Togo the Togolese Republic, is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. The sovereign state extends south to the Gulf of Guinea. Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres, making it one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of 7.6 million. From the 11th to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions. From the 16th century to the 18th century, the coastal region was a major trading center for Europeans to search for slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast". In 1884, Germany declared a region including present-day Togo. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. Togo gained its independence from France in 1960. In 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma led a successful military coup d'état after which he became president of an anti-communist, single-party state. In 1993, Eyadéma faced multiparty elections, which were marred by irregularities, won the presidency three times.
At the time of his death, Eyadéma was the longest-serving leader in modern African history, having been president for 38 years. In 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president. Togo is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy depends on agriculture, with a climate that provides good growing seasons. While the official language is French, many other languages are spoken in Togo those of the Gbe family; the largest religious group in Togo consists of those with indigenous beliefs, there are significant Christian and Muslim minorities. Togo is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone and Economic Community of West African States. Archaeological finds indicate that ancient tribes were able to produce process iron; the name Togo is translated from the Ewe language as "land where lagoons lie". Not much is known of the period before arrival of the Portuguese in 1490. During the period from the 11th century to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions: the Ewé from the east, the Mina and Gun from the west.
Most of them settled in coastal areas. The slave trade began in the 16th century, for the next two hundred years the coastal region was a major trading centre for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast". In 1884, a paper was signed at Togoville with the King Mlapa III, whereby Germany claimed a protectorate over a stretch of territory along the coast and extended its control inland, its borders were defined after the capture of hinterland by German forces and signing agreements with France and Britain. In 1905, this became the German colony of Togoland; the local population was forced to work, cultivate cotton and cocoa and pay high taxes. A railway and the port of Lomé were built for export of agricultural products; the Germans introduced modern techniques of cultivation of cocoa and cotton and developed the infrastructure. During the First World War, Togoland was invaded by Britain and France, proclaiming the Anglo-French condominium.
On 7 December 1916 the condominium collapsed and Togo was divided into British and French zones. 20 July 1922 Great Britain received the League of Nations mandate to govern the western part of Togo and France to govern the eastern part. In 1945, the country received the right to send three representatives to the French parliament. After World War II, these mandates became UN Trust Territories; the residents of British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast as part of the new independent nation of Ghana in 1957. French Togoland became an autonomous republic within the French Union in 1959, while France retained the right to control the defense, foreign relations and finances; the Togolese Republic was proclaimed on 27 April 1960. In the first presidential elections in 1961, Sylvanus Olympio became the first president, gaining 100% of the vote in elections boycotted by the opposition. On 9 April 1961 the Constitution of the Togolese Republic was adopted, according to which the supreme legislative body was the National Assembly of Togo.
In December 1961, leaders of opposition parties were arrested because they were accused of the preparation of an anti-government conspiracy. A decree was issued on the dissolution of the opposition parties. Olympio tried to reduce dependence on France by establishing cooperation with the United States, Great Britain and Germany, he rejected efforts of French soldiers who were demobilized after the Algerian War and tried to get a position in the Togolese army. These factors led to a military coup on 13 January 1963, during which he was assassinated by a group of soldiers under the direction of Sergeant Gnassingbé Eyadéma. A State of emergency was declared in Togo; the military handed over power to an interim government led by Nicolas Grunitzky. In May 1963 Grunitzky was elected President of the Republic; the new leadership pursued a policy of developing relations with France. His main aim was to dampen the divisions between north and south, promulgate a new constitution, introduce a multiparty system.
Four years on 13 January 1967, Eyadéma Gnassingbé overthrew Grunitzky in a bloodless coup and assumed the presidency. He created the Rally of the Togolese People Party, banned activities of other political parties and introduced a one-party system in November 1969, he was reelected in 1979 and 1986. In 1983, the privatization program launched and in 1991 other political parties were allowed. In 1993, the EU froze the partnership, describing Eyadema's re-ele
Deux-Sèvres is a French department. Deux-Sèvres means "two Sèvres": the Sèvre Nantaise and the Sèvre Niortaise are two rivers which have their sources in the department. Deux-Sèvres was one of the 83 original départements created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. Departmental borders were changed in 1973 when the inhabitants of the little commune of Puy-Saint-Bonnet became formally associated with the growing adjacent commune of Cholet. Cholet is in the neighbouring department of Maine-et-Loire. In order to avoid the associated communes being administered in separate departments, Puy-Saint-Bonnet was transferred into Maine-et-Loire; the climate is mild, the annual temperature averaging 11 degrees Celsius. The département remains rural: three-quarters of the area consists of arable land. Wheat and oats are the main products grown, as well as potatoes and walnuts. Niort is the center for angelica; some beetroot is grown in the district of Melle. Vineyards are numerous in the north, there are some in the south.
The département is well known for the breeding of cattle and horses. The Parthenais breed of cattle is named after the town of Parthenay in the north of the département. Dairy products are produced in significant quantities; some quarries are in operation, as well as lime extraction operations. Textiles, leather-tanning, flour milling were the traditional industries of Niort, the capital and major city. Nowadays, with 60,000 inhabitants, is an important commercial and administrative center. In particular it is one of the main financial centers in France. Niort is the national headquarters of some of the major insurance companies in France and regional headquarters of others such as Groupama; the regional headquarters of several national banks, including Banque Populaire and Crédit Agricole, are located there. The services sector is heavily represented in Niort, in consulting, accounting and software. Chemistry and aeronautics are the main industries. Textiles and shoe making, mechanics, chemistry, food industry and food packaging are the major industries outside of the capital.
The unemployment rate in the département is low in the north-west, where many small and medium companies are developing rapidly. The south-west of the département attracts tourists with the Marais Poitevin natural area. Niort in the south of the département is connected to Paris and Bordeaux by the A10 motorway, with Nantes by the A83, with La Rochelle and Poitiers by the N11. Another important road in the north of the département is the Route nationale 149, which runs east–west from Mortagne-sur-Sèvre to Poitiers, passing through Bressuire and Parthenay; the RN149 forms part of the European route E62 from Nantes to Genoa. In Autumn 2008, the Route nationale 249 running from Nantes to Cholet, was extended, continuing towards Bressuire and on to Poitiers; this will become part of the E62 and bypass the current RN149. The north and south of the département are connected by minor roads, with the D743 and D748 linking Niort to Parthenay and Bressuire whilst the D938 connects to Thouars; the département has two railway stations on the TGV route between Paris and La Rochelle, with a journey from Niort to Paris taking 2h15.
It is served by several TER Nouvelle-Aquitaine regional railway routes, including a route from Poitiers via Niort to La Rochelle, a route from Niort to Saintes, a route from Tours to Thouars and Bressuire. A railway bus service operated as part of the TER Nouvelle-Aquitaine network follows the RN149 from Poitiers to Nantes, calling at Parthenay and Bressuire. Additionally the département provides the Réseau des Deux-Sèvres, an inter-urban bus service that connects the towns and villages of the département. There are no airports with scheduled airline service within the département, although Niort-Souche Airport is used for private movements; the nearest commercial airports are at La Rochelle and Nantes. Famous births in the département: Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon, second wife of Louis XIV Jacques de Liniers Louis-Marcelin, marquis de Fontanes and politician Henri-Georges Clouzot, film director Laurent Cantet, Palme d'Or at the Festival de Cannes 2008, for the movie Entre les murs Catherine Breillat, film maker and novelist Jean-Hugues Anglade, actor René Caillié explorer, the first European to return alive from the town of TimbuktuFamous people related to the département: Jean-Baptiste Baujault, French sculptor Ségolène Royal, former candidate for the 2007 French presidential election, former representative of the department at the National Assembly, former President of the Poitou-Charentes region and Minister of Ecology since 2014.
Anjou wine Arrondissements of the Deux-Sèvres department Cantons of the Deux-Sèvres department Communes of the Deux-Sèvres department Prefectures website
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Province of Zaragoza
Zaragoza called Saragossa in English, is a province of northern Spain, in the central part of the autonomous community of Aragon. Its capital is Zaragoza, the capital of the autonomous community. Other towns in Zaragoza include Calatayud, Borja, La Almunia de Doña Godina, Ejea de los Caballeros and Tarazona, its area is 17,274 km² and it is the fourth-largest Spanish province by land area. Its population is 954.811, of whom nearly three-quarters live in the capital, its population density is 50.95/km². It contains 292 municipalities; the main language throughout the province is Spanish, although Catalan is spoken in the Bajo Aragón-Caspe comarca and in Mequinenza municipality. The province of Zaragoza is bordered by the provinces of Lleida, Teruel, Soria, La Rioja and Huesca; the southern and western side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area and includes its highest point, the Moncayo, while the northern end reaches the Pre-Pyrenees. The Ebro River crosses the province from west to east.
Comarcas in the Zaragoza province: The following comarcas having their capital in Huesca Province include municipal terms within Zaragoza Province: Bajo Cinca: Mequinenza. Hoya de Huesca: Murillo de Gállego and Santa Eulalia de Gállego. Jacetania: Artieda, Salvatierra de Esca and Sigüés. Monegros: La Almolda, Farlete, Leciñena and Perdiguera. List of municipalities in Zaragoza Official website
L'Absie is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France. L'Absie is centred on the remains of a medieval abbey patronised by Eleanor of Aquitaine. L'Absie is near the Vendée border, about an hour's drive from the sunny sandy beaches of the Atlantic coast. Communes of the Deux-Sèvres departmentHoliday Gite INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Château de Bressuire
The Château de Bressuire is a ruined castle in the town of Bressuire in the Deux-Sèvres département of France. The site has been inhabited continuously since the Celtic epoch; the castle was built on the site of an oppidum of the Gauls and was first documented in 1029, in a charter at Saint-Cyprien de Poitiers. It belonged to the Beaumont-Bressuire family until the start of the 16th century; the castle is a fine example of medieval military architecture. In 1190, the castle consisted of an enceinte 700 metres around, with 38 towers circling the first fortress, itself defended by eight towers; the visible remains date from the end of the 12th and the start of the 13th century. The fortress included three enceintes; the castle was broken up during the first half of the 18th century. In 1441, Jacques de Beaumont became Seigneur de Bressuire, he converted the castle into a beautiful residence. From this time date the large building closing off the courtyard, that has mullion windows, splendid granite chimneys in the private rooms and an elegant gallery, all intended to show the refinement of the owner.
The castle subsequently belonged to a number of families but its maintenance was ignored. In 1876, the building collapsed; the Bernard family bought the castle the same year. In 1880, a neo-Gothic château was built in the castle court, set back in relation to the former building; the castle was acquired by the commune in 1975. It has been listed since 1996 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. List of castles in France Louis II de Beaumont-Bressuire Ministry of Culture listing for hâteau de Bressuire Ministry of Culture photo Site of the "Histoire et Patrimoine du Bressuirais" association Article and photos on the Château de Bressuire