestic Masters of Mayhem", the band progressed and the line-up became the Red Hot Chili Peppers, he has recorded eleven studio albums with the Red Hot Chili Peppers. Kiedis' lyrical style has evolved throughout his career.
Additionally, his vocal style has shifted from rapping to a more melodic technique. He struggled with drug addiction for the majority of his life up until the year 2000, since he has remained drug free. Kiedis was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to Margaret "Peggy" and actor John Michael Kiedis, known professionally as Blackie Dammett, his paternal grandfather's family emigrated from Lithuania in the early 1900s. In 1966, when he was three years old, his parents divorced and he was raised by his mother in Grand Rapids, his mother remarried and had two more children, Anthony's half sisters. Each summer, he would visit his father in Hollywood for two weeks, a time during which the two would bond, he idolized his father and recalled, "Those trips to California were the happiest, most carefree, the-world-is-a-beautiful-oyster times I'd experienced." In 1974, when Kiedis was twelve years old, he moved to Hollywood to live with his father full-time. His father was a struggling actor who sold drugs, which had a significant impact on Kiedis, as the two would use marijuana and cocaine together.
Kiedis accidentally tried heroin for the first time at age 14. Through his father Blackie, who worked under the stage name of Cole Dammett, landed his first acting role appearing as Sylvester Stallone's character's son in the 1978 film, F. I. S. T; that same year he would land two more acting jobs, one being on an ABC Afterschool Special and the other an appearance in the film, Jokes My Folks Never Told Me. Kiedis attended Fairfax High School in Los Angeles, where he struggled to find friends as he had transferred to a new school district. However, he soon met Flea, after a brief confrontation, the two became best friends and bonded while sitting next to each other in driver's ed class. Kiedis recalled, "We were drawn to each other by the forces of mischief and The Grateful Dead. We became inseparable. We were both social outcasts. We found each other and it turned out to be the longest-lasting friendship of my life." Kiedis became a significant influence on Flea, exposing him to rock music punk rock.
Kiedis and Flea began jumping into swimming pools from buildings as a hobby. At age 15, Kiedis broke his back attempting to jump into a swimming pool from a five-story building, missing the pool by a few inches, his back has since improved. After Kiedis began working with Flea and Jack Irons, he was described as a "manic master of ceremonies" before he began singing for the group. Irons and Hillel Slovak had begun playing together in high school while performing in a band called Chain Reaction; the group included bassist Tom Strasman and Chilean-born vocalist and guitarist Alain Johannes. With Strasman set on becoming a lawyer, he quit the band to focus on college. At this point, Flea was brought into the mix. Shortly after hanging out with the band, attending a few shows, Kiedis was offered a position in the band by Flea, he began as a "hype man", going out in front of the band blurting out jokes to the audience and getting them pumped up. "Kiedis met future bandmate Slovak after seeing him perform with his band Anthym.
After the show, Slovak invited Kiedis to his house for a snack. Kiedis described the experience in his autobiography Scar Tissue: "Within a few minutes of hanging out with Hillel, I sensed that he was different from most of the people I'd spent time with... He understood a lot about music, he was a great visual artist, he had a sense of self and a calm about him that were just riveting." Slovak and Flea became best friends and used LSD, heroin and speed recreationally. Despite his frequent drug use, he excelled in school receiving straight A grades. In June 1980, Kiedis graduated with honors from high school; that August, he enrolled at the University of California. Kiedis and Flea began to create their own music after finding inspiration in a punk-funk fusion band called Defunkt. Kiedis rejected the violence and misogyny associated with the Los Angeles punk rock scene at the time, wished to create a more peaceful environment that would encourage women to come to concerts; the three formed a band with former Anthym-drummer Jack Irons, called Tony Flow and the Miraculously Majestic Masters of Mayhem.
The band had only on