Counties of Croatia
The counties of Croatia are the primary administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Croatia. Since they were re-established in 1992, Croatia has been divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, which has the authority and legal status of both a county and a city; as of 2015, the counties are subdivided into 428 municipalities. County assembly is a deliberative body in each county. Assembly members are elected for a four-year term by popular vote in local elections; the executive branch of each county's government is headed by a county prefect, except that a mayor heads the city of Zagreb's executive branch. Croatia's county prefects, mayor of Zagreb are elected for a four-year term by a majority of votes cast within applicable local government units, with a runoff election if no candidate achieves a majority in the first round of voting. County prefects can be recalled by a referendum. County administrative bodies are administrative departments and services which are established for the performance of works in the self-governing domain of the county, as well as for the performance of works of state administration transferred to the county.
Administrative departments and services are managed by heads nominated by the county prefect on the basis of a public competition. In each county exists a State Administration Office which performs the tasks of the central government. Head of State Administration Office, a university graduate in law, is appointed by the Croatian Government; these offices are not subordinate to the county assembly or county prefect, but rather the direct presence of the state. The counties are funded by the central government, as well as from county-owned businesses, county taxes and county fees. County taxes include a five percent inheritance and gift tax, a motor vehicle tax, a vessel tax and an arcade game machine tax; the counties are tasked with performing general public administration services and secondary education, government funded healthcare, social welfare, administration pertaining to agriculture, hunting, mining and construction, other services to the economy at the county level, as well as road transport infrastructure management and issuing of building and location permits and other document in relation to construction in the county area excluding the area of the big city and the county seat city.
The Croatian County Association was set up in 2003 as a framework for inter-county cooperation. The Croatian term županija was applied to territory controlled by a župan. Since the 12th century, the counties have been referred to by the Latin term comitatus. Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages. Counties were first introduced in Croatia during the House of Trpimirović's rule; the exact number and borders of these early counties are difficult to determine accurately. The following eleven are listed as the oldest counties of Croatia, dating back to the 10th century: Livno Cetina Imotski Pliva Pset or Pesenta Primorje or Klis Bribir Nona Knin Sidraga Nina or Luka The ban ruled over an additional three župas Krbava and Gacka to the West, approximatelly today's Lika-Senj County territory. In the same period, the counties in Pannonian Croatia are poorly documented, it is thought that the Pannonian counties were directly subject to the Croatian monarchy, unlike the southern counties controlled by nobles.
The county number and authority have varied reflecting: changes in the monarchial and noble relative influences. In the 13th and 14th century, the Croatian nobility grew stronger and the counties defined by the king were reduced to a legislative framework, while military and financial power was concentrated in the feudal lords. Other forms of administration that overlapped with county administration in this period included the Roman Catholic Church and the free royal cities, separately the cities of Dalmatia. After Croatia became a crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1527, the importance of counties faded further, but was restored after 1760; the divisions have changed over time, reflecting: territorial losses to Ottoma
Kamenska is an uninhabited village in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia. Kamenska is administered as a part of the Brestovac municipality; the village is connected by the D38 state road. According to the 2011 census, the village of Kamenska is no longer inhabited; the 1991 census recorded that 92.50% of the village population were ethnic Serbs, 2.50% were ethnic Croats, 5.00% were of other ethnic origin. Historical population 1857-2011 Monument to the victory of the people of Slavonia
Croatian Bureau of Statistics
The Croatian Bureau of Statistics is the Croatian national statistics bureau. The bureau was formed in 1875 in Austria-Hungary as the Zemaljski statistički ured for the Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia. In 1924, the bureau was renamed to the Statistical Office in Zagreb. In 1929, after royal monarchy was proclaimed in the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes the bureau lost its financial and technical independence. In 1939 with the formation of the Banovina of Croatia, the office was made subject to the presidential office on the Ban's administration. In 1941 the Independent State of Croatia was formed and an Office of General State Statistics existed during this time under the control of the presidential government. In 1945 the Statistical Office of the People's Republic of Croatia was formed. In 1951 it was renamed to the Bureau of Statistics and Evidence, in 1956 to the Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of Croatia and in 1963 to the Republican Bureau for Statistics of the Socialist Republic of Croatia.
The bureau was independent during this time, but was subordinated to the Yugoslavian Federal Bureau for Statistics. Upon Croatian independence, the Central Bureau of Statistics was made the highest statistical body in the nation; the bureau processes data for the Republic of Croatia. Among other things, the bureau conducts the Croatian census; the Bureau keeps records on Croatian censa since 1857, including the recent: 1991 Croatian census 2001 Croatian census 2011 Croatian census Official website
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Croats or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia. Croats live in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but are recognized minorities in such countries as Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Due to political and economic reasons, many Croats migrated to North and South America as well as Australia and New Zealand, establishing a diaspora in the aftermath of World War II, with grassroots assistance from earlier communities and the Roman Catholic Church. Croats are Roman Catholics; the Croatian language is official in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the European Union, is a recognised minority language within Croatian autochthonous communities and minorities in Montenegro, Italy and Serbia. Evidence is rather scarce for the period between the 7th and 8th centuries, CE. Archaeological evidence shows population continuity in coastal Istria. In contrast, much of the Dinaric hinterland appears to have been depopulated, as all hilltop settlements, from Noricum to Dardania, were abandoned in the early 7th century.
Although the dating of the earliest Slavic settlements is still disputed, there is a hiatus of a century. The origin and nature of the Slavic migrations remain controversial, all available evidence points to the nearby Danubian and Carpathian regions; the ethnonym "Croat" is first attested in the charter of Duke Trpimir. Much uncertainty revolves around the exact circumstances of their appearance given the scarcity of literary sources during the 7th and 8th century "Dark Ages". Traditionally, scholarship has placed the arrival of the Croats in the 7th century on the basis of the Byzantine document De Administrando Imperio; as such, the arrival of the Croats was seen as a second wave of Slavic migrations, which liberated Dalmatia from Avar hegemony. However, as early as the 1970s, scholars questioned the reliability of Porphyrogenitus' work, written as it was in the 10th century. Rather than being an accurate historical account, De Administrando Imperio more reflects the political situation during the 10th century.
It served as Byzantine propaganda praising Emperor Heraclius for repopulating the Balkans with Croats, who were seen by the Byzantines as tributary peoples living on what had always been'Roman land'. Scholars have hypothesized the name Croat may be Iranian, thus suggesting that the Croatians were a Sarmatian tribe from the Pontic region who were part of a larger movement at the same time that the Slavs were moving toward the Adriatic; the major basis for this connection was the perceived similarity between Hrvat and inscriptions from the Tanais dated to the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, mentioning the name Khoroathos. Similar arguments have been made for an alleged Gothic-Croat link. Whilst there is indeed possible evidence of population continuity between Gothic and Croatian times in parts of Dalmatia, the idea of a Gothic origin of Croats was more rooted in 20th century Ustaše political aspirations than historical reality. Contemporary scholarship views the rise of "Croats" as an autochthonous, Dalmatian response to the demise of the Avar khanate and the encroachment of Frankish and Byzantine Empires into northern Dalmatia.
They appear to have been based around Klis, down to the Cetina and south of Liburnia. Here, concentrations of the "Old Croat culture" abound, marked by some wealthy warrior burials dating to the 9th century CE. Other, distinct polities existed near the Croat duchy; these included the Guduscans, the Narentines and the Sorabi who ruled some other eastern parts of ex-Roman "Dalmatia". Prominent in the territory of future Croatia was the polity of Prince Liutevid, who ruled the territories between the Drava and Sava rivers, centred from his fort at Sisak. Although Duke Liutevid and his people are seen as a "Pannonian Croats", he is, due to the lack of "evidence that they had a sense of Croat identity" referred to as dux Pannoniae Inferioris, or a Slav, by contemporary sources. However, the Croats became the dominant local power in northern Dalmatia, absorbing Liburnia and expanding their name by conquest and prestige. In the south, while having periods of independence, the Naretines "merged" with Croats under control of Croatian Kings.
With such expansion, Croatia soon became dominant power and absorb other polities between Frankish and Byzantine empire. Although the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja has been dismissed as an unreliable record, the mentioned "Red Croatia" suggests that Croatian clans and families might have settled as far south as Duklja/Zeta and city of Drač in today's Albania; the lands which constitute modern Croatia fell under three major geographic-politic zones during the Middle Ages, which were influenced by powerful neighbour Empires – notably the Byzantines, the Avars and Magyars and Bulgars. Each vied for control of the Northwest Balkan regions. Two independent Slavic dukedoms emerged sometime during the 9th century: the Croat Duchy and Principality of Lower Pannonia. Having been under Avar control, lower Pannonia became a march of the Carolingian Empire around 800. Aided by Vojnomir in 796, the first named Slavic Duke of Pannonia, the Franks wrested control of
Požega is a city in western Slavonia, eastern Croatia, with a total population of 26,248. It is the administrative center of the Požega-Slavonia County. Between 1921 and 1991, the town was known as Slavonska Požega. In German, the town is known as Poschegg, in Hungarian as Pozsega, in Turkish as Pojega, in Latin as Incerum and Possega. There is a town in Serbia with same name. "Požega" is supposed to be related to the Croatian word "požar", meaning "forest fire". "Incerum" is supposed to come from Proto-Indo-European words *h1eyn and *kjer, so that it means "the heart of the valley". Požega is located in the south-western part of the Valley of Požega, or Požega basin, in Croatian: Požeška kotlina; this fertile valley has been important since the antiquity - its Roman name was Vallis Aurea, meaning "golden valley". The valley is formed by the Slavonian mountains of Požeška Gora, Papuk and Dilj. Two state roads run concurrently through the city: the D38 Pakrac — Požega — Pleternica — Đakovo and the D51 Nova Gradiška — Požega — Našice, as well as a railroad: Nova Kapela/Batrina — Pleternica — Požega — Velika.
The total population of the city administrative area is 26,248, in the following settlements: By ethnicity, the population is 93.24% Croats, 4.66% Serbs, 0.56% undeclared, 0.38% Albanians, 0.15% Czechs, others. The first mention of the city of Požega is found in the Gesta Hungarorum, by an anonymous notary of Béla III where he mentions the conquest of three forts in Slavonia - as the area between rivers Danube and Sutla was called: Zagreb and Posega; the fortress of Požega, an elongated hexagonal fortification located on a hill in the present-day city center, was built during the 11th century, although the first documents that mention Požega county date from 1210, while the city of Požega was documented for the first time in a charter of Andrew II on January 11, 1227. Požega was the residential estate of the Croatian-Hungarian queen and was exempt from the authority of the viceroy and the county. Although no such charter survives, the privileges that citizens enjoyed corresponded to a free royal city.
The fortress doesn't exist anymore, the irregularly-shaped central city square is Romanic in nature. Only fragments of walls remain to remind; the remaining monuments from that age are the Church of St. Lawrence, the Church of the Holy Spirit. By the late 14th century, the city started to decline economically due to insecurity from Ottoman raids. In the 15th century, city walls were built; this proved an insufficient defense as the Turks seized Požega in 1537. During the 150-year-long Ottoman rule, Požega was seat of a Sanjak of Požega and given certain prominence. After a considerable economic decline, in 1537, at the time of the Ottoman conquest, Požega had 110 houses and 15 businesses. However, by 1579, there were 160 craftsmen in Požega as a result of improved security and an increase in population; the death of Hasan Predojević the Požega Sanjak Bey in the Battle of Sisak in 1593, marked the first Ottoman defeat in Europe, after years of steady decline, Ottoman rule grew weaker until Požega was liberated on 12 March 1688 by citizens led by friar Luka Ibrišimović.
This day is now celebrated as the day of the city. After the liberation, Požega came under Habsburg rule, in 1745, Požega county was restored and the city thus returned to the authority of Croatian viceroy. Požega underwent a period of vigorous development: In 1699, a grammar school opened - only the fifth in Croatia. In 1727, Jesuits built a theatre, in 1740, the city's first pharmacy. There was a philosophical college for Franciscan novices - the first such institution in Slavonia since the Ottoman rule; the Academia Posegana opened in 1760, placing Požega, along with Zagreb, among the first Croatian centres of highest education. In 1765, Empress Maria Theresa granted Požega a royal free city charter and supported the construction of the present-day Cathedral of St. Teresa of Ávila. In 1847, Požega was the first city in Croatia to introduce the Croatian language in official use, the achievements of its notable citizens earned it the nickname of "Slavonian Athens". In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Požega was the seat of the Požega County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
From 1941 to 1945, Požega was part of the Independent State of Croatia. During this period war crimes were committed against the Serb and Jewish population under former police chief Milivoj Ašner. Among the war-time and post-wartime casualties were at least 301 Germans. Požega County was abolished along with other Croatian counties in 1923, was restored in 1993, following the independence of Croatia. Furthermore, in the footsteps of its tradition as an educational center as well as a church center, Požega became a diocesan see in 1997, a graduate-degree college was opened in 1998. Chief occupations include farming, livestock breeding, metal-processing, textiles and timber, building material and printing industries; the city has an 800-year-old historical heritage. Its cherished traditions underlie the tourist development of Požega; the central town square with a number of nice buildings and a plague column is one of the most beautiful squares in Croatia. Požega hosts a number of traditiona
Lipik is a town in western Slavonia, in the Požega-Slavonia County of northeastern Croatia. The settlements included in the administrative area of Lipik include: Lipik was occupied by Ottoman forces along with several other cities in Slavonia until its liberation in 1691. In 1773, the warm waters of Lipik were described favorably by a Varaždin doctor, it continued to be used as a treatment spa for over a century, in 1872, the first hotel was opened in the town. By 1920 the number of hotels grew to six. Spa treatment is still the major focus of economy for the town. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Lipik was part of the Požega County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Lipik hosts a Lipizzan stable, built in 1843 under the Habsburg Monarchy, it had enjoyed state recognition in Yugoslavia between 1938 and the 1950s, when it was closed in favor of the stable in Lipica, Slovenia. It was reopened in 1981, but during the Croatian War of Independence the horses were evacuated and taken to Novi Sad, Serbia where they remained until their negotiated return in 2007.
Vladimir Velmar-Janković, Serb writer Jadranka Kosor, former Croatian Prime Minister Official website