Fremantle Prison, sometimes referred to as Fremantle Gaol or Fremantle Jail, is a former Australian prison and World Heritage Site in Fremantle, Western Australia. The six-hectare site includes the prison cellblocks, perimeter walls and tunnels, it was used for convicts transported from Britain, but was transferred to the colonial government in 1886 for use for locally-sentenced prisoners. Royal Commissions were held in 1898 and 1911, instigated some reform to the prison system, but significant changes did not begin until the 1960s; the government department in charge of the prison underwent several reorganisations in the 1970s and 1980s, but the culture of Fremantle Prison was resistant to change. Growing prisoner discontent culminated in a 1988 riot with guards taken hostage, a fire that caused $1.8 million worth of damage. The prison closed in 1991, replaced by the new maximum-security Casuarina Prison; the prison was administered by a comptroller general, sheriff, or director, responsible for the entire convict or prison system in Western Australia, a superintendent in charge of the prison itself.
Prison officers, known as warders in the 19th century, worked under stringent conditions until they achieved representation through the Western Australian Prison Officers' Union. Convicts were of good character as potential future colonists, but less desirable convicts were sent; as a locally-run prison, Fremantle's population was short-sentenced white prisoners in the 1890s, with few Aboriginal prisoners. By the late 20th century, most prisoners were serving longer sentences, a higher proportion of them were violent, Aboriginal people were over-represented. Prison life at Fremantle was regulated. Meals were an important part of the day, eaten in the cells throughout the operational life of the prison. Convict or prisoner labour was used on public infrastructure works until around 1911. Punishments varied over the years, with flogging and time in irons replaced by lengthening of sentences and deprivation of visitors or entertainment. More than 40 hangings were carried out at Fremantle Prison, Western Australia's only lawful place of execution, between 1888 and 1984.
Prominent escapees included Moondyne Joe, as well as John Boyle O'Reilly and six other Fenians in the 19th century, Brenden Abbott in 1989. There have been various riots and other disturbances, with major riots causing damage in 1968 and 1988. Since 1991, Fremantle Prison has been conserved as a recognised heritage site, various restoration works have been undertaken. New uses have been found for some buildings within the prison, which has become a significant tourist attraction; the process of obtaining World Heritage listing as part of the Australian Convict Sites submission focused historical interpretation and conservation efforts on the prison's convict era, at the expense of its more recent history, including Aboriginal prisoners held there. Fremantle Prison was built on a land grant of about 36 acres from limestone quarried on-site. A 15-foot tall boundary wall encloses the prison grounds, with a gatehouse in the centre of the western wall, facing The Terrace. Other roads bounding the site are Knutsford Street to the north, Hampton Road to the east, Fothergill Street to the south.
Cottages, which housed prison workers and officials, are located outside the wall either side of the gatehouse. Inside the walls, the parade ground is located east of the gatehouse. Beyond it is the Main Cell Block at the centre of the site, which contains two chapels. North of the main block is New Division, west of that, in the north-western corner, is the former Women's Prison the cookhouse and laundry; the hospital building stands in the north-eastern corner, while the former workshops are located in the south-eastern corner, as well as to the north of the gatehouse. A system of underground tunnels, constructed to provide fresh water from an aquifer, runs under the eastern edge of the site. North of the gatehouse, located at 2, 4, 6 The Terrace, are cottages built in Victorian style, in contrast to the Georgian style of the other houses. Number 10 is a double-storey house built in 1853 for the chaplain, but taken over by the superintendent in 1878 and used by the prison administration. An adjoining single-storey at number 12, finished in 1854, was the home of the gatekeeper, located on the north side of the gatehouse.
Number 16 The Terrace, south of the gatehouse, is a double-storey house that accommodated first the superintendent, the resident magistrate. It remained in use as housing for prison officers until the 1970s. Number 18, the southernmost house on The Terrace, number 8, the northernmost of the initial buildings, both featured two sitting rooms, three bedrooms, two dressing rooms, as well as a kitchen, water closet and shed, but with mirrored layouts. Number 18 was expanded with additions built in the 1890s; the gatehouse and associated entry complex was constructed between 1854 and 1855 using convict labour. It was designed by Royal Engineer and Comptroller General Edmund Henderson, constructed out of limestone; the gatehouse has two towers either side of a narrow gate, reminiscent of those found in 13th century English castles or walled cities. Iron, scavenged from shipwrecks was used to make the gate, while the clock at the top of the structure was imported from England; as the main entrance, the gatehouse has remained a significant landmark.
Restoration was carried out in 2005, prese
A prison escape is the act of an inmate leaving prison through unofficial or illegal ways. When this occurs, an effort is made on the part of authorities to recapture them and return them to their original detainers. Escaping from prison is a criminal offense in some countries, such as the United States and Russia, it is likely to result in time being added to the inmate's sentence, as well as the inmate being placed under increased security. Aggravating factors include. Many prisons use security features such as motion sensors, CCTV, barred windows, high walls, barbed wire and electric fencing to prevent escapes. Numerous methods have been used to escape prison over time. Many escapes have been conducted by inmates who have invented their own methods. Weaknesses that are found as prisoners escape are corrected at numerous prisons around the world to prevent future escapes in a similar manner; this leads inmates to finding new ways. Since prisoners have a lot of time in which they are doing nothing, this gives them plenty of time to think, allowing them to devise plans and figure out ways to escape.
The following are methods that have been used by prisoners in escapes. In some instances, a combination of these are used. While some prisoners are allowed out of their cells at times, others remain locked in their cells most of the time those in solitary confinement. Many prisoners who are kept in their cells must find ways out of the cells; those who are allowed out of their cells at times still have plans that involve escape from their cells. Cell escapes occur through either the door, the window, the light, the ventilation system, by breaking down the walls, or by tunneling underground; some prisoners have escaped by picking the locks on their cells, creating keys to their cells, sawing bars off of the doors or windows, carving away the walls, or breaking away the vent. Breaking down or slipping through the physical containment of the prison, including that of the cell itself or the surrounding complex. Methods include destruction of the cell or compound walls, squeezing through tight spaces, or entering off-limits areas.
Prisoners destroy their containment with homemade tools, smuggled objects, or other contraband. Most prisons are contained on the outside by one or more fences topped with barbed wire or razor wire. Escapees manage to scale these fences or cut holes in the fences, damaging them; these fences are watched by one or more guards from a tower, but escapees manage to pass the fence when the guard is turned away, unable to see in the dark, or sleeping on the job. Outside the fences is a perimeter patrol conducted by an officer in a vehicle, which stands as the final line of defense. Escapees manage to evade this by studying the length of time between passes or waiting until it is on the other side or using the cover of darkness. A rare method, used at times involves the digging of a tunnel under the facility that exits outside the facility. Attacking guards with blunt force, homemade weapons, smuggled weapons, or weapons stolen from overtaken guards; some escapes involve one or more inmates taking over an entire unit or section of the prison, subduing guards, stealing weapons or other objects they can use to their advantage.
Deception may involve fooling one or more guards into believing the prisoner is authorized to depart prison grounds for a legitimate reason, or the prisoner disguising himself or herself as a worker or civilian who can exit prison grounds without arousing suspicion, or the creation of a ruse to mislead guards. In some escapes, inmates construct makeshift dummies to make guards believe they are in their cells in bed, when they are not; this enables the inmate to gain a head start from the prison before guards discover they are missing. Such dummies are constructed quite crudely using the inmate's or another's hair and miscellaneous materials for stuffing, hidden under a blanket to give the appearance a body is present. Finding holes in the security of the facility, taking advantage of them; this may include the discovery of overlooked security issues, or taking advantage of guards who are not following policies or procedures, or are otherwise not doing their jobs properly. Taking advantage of intentional wrongdoing on part of prison staff.
This may include the use of weapons or other contraband smuggled in by staff, or receiving assistance from staff who believe in that inmate's freedom and willingly assist. Some lower security inmates are permitted to leave prison grounds temporarily on the honor they will return; these include those who depart for employment outside the facility or furloughs that allow time outside for periods of time. Breaking while in custody outside facility grounds. Prisoners are transported for work duties, to be moved between facilities, attend court hearings, for hospitalization and medical appointments, other reasons. Receiving aid from an accomplice outside prison walls, including those who provide a ride to the inmate following their penetration, smuggle in contraband as visitors, use helicopters, among other methods; when a banned item is smuggled, it can either be slipped through or tossed over the fence from outside, hidden in a gift to the inmate, legal, or slipped past corrupt security officers.
In some cases, the staff are the source of the smuggling themselves. Escaping from an island prison brings another challenge of crossing the water to free land; this can be done by construction of a makeshift raft or receiving outside help from the owner of a boat. In the famed 1962 Alcatraz escape, a makeshift raft from rainc
Perth Airport is a domestic and international airport serving Perth, the capital and largest city of Western Australia. It is the fourth busiest airport in Australia measured by passenger movements and falls within the boundaries of the City of Belmont, City of Kalamunda and the City of Swan. Perth Airport and Jandakot Airport, the other civilian airport within the Perth metropolitan area, recorded a combined total of 362,782 aircraft movements in 2017. If these two metropolitan airports were to be combined into a single airport it would be the busiest airport in Australia measured by aircraft movements. Since 1997, it has been operated by Perth Airport Pty Limited, a private company under a 99-year lease from the Commonwealth Government; the airport saw strong passenger growth from 2000 to 2012 due to the state's prolonged mining boom and an increase in traffic from international low-cost carrier airlines. By the end of June 2012, Perth Airport experienced passenger growth of 11.7% internationally and 6.9% domestically, resulting in an overall increase of 10.3%.
Passenger numbers trebled in the 10 years from 2002 to 2012 with more than 12.6 million people travelling through the airport in 2012. Since 2012, the winding down of the mining boom has seen the demand for both intra- and interstate services contract, with domestic passengers falling from a peak of 9.9 million to 9.5 million by the end of June 2016. The growth in passenger numbers since 2012 has been wholly due to expansion of international services from the city; the first mining boom in 1979 had 679,000 passengers use the airport. This number now travels through the airport every eighteen days; as well as passenger movements however, complaints about the impact of the airport on the residents of Perth have grown. The City of Canning, one area, affected, accepts that “aircraft noise is an important issue” and that “aircraft noise does impact on those suburbs under the flightpaths.” Another affected area, the City of Swan, “has experienced significant issues.” Indeed, planning policy adopted by the Government of Western Australia recognises that some aircraft noise is “not compatible with residential or educational” land use.
In 2012, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission released a report rating the Perth Airport as the worst in Australia, as judged by airlines. The same report rated it below satisfactory for the second year in a row. However, due to recent expansions and projects, the airport was awarded Capital City airport of the year by the Australian Airports Association at their national conference in 2016. In 2018, Perth Airport was named the best airport in Australia for overall service quality by the ACCC after the completion of a $1 billion redevelopment project over the span of 5 years; the first direct service from Oceania to Europe was started in 2018, with Qantas operating daily flights to London Heathrow and back using a Boeing 787-9 from Perth. The airport is located 10 km east of the Perth central business district, it is one of two civilian airports within the Perth metropolitan area, the other being Jandakot Airport. Besides the civilian airports, there are two military airports within the Perth metropolitan area.
The larger of the two is 30 km to the north of Perth Airport, at Bullsbrook. The other is 42 km south east of Perth Airport, is a part of the military base of HMAS Stirling on Garden Island. Prior to the opening of the Perth Airport, civilian air services for the city were provided from Maylands Airport located in Maylands, as well as on the city's foreshore at Langley Park. By the end of the 1930s, it became clear that the Maylands Aerodrome was limited in the size and speed of aircraft it was able to handle thus causing them to seek an alternative site for a future airport. Site selection and preparation of the original plans was undertaken by Mr N M Fricker of the Department of Civil Aviation. In 1938, land was purchased for the new aerodrome; the site selected in what was at the time Guildford, was an area of land granted by Governor James Stirling to local man John Scott, which became the long disused Dunreath Golf Course. A plaque located on a roadside wall of the old International terminal remains in permanent memory of Scott: Even before civil aviation operations could commence at the new site, the onset of World War II saw the facility being redesigned for military purposes as a temporary base for the Royal Australian Air Force and United States Navy, known as "RAAF Station Guildford" to supplement RAAF Base Pearce.
Royal Australian Air Force No. 85 Squadron was based there from February 1943. Despite military use of the airfield, civil services operated by Qantas Empire Airways and Australian National Airways commenced from the location in 1944; this was despite bitter protest from military authorities who felt civilian operations would undermine the defence and camouflage needs of the location. The move was agreed to by the government of the day, as the larger types of aircraft of the day being operated by the two airlines could not be handled at Maylands, notwithstanding the small grass airfield, lack of passenger facilities, approaches being difficult due to surrounding industrial infrastructure. Using Douglas DC-3 aircraft, ANA flew the first commercial service from the aerodrome to Adelaide. On 17 June 1944, Qantas made its inaugural flight to Ceylon via Exmouth using a modified Liberator bomber, arriving in Perth on 3 June 1944 having been released to the airline by the British Government. Full civilian operations at the Guildford Aerodrome commenced in 1944.
Civil operations at Maylands continued albeit reduced
A pager is a wireless telecommunications device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice messages. One-way pagers can only receive messages, while response pagers and two-way pagers can acknowledge, reply to, originate messages using an internal transmitter. Pagers operate as part of a paging system which includes one or more fixed transmitters, as well as a number of pagers carried by mobile users; these systems can range from a restaurant system with a single low-power transmitter, to a nationwide system with thousands of high-power base stations. Pagers were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, became used by the 1980s. In the 21st century, the widespread availability of cellphones and smartphones has diminished the pager industry. Pagers continue to be used by some emergency services and public safety personnel, because modern pager systems' coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite communications, can make paging systems more reliable than terrestrial-based cellular networks in some cases, including during natural and man-made disasters.
This resilience has led public safety agencies to adopt pagers over cellular and other commercial services for critical messaging. The UK National Health Service is thought to use over 10% of remaining pagers in 2017, with an annual cost of £6.6 million. Matt Hancock announced in February 2019; the first telephone pager system was patented in 1949 by Alfred J. Gross. One of the first practical paging services was launched in 1950 for physicians in the New York City area. Physicians paid $12 per month for the service and carried a 200-gram pager that would receive phone messages within 40 kilometres of a single transmitter tower; the system was operated by Telanswerphone. In 1960, John Francis Mitchell combined elements of Motorola's walkie-talkie and automobile radio technologies to create the first transistorized pager, from that time, paging technology continued to advance, pager adoption among emergency personnel is still popular, as of July 2016. In 1962 the Bell System—the U. S. telephone monopoly colloquially known as "Ma Bell"—presented its Bellboy radio paging system at the Seattle World's Fair.
Bellboy was the first commercial system for personal paging. It marked one of the first consumer applications of the transistor, for which three Bell Labs inventors received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Solid-state circuitry enabled the Bellboy pager, about the size of a small TV remote device, to fit into a customer's pocket or purse, quite a feat at that time; the Bellboy was a terminal. When the person received an audible signal on the pager, he found a telephone and called the service centre, which informed him of the caller's message. Bell System Bellboy radio pagers each used three reed receiver relays, each relay tuned to one of 33 different frequencies, selectively ringing a particular customer when all three relays were activated at the same time—a precursor of DTMF; the ReFLEX protocol was developed in the mid-1990s. While Motorola announced the end of its new pager manufacturing in 2001, pagers remained in use in large hospital complexes. Another is a facility handling classified information, where various radio transmitter or data storage devices are excluded to ensure security.
First responders in rural areas with inadequate cellular coverage are issued pagers. The 2005 London bombings resulted in overload of TETRA systems by the emergency services, showed that pagers, with their absence of necessity to transmit an acknowledgement before showing the message, the related capability to operate on low signal levels, are not outclassed by their successors. Volunteer firefighters, EMS paramedics, rescue squad members carry pagers to alert them of emergency call outs for their department; these pagers receive a special tone from a fire department radio frequency. Restaurant pagers were in wide use in the 2000s. Customers were given a portable receiver that vibrates, flashes, or beeps when a table becomes free or when their meal is ready. Pagers have been popular with birdwatchers in Britain and Ireland since 1991, with companies Rare Bird Alert and Birdnet Information offering news of rare birds sent to pagers that they sell; the U. S. paging industry generated $2.1 billion in revenue in 2008, down from $6.2 billion in 2003.
In Canada, 161,500 Canadians paid $18.5 million for pager service in 2013. Telus, one of the three major mobile carriers, announced the end to its Canadian pager service as of March 31, 2015, but rivals Bell and PageNet intend to continue service. Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email; this is convenient for many users, due to the widespread adoption of email. This can result in pager messages being lost. Older forms of message submission using the Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network, are less subject to these delays. For this reason, older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. Common paging protocols include TAP, FLEX, ReFLEX, POCSAG, GOLAY, ERMES and NTT. Past paging protocols include 5/6-tone. In the United States, pagers receive signals using the FLEX protocol in th
Fremantle Prison riot
The Fremantle Prison riot was a prison riot that occurred on 4 January 1988 at Fremantle Prison, in Western Australia. The riot was organised as a diversion for an escape, to take place. Prisoners created a fire as part of the diversion, temperatures inside the cells were recorded at 52.2 °C. 3 division and 4 division were taken over by a total of seventy prisoners, 5 officers were taken hostage. The fire caused $1.8 million in damage and unintentionally prevented the planned escape. It was suggested that the riot and fire was staged as a diversion by twelve men including Brenden Abbott, to assist a mass escape from the prison. During the two weeks prior to the riot they collected 3 litres of fuel from lawnmowers, which they managed to conceal in their drink bottles. Fremantle Prison was built using convict labour during the 1850s, based on the design of Pentonville Gaol, was used as the maximum security prison for male offenders in Western Australia. During the 1890s the size of the cells were doubled by removing an adjoining wall between two cells.
The conditions in the cells remained unchanged except for lighting and basic toilet facilities. The prison population was divided into 4 divisions; the morning of the riot began. There was a "scuffle" between a prisoner and guards over the time taken to leave his cell – resulting in that prisoner being sent to solitary confinement – but, not unusual; that morning the prisoner was released into the exercise yard, where he reported to his fellow prisoners that he had been beaten by the prison officers. Prisoners requested a meeting with the Superintendent; this incident added to growing tension amongst the prisoners from the heatwave experienced over the past week, with conditions like ovens or saunas. Despite the heat, officers decided prisoners should remain outside in the exercise yards in the afternoon, to settle the tension; the decision did not have the intended calming effect, instead allowing prisoner ring leaders to spread discontentment, plan for a riot, including starting a fire and taking hostages.
As division 3 prisoners were let inside at around 4 pm, a voice exclaimed "Let's take'em", guards were splashed with boiling water used for making tea. A horde of prisoners stormed the cellblock, attacking the guards with whatever they could find – metal plates and cutlery, food, "pieces of timber, water bottles, anything"; the result was pandemonium. The prisoners withdrew to the exercise yard, taking six hostages, as flames overran the building, spread into the rafters, caused the roof to collapse; the prisoners surrounded their hostages, in turn were besieged by an armed riot squad inside the prison, the police riot encircled the prison. Skilled police negotiators communicated with the ring leaders, by nightfall only five hostages remained. A sixth officer was to have been kept, but was released as he was injured. Meanwhile, the fire brigade had trouble bringing the inferno in the main cell block under control; the prison's gate was too narrow for their trucks to pass, so they had to water the flames from outside, prisoners impeded their endeavours by chucking debris at them, including segments of asbestos roofing.
Firemen were allowed inside to fight the fire, after prison officers with riot gear had stormed through a secondary group of prisoners, forcing them back along the wall. The prisoners' leaders made three demands: a meeting with Attorney General Joseph Berinson, access to the media, a guarantee of no retribution afterwards. Negotiations continued with the prisoners holding out for 19 hours; the next morning the hostages were released, one at a time – traded for food and cigarettes though only the third demand had been met. The prisoners did, have an opportunity to communicate with the press during the siege, as the riot was a live media event. Television helicopters were filming from overhead, prisoners were able to write messages on sheets with charcoal. One of the hostages believed that "the media nearly got killed", as the close approach of incoming aircraft caused other prisoners to panic, thinking that special forces were being deployed. Although there were no deaths, the fire caused A$1.8 million of damage, officers were injured physically, some developed Post Trauma Stress Disorder.
In the aftermath of the riot, there was extensive media attention on Fremantle Prison, investigative journalists uncovered that warnings had been given to the prison authorities. The government hastily initiated an enquiry into the incident, a report was completed within six weeks; the report suggested that little evidence supported the escape plan theory common in the media, but that the riot was the result of an incident of that morning involving the mistreatment of a prisoner and his subsequent release into three division yard. A trial involving thirty-three prisoners charged over the riot was held, it cost over $3 million, involved 19 lawyers, as of 2003, is the largest trial held in the state's history. Prisoners, escorted under armed guard, gave evidence from behind specially installed glass; the whole affair was "described as a circus" after a prisoner protested by appearing naked. The trial resulted in extended sentences for the prisoners; the twelve ringleaders were given six years cumulative with their
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
The Commonwealth Bank of Australia is an Australian multinational bank with businesses across New Zealand, the United States and the United Kingdom. It provides a variety of financial services including retail and institutional banking, funds management, insurance and broking services; the Commonwealth Bank is the largest Australian listed company on the Australian Securities Exchange as of August 2015 with brands including Bankwest, Colonial First State Investments, ASB Bank, Commonwealth Securities and Commonwealth Insurance. Commonwealth Bank is the largest bank in the Southern Hemisphere. Founded in 1911 by the Australian government and privatised in 1996, the Commonwealth Bank is one of the "big four" Australian banks, with National Australia Bank, ANZ and Westpac; the bank listed on the Australian Stock Exchange in 1991. The former global headquarters of Commonwealth Bank were the Commonwealth Trading Bank Building on the corner of Pitt Street and Martin Place, refurbished from 2012 for retail and commercial uses, the State Savings Bank Building on Martin Place, sold in 2012 to Macquarie Bank.
The headquarters were moved to Tower 1, 201 Sussex Street and two new nine-storey buildings which were built at the site of the former Sega World Sydney, in Darling Harbour on the western side of Sydney's city centre. In a 2018, findings from the Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking and Financial Services Industry have indicated a negative culture within the Bank, amid allegations of fraud and money laundering, among various other crimes; the Commonwealth Bank of Australia was established by the Commonwealth Bank Act 1911, introduced by the Andrew Fisher Labor Government, which favoured bank nationalisation, with effect on 22 December 1911. In a rare move for the time, the bank was to have general bank business; the bank was the first bank in Australia to receive a federal government guarantee. The bank's earliest and most strenuous proponent was the flamboyant American-Australian Labor politician, King O'Malley, its first Governor was Sir Denison Miller; the bank opened its first branch in Melbourne on 15 July 1912.
In an agreement with Australia Post that exists to this day, the bank traded through post office agencies. In 1912, it took over the State Savings Bank of Tasmania, by 1913 it had branches in all six states. In 1916, the bank moved its head office to Sydney, it followed the Australian army into New Guinea, where it opened a branch in Rabaul and agencies elsewhere. In 1920, the bank began acquiring central bank powers when it took over the responsibility for the issue of Australian bank notes from the Department of the Treasury. In 1920, the Commonwealth Bank took over the Queensland Government Savings Bank. In 1931, the New South Wales government transferred to the bank the savings bank business of the Government Savings Bank of New South Wales, the current account and fixed deposit business of the Rural Bank Department; the bank acquired the State Savings Bank of Western Australia. The bank's role in central banking expanded after 1920. In 1931, the bank board came into conflict with the Labor government of James Scullin.
The bank's chairman Robert Gibson refused to expand credit in response to the Great Depression, as had been proposed by Treasurer Edward Theodore, unless the government cut pensions, which Scullin refused to do. Conflict surrounding this issue led to the fall of the government, to demands from Labor for reform of the bank and more direct government control over monetary policy. In 1942, the Commonwealth Banking Corporation suspended its operations in Papua New Guinea as the Imperial Japanese Army captured many of the towns in which it operated, bombed Port Moresby; the bank resumed operations possibly in 1944. The bank had many branches across Papua New Guinea including Port Moresby, Rabaul, Wau, Goroka, Madang, Mount Hagen, Kundiawa and Wewak. On Bougainville there was Kieta, Panguna and early on a part-time sub-branch at Loloho, it maintained those facilities to support trade, local business and small savers. The Commonwealth Bank received all central bank powers in emergency legislation passed during World War II and at the end of the war it used this power to begin a dramatic expansion of the economy.
This was the aim of the government at the time, which attempted to compel the Australian states to conduct their banking with the Commonwealth under the Banking Act 1945, but the High Court in Melbourne Corporation v Commonwealth 74 CLR 31, blocked this move. The government dramatically expanded immigration programs. In response, the bank established a Migrant Information Service; the bank expanded during this period, in just five years it opened hundreds of branches throughout Australia and in 1951 it established a branch in the Solomon Islands. In 1958 and 1959, there was a controversy concerning the dual functions of the organisation, operating as the central bank on the one hand and a commercial bank on the other; as a result, the government separated the two roles, creating the Reserve Bank of Australia to exercise the central bank function, leaving the Commonwealth Banking Corporation to operate purely as a commercial bank. Those commercial functions were exercised by the organisation's constituent sections: the Commonwealth Trading Bank of Australia, the Commonwealth Savings Bank of Australia, the newly-formed Commonwealth Development Bank.
From 1958 to 197