2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
U.S. Route 82
U. S. Route 82 is an east–west United States highway in the Southern United States. Created on July 1, 1931 across central Mississippi and southern Arkansas, US 82 became a 1,625-mile route extending from the White Sands of New Mexico to Georgia's Atlantic coast; the highway's eastern terminus is in Brunswick, Georgia, at an intersection with Interstate 95. It is co-signed for its last half-mile with U. S. Route 17, its western terminus is in Alamogordo, New Mexico at an intersection with U. S. Route 54 and U. S. Route 70. US 82 begins at an intersection with US highways 54 and 70 north of Alamogordo, south of La Luz, New Mexico. Heading east out of Alamogordo the road ascends into the Sacramento Mountains, traveling through the Lincoln National Forest. While climbing steep Mexican Canyon, the highway passes the abandoned railroad trestles of the El Paso and Northeastern Railway, passes through the only road tunnel in New Mexico; the road traverses the New Mexico villages of High Rolls and Mayhill After descending the mountains into the rugged, flat plains of eastern New Mexico, it follows a north-northeasterly bearing until Artesia, where it takes a more due-easterly bearing on through to Lovington, veering back to the north before crossing into Texas.
US 82 crosses into Texas from New Mexico at Texas Farm to Market Road 769, turning northeastward toward Plains, where it merges with US 380. US 82 is co-signed with US 380 from Plains to Brownfield, where it joins US 62, US 380 leaves the route. US 82/62 continues northeastward toward Lubbock. In Lubbock, US 82 and US 62 split, where US 82 is a limited access freeway west of US Route 87. From Wolfforth to downtown Lubbock, US 82 is named Marsha Sharp Freeway after Marsha Sharp, former head basketball coach of the Texas Tech Lady Raiders and Women's Basketball Hall of Fame inductee, it once again merges with US 62 east of the campus of Texas Tech University, where it continues eastward through Ralls, where US 62 makes a sharp turn to the north and leaves the route. US 82 continues eastward across the level plains of the Llano Estacado to Crosbyton and dips downward as it crosses the White River of Blanco Canyon, where the Texas Department of Transportation maintains the Silver Falls Rest Area with facilities and hiking trails.
After climbing out of Blanco Canyon, US 82 exits the Llano Estacado and enters the rolling plains near Dickens, Texas. US 82/SH 114 continues eastward as a co-signed route until Seymour, where it merges with U. S. Highways 183, 277 and 283, with US 183 and 283 leaving the route at Mabelle. US 82/277 continues eastward to Wichita Falls. US 82 leaves US 287 at Henrietta and continues east, signed independently across the remainder of Texas, crossing into Arkansas in downtown Texarkana. US 82 enters Arkansas in downtown Texarkana proceeds due east across the flat plains of the Red River, it crosses the Red River at Garland City on a new bridge passes through the towns of Lewisville and Magnolia. At Magnolia the route joins US 79 for two miles before continuing eastward; the route passes through the cities of El Dorado and Strong before crossing the Ouachita River just north of Lake Jack Lee continues through Crossett and Hamburg to Lake Village. The route continues from there across the Mississippi River to Greenville, MS.
US 82 follows the historical alignment of Arkansas Highway 2. Through the entire state, the highway is four-laned with interchanges at major junctions. After crossing the Mississippi River from Arkansas via a four-laned, cable-stayed Mississippi River bridge, the road travels northeast toward central Greenville turns east to Columbus, passing through Indianola, Greenwood and Starkville, while bypassing Itta Bena. According to the Mississippi Department of Transportation's website www.gomdot.com, construction is now underway on a U. S. 82 bypass around Greenville. The new road will commence at the opened MS River Bridge and terminate at the current U. S. 82 near Leland, creating a half-loop freeway around South Greenville. Cloverleaf interchanges are presently being built at the freeway's junctions with MS 454 and MS 1; this new bypass will be the southern terminus for the planned freeway connector to Interstate 69, under construction through the northern Mississippi Delta. From Starkville east through Columbus and on to the Alabama state line, US 82 is built to freeway standards.
The Mississippi section of U. S. 82 is defined in Mississippi Code Annotated § 65-3-3. Throughout Alabama, US 82 is paired with unsigned State Route 6; the highway enters the state east of Columbus and bears southeast towards Northport and Tuscaloosa, where it crosses over I-20 and I-59 south of town. It is known in West Alabama as McFarland Boulevard, in memory of the late Honorable Ward Wharton McFarland, a political and civic leader who died in 1979. After leaving Tuscaloosa, the route continues southeast, passing through the cities of Brent and Maplesville en route to Prattville, on the northern edge of the Montgomery metropolitan area; this 92-mile drive goes through some of the most rural areas of the state, much of it two lanes with the exception of the section from Tuscaloosa to Centreville. Upon arriving in Prattville, it runs concurrently with I-65, with which it goes through downtown Montgomery with, splits off to the east south of downtown. After leaving Montgomery, the route continues southeast through Union Springs and Midway en route to Eufaula, on the Alabama–Georgia state line, where it
Demopolis is the largest city in Marengo County, United States. The population was 7,483 at the time of the 2010 United States Census; the city lies at the confluence of the Black Tombigbee rivers. It is situated atop a cliff composed of the Demopolis Chalk Formation, known locally as White Bluff, on the east bank of the Tombigbee River, it is at the center of Alabama's Canebrake region and is within the Black Belt. Demopolis was founded after the fall of Napoleon's Empire and named by a group of French expatriates, a mix of exiled Bonapartists and other French migrants who had settled in the United States after the overthrow of the colonial government in Saint-Domingue following the failed Saint-Domingue expedition; the name, meaning in Greek "the People's City" or "City of the People", was chosen to honor the democratic ideals behind the endeavor. First settled in 1817, it is one of the oldest continuous settlements in Alabama, it was incorporated on December 11, 1821.." Organizing themselves first in Philadelphia, French expatriates petitioned the U.
S. Congress to sell them property for land to colonize. Congress granted approval by an act on March 3, 1817 that allowed them to buy four townships in the Alabama Territory at $2 per acre, with the provision that they cultivate grape vines and olive trees. Following advice obtained from experienced Western pioneers, they determined that Alabama would provide a good climate for cultivating these crops. By July 14, 1817, a small party of pioneers had settled at White Bluff on the Tombigbee River, at the present site of Demopolis, founding the Vine and Olive Colony. Most prominent and wealthiest among the immigrants was Count Lefebvre Desnouettes, a cavalry officer with the rank of Lieutenant-General, under Napoleon. Considered Napoleon's best friend, he had ridden in Napoleon's carriage during his failed invasion of Russia. Other prominent figures among them included Lieutenant-General Baron Henri-Dominique Lallemand, Count Bertrand Clausel, Joseph Lakanal, Simon Chaudron, Pasqual Luciani, Colonel Jean-Jerome Cluis, Jean-Marie Chapron, Colonel Nicholas Raoul, Frederic Ravesies.
Most of these expatriates had little interest in pioneer life and sold their shares in the colony, remaining in Philadelphia. By 1818, the colony consisted of only 69 settlers. Due to a variety of adversities, their pioneering efforts were not the great success for which they had hoped. Following a survey in August 1818, they were to find that their new homes did not fall under the territories encompassed by the congressional approval, the Vine and Olive Colony was soon forced to move, they learned that their actual land grants began less than a mile to the east of their newly cleared land. After abandoning the settlement of Demopolis, they soon established two other towns and Arcola. Upon learning of the survey and that the French grants lay elsewhere, American settlers began to purchase the property of the former French settlement with the intent of turning it into a major river port. A land company was formed in 1819 with the express purpose of purchasing the land and laying off of a town, the White Bluff Association.
George Strother Gaines was named as the company spokesman and he bought the town site atop White Bluff as soon as it offered for sale. Commissioners for the company were George Strother Gaines, James Childress, Walter Crenshaw, Count Charles Lefebvre Desnouettes, Dr. Joseph B. Earle; the commissioners were responsible for overseeing the survey of the site, lot sales, the early operations of the town. The commissioners laid off the site into streets and lots, with a block of two acres divided into eight lots; the Demopolis Town Square, encompassing one city block, was established in 1819. The first lots were sold beginning on April 22, 1819; when Count Desnouettes died in 1822, Allen Glover was appointed to replace him. As other commissioners retired they were succeeded by David E. Moore, William H. Lyon, Thomas McGee, George N. Stewart; the streets were laid off using Philadelphia as a model. The original streets running north-south were named for trees, such as Ash, Cedar and Chestnut. Exceptions were made for Commissioners and Market streets.
Several short north-south streets were named for commissioners, such as Desnouettes, Glover, McGee. The east-west streets were named for national and local heroes, as well as commissioners, such as Childress, Gaines, Monroe, Franklin and Jackson. Most streets were designed to be 66 feet wide. A strip of land, remain public property, for the use of all, was the land adjoining the Tombigbee River from where Riverside Cemetery is today, to the southwest of the city proper, all the way to the Upper Landing in the north, with Arch Street following the route along the top of the cliff. Only the portion of Arch Street adjacent to the cemetery remains intact; some flaws and limitations of the original town plan had become apparent by the late 1820s and 1830s. The typical town lots, at 75 feet wide and 150 feet deep were not conducive to the building of the stately homes desired by the more prosperous citizens of the town, although some grand mansions did begin to appear by the late 1820s. One of the first was the brick 2 1⁄2-story Federal-style Allen Glover house at the foot of Capitol street.
It was one of the, if first neoclassical structure to appear in Marengo County. It was soon followed by Bluff Hall, built in 1832 by Allen Glover for his daughter, Sarah Serena, son-in-law, Francis Strother Lyon. One major flaw in the town plan was that there was no de
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Bibb County, Alabama
Bibb County is a county in the central portion of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 23rd Decennial 2010 United States Census its population was 22,915; the county seat is Centreville. Its name is in honor of William W. Bibb, the Governor of Alabama Territory, the first Governor of Alabama, the namesake for Bibb County, Georgia where he began his political career, it is dry county. The Bibb County Courthouse is located in the county seat of Centreville. Cahawba County was established on February 1818, named for the Cahawba River; this name came from the Choctaw language word meaning "water above." On December 4, 1820, it was renamed as Bibb County. In the wake of the American Civil War, the state legislature passed laws to create a new constitution that raised barriers to voter registration and excluded Freedmen from the political process. Many residents resisted the objectives of Union occupation both during and after Reconstruction because they wanted to restore the antebellum social and political norms.
During this time of transition, Bibb and Pickens counties held the third-highest number of lynchings in the state. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 626 square miles, of which 623 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. Jefferson County - north Shelby County - northeast Chilton County - southeast Perry County - southwest Hale County - southwest Tuscaloosa County - northwest Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge Talladega National Forest U. S. Highway 11 U. S. Highway 82 State Route 5 State Route 25 State Route 58 State Route 139 State Route 209 State Route 219 Norfolk Southern Railway As of the census of 2010, there were 22,915 people, 7,953 households, 5,748 families residing in the county; the population density was 37 people per square mile. There were 8,981 housing units at an average density of 14.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 75.8% White, 22.0% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
1.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,953 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 115.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 127.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,770, the median income for a family was $51,956. Males had a median income of $40,219 versus $28,085 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,918.
About 9.4% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.4% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. From 1920 to 1970, the population of the rural county declined considerably. Many African Americans joined the Great Migration to northern and western cities, to escape the violence and racial oppression of Jim Crow. Bibb County has a five-member County Commission, elected from single-member districts. Members take turns in serving as chairman of the commission, rotating the position every nine and a half months. Alabama Department of Corrections operates the Bibb Correctional Facility in Brent. Brent Centreville Vance West Blocton Woodstock Cadle Bibb County is home to the Talladega National Forest supervised by the United States Forestry Service, a section of the Cahaba River which draws visitors to view the unique "Cahaba Lily", or. Bibb County is the setting of the S-Town podcast. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bibb County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Bibb County, Alabama Official County website Bibb County in the Encyclopedia of Alabama
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif