The Cleveland Cavaliers referred to as the Cavs, are an American professional basketball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Cavs compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division; the team began play as an expansion team in 1970, along with the Portland Trail Blazers and Buffalo Braves. Home games were first held at Cleveland Arena from 1970 to 1974, followed by the Richfield Coliseum from 1974 to 1994. Since 1994, the Cavs have played home games at Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse in downtown Cleveland, shared with the Cleveland Gladiators of the Arena Football League and the Cleveland Monsters of the American Hockey League. Dan Gilbert has owned the team since March 2005; the Cavaliers opened their inaugural season losing their first 15 games and struggled in their early years, placing no better than sixth in the Eastern Conference during their first five seasons. The team won their first Central Division title in 1976, which marked the first winning season and playoff appearance in franchise history, where they advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals.
The franchise was purchased by Ted Stepien in 1980. Stepien's tenure as owner was marked by six coaching changes, questionable trades and draft decisions, poor attendance, leading to $15 million in financial losses; the Cavs went 66–180 in that time and endured a 24-game losing streak spanning the 1981–82 and 1982–83 seasons. George and Gordon Gund purchased the franchise in 1983. During the latter half of the 1980s and through much of the 1990s, the Cavs were a regular playoff contender, led by players such as Mark Price and Brad Daugherty, advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals in 1992. After the team's playoff appearance in 1998, the Cavs had six consecutive losing seasons with no playoff action. Cleveland was awarded with the top overall pick in the 2003 draft, they selected LeBron James. Behind James and Zydrunas Ilgauskas, the Cavaliers again became a regular playoff contender by 2005, they made their first appearance in the NBA Finals in 2007 after winning the first Eastern Conference championship in franchise history.
After failing to return to the NBA Finals in the ensuing three seasons, James joined the Miami Heat in 2010. As a result, the Cavaliers finished the 2010–11 season last in the conference, enduring a 26-game losing streak that, as of 2017, ranks as the longest in NBA history for a single season and second overall. Between 2010 and 2014, the team won the top pick in the NBA draft lottery three times, first in 2011 where they selected Kyrie Irving, again in 2013 and 2014. LeBron James led the team to four straight NBA Finals appearances. In 2016, the Cavaliers won their first NBA Championship, marking Cleveland's first major sports title since 1964; the 2016 NBA Finals victory over the Golden State Warriors marked the first time in Finals history a team had come back to win the series after trailing three games to one. The Cavaliers have made 22 playoff appearances, won seven Central Division titles, five Eastern Conference titles, one NBA title; the Cavaliers began play in the 1970–71 NBA season as an expansion team.
They set losing records in each of their first five seasons before winning their first division title in 1976. That team was led by Austin Carr, Bobby "Bingo" Smith, Jim Chones, Dick Snyder, Nate Thurmond, head coach Bill Fitch, was remembered most for the "Miracle at Richfield", in which the Cavaliers defeated the Washington Bullets 4–3 in the Eastern Conference Semifinals, they won Game 87 -- 85, on a shot by Snyder with four seconds to go. The Cavaliers moved on to the Eastern Conference Finals for the first time, but were without Chones after he broke his foot in a practice right before the series opener; as a result, the Cavaliers went on to lose 4–2 to the Boston Celtics. They made playoff appearances in the following two seasons before going on a six-year playoff hiatus; the early 1980s were marked by Ted Stepien's ownership, who had a disastrous run as owner and de facto general manager between 1980 and 1983. During Stepien's reign, the Cavaliers made a practice of trading future draft picks for marginal veteran players.
His most notable deal sent a 1982 first-round pick to the Los Angeles Lakers in exchange for Dan Ford and the 22nd overall pick in 1980. As a result of Stepien's dealings, the NBA introduced the "Stepien Rule", which prohibits teams from trading first-round draft picks in successive seasons; the Cavaliers went 66–180, dropped to the bottom of the league in attendance and lost $15 million during Stepien's three years as the owner. The Cavs went through six coaches including four during the 1981 -- 82 season; the team finished 15–67, between March and November 1982, the team had a 24-game losing streak, which at the time, was the NBA's longest losing streak. George and Gordon Gund purchased the Cavaliers from Stepien in 1983; the Cavaliers made the playoffs ten times between 1984–85 and 1997–98. In 1988–89, the Cavaliers had their best season to date, finishing the regular season with 57–25 record behind the likes of Brad Daugherty, Mark Price, Ron Harper and Larry Nance, head coach Lenny Wilkens.
They reached the Eastern Conference Finals that year. However, between 1998–99 and 2004–05, the Cavaliers failed to make a playoff appearance; the 2002–03 season saw the Cavaliers finish 17–65, tied for the worst record in the NBA. The Cavaliers' luck changed; the team selected heralded forward and future NBA MVP LeBron James, a native of nearby Akron who had risen to national stardom at St. Vincent-St. Mary High School. In 2005, the team would be sold to businessman Dan Gilbert; that year, the
Livingston, New Jersey
Livingston is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 29,366, reflecting an increase of 1,975 from the 27,391 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 782 from the 26,609 counted in the 1990 Census. Livingston was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 5, 1813, from portions of Caldwell Township and Springfield Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Roseland; the township was named for the first Governor of New Jersey. In 2017, the Township of Livingston adopted a new logo. Livingston's history dates back to 1699, they set up a committee to negotiate from Lenni Lenape Native Americans for the purchase of the Horseneck Tract which today includes Livingston and eight other northern municipalities. Between 1698 and 1702, the rules for property ownership were unclear. There were many disputes between the English proprietors. For some unknown reasons, the Newark settlers did not obtain a grant from the proprietors before negotiating with the natives.
They obtained the deed directly from Lenni Lenape in 1702 for £130. The settlements began until around the 1740s as the dispute between the proprietors and the settlers continued; the dispute came to a breaking point in September 1745 when the East Jersey proprietors began to evict a settler only six months after a house fire in Newark destroyed the original deed, the only evidence of the purchase. During that period, William Livingston, one of the few landed aristocrats joined the settlers against the proprietors. Livingston owned land around today's south western corner of the Township of Livingston, his land, like other settlers, was levied with quit rents in the amount 40 shillings per acre. He defended many settlers; this series of events caused the settlers, led by Timothy Meeker, to form a group to riot against the British government. The Horseneck Riots lasted for 10 years from 1745 to 1755; the group was one of the first colonial militia which had periodic battles for 32 years leading up to the Revolutionary War as the group joined the Continental Army in 1776.
After the Revolutionary War, more permanent settlements took place with the first school built in 1783. In 1811, a petition was filed to incorporate the township from about 100 people who lived in seven distinct areas: Centerville, Morehousetown, Squiretown and Washington Place. On February 5, 1813, the township was incorporated; the first town meeting was held on the same day and they decided to run the township by a Township Committee system. During the 1800s, lumber and farming were major industries in the town. Shoemaking and dairy farming became major industries after the Civil War. However, the population grew because it was not accessible. Mt. Pleasant Avenue –, one of the first turnpikes in New Jersey – was the only primary access to the town through stagecoaches; the population grew after the 1920s when automobiles became more accessible. As a suburb of Newark, the town experienced many housing developments after World War II with its peak in 1970 of more than thirty thousand residents.
During this growth period, many services were organized including volunteer Fire Department in 1922, first regular Livingston Police Department chief in 1929, a Planning Commission in 1930, two hospitals opened in 1959 and 1960, new public library in 1961, new municipal complex in 1963. The last surviving Harrison Cider Apple tree, the most famous of the 18th century Newark cider apples was rescued from extinction in 1976 in Livingston. Today, around 29,000 people live in this suburban community, which lies around an hour from New York City, its school system, which had last been nationally recognized in 1998, other programs have been drawing new residents to the town. Its population has maintained a level of diversity while the residents continue the tradition of community volunteerism. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Township of Livingston had a total area of 14.081 square miles, including 13.768 square miles as land and 0.313 square miles as water. Livingston is in the New York metropolitan area.
It is in southwestern Essex County. Within Essex County it is bordered by Roseland to the north, West Orange to the east, Millburn/Short Hills to the south. To the west it is bordered by East Hanover; the western border is the Passaic River. Localities and place names located or within the township include Cedar Ridge, Morehousetown, Washington Place and West Livingston. According to the 2002 results of the National Jewish Population Survey, there were 12,600 Jews in Livingston 46% of the population, one of the highest percentages of Jews in any American municipality; the neighboring towns of South Orange and Millburn have high Jewish populations. In a report performed by the United Way of Northern New Jersey based on 2012 data, around 14% of Livingston households were classified as "Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed" ho
1997 NBA draft
The 1997 NBA draft took place on June 25, 1997, in Charlotte, North Carolina. Although the Boston Celtics had the second-worst record in the 1996–97 season and the best odds of winning the lottery with two picks, the Spurs a model of winning and consistency, lost David Robinson and Sean Elliott to injury early in the season, finished with the third-worst record, subsequently won the lottery. Leading up to the draft, there was no doubt that Tim Duncan would be selected at No. 1 by the Spurs, the rest of the draft was regarded with some skepticism. The Celtics had the third and sixth picks, selecting Chauncey Billups and Ron Mercer, both of whom were traded in the next two years; the Washington Wizards forfeited their 1997 first-round pick in connection with the signing of Juwan Howard. Thus, the draft only had 57 selections overall; these players were not selected in the 1997 NBA Draft but have played in the NBA. "Official website". Archived from the original on 2001-02-15. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown 1997 NBA Draft at Basketball-reference
Seton Hall Preparatory School
Seton Hall Preparatory School called Seton Hall Prep or "The Prep", is a Roman Catholic all boys' high school located in the suburban community of West Orange in Essex County, New Jersey, operating under the supervision of the Archdiocese of Newark. Founded in 1856 with an original enrollment of five boys, Seton Hall Prep was located on the campus of Seton Hall University where it became known as "The Prep" as a way to distinguish it from "The University." In 1985, The Prep moved to its present location. Seton Hall is the oldest Catholic college preparatory school in New Jersey; as of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 937 students and 79.8 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 11.7:1. The school's student body was 72.4% White, 11.1% Black, 6.0% Asian, 1.8% Hispanic and 8.8% two or more races. Seton Hall students follow a college preparatory program, with four-year requirements in the English language and theology. After completing a traditional core program during the first two years, students may establish a curriculum geared to their college and career plans from a wide selection of courses in science, language, fine arts and physical education.
College-level Advanced Placement courses are available in 17 areas. "The Prep" is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools and is a member of the New Jersey Association of Independent Schools. Founded in 1856, Seton Hall Preparatory School is the oldest Catholic college preparatory school in New Jersey. Bishop James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark and nephew of Elizabeth Ann Seton, purchased an estate in Madison, New Jersey using money donated by Catholic Charities, that would become the site of Seton Hall Prep. Five priests and eight laymen formed a Board of Directors to establish a Catholic preparatory school and seminary; the inaugural class of five students first met on December 1, 1856. Seton Hall President Rt. Rev. Bernard McQuaid purchased an estate in South Orange in 1857, to which the school moved in 1860 to accommodate a larger student body; the Prep subsequently would spend the next 125 years on the institution's South Orange campus.
Until 1928 the President of Seton Hall College was the head of the Preparatory Division. At that time, Rev. D. A. Mulcahy became the high school's first director; the following year Rev. William Bradley was named director principal and the school's first headmaster in 1938; the Prep school's population grew further over the next decades, with peaks in enrollment during World War II and in the mid 1970s. The school occupied three main buildings on the university campus— Mooney Hall, Duffy Hall and Stafford Hall. A significant portion of the student body boarding on campus until The last of the boarding students graduated in the mid-1950s. In the early and mid twentieth century Prep drew its students principally from Essex and Union counties, but as the state's transportation system expanded in the 1960s and 1970s, the school began to draw students from Morris, Hudson and Middlesex counties. In 1980, Rev. Michael E. Kelly became the first alumnus headmaster. Five years The Prep acquired an 11-acre campus of its own in nearby West Orange.
In 1993, the school purchased a 44-acre tract of land on nearby Prospect Avenue, overlooking the New York City skyline. Beginning in 1993, The Prep began construction on the Edward D. and Helen M. Kelly Athletic Complex there. In 2005 the school celebrated two milestones, marking The Prep's 150th anniversary, as well as the 25th anniversary of Msgr. Kelly's headmastership; the Prep offers a co-curricular activities program, with numerous academic, performance, cultural and recreation clubs and activities. Additionally, the Prep offers fifteen interscholastic sports, most with accompanying sub-varsity level teams; the main campus, accessible to Interstate 280 and several bus and train routes, is augmented by a nearby 44-acre site, The Kelly Athletic Complex, providing auxiliary athletic facilities, including a 400m all-weather track, a game field for lacrosse and soccer, practice fields. Students coming from ten New Jersey counties and Staten Island, New York City, the breadth of background the students bring to academic and extracurricular activities is a source of great pride.
Drawing students from such a wide area, more than 130 towns Staten Island and New York City, the Prep draws its student population from points as far as Jamesburg and Edison, to Chester and Denville, to Lyndhurst and Montville, to Pompton Plains and Kinnelon as well as Paterson and Hoboken. At the same time more than 80 students come from West Orange itself, 75 from neighboring South Orange/Maplewood and East Orange, large contingents from close-by Bloomfield, Cedar Grove, the Caldwells, Morristown, Florham Park, East Hanover, Summit and Morris Plains. Seton Hall takes as its mission the development of the whole man—spiritual, intellectual and physical. Seton Hall community proceeds from a belief that growth as a whole person is not limited to secular knowledge but involves the spiritual fulfillment, a central concern in its educational tradition. In as much as such growth and maturity are rooted in personal and social responsibility, a code of conduct and expectations is in place to guide the student community in their daily activities.
Consequent to its Catholic identity, the Prep seeks to foster an ecumenical and diverse community, faithful to a Judeo-Christian heritage. "The Prep" offers many activities. Most students are involved in some type of after school program; some of these club
The Charlotte Hornets are an American professional basketball team based in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Hornets compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division; the team is owned by retired NBA player Michael Jordan, who acquired controlling interest in the team in 2010. The Hornets play their home games at the Spectrum Center in Uptown Charlotte; the original Hornets franchise was established in 1988 as an expansion team, owned by George Shinn. In 2002, Shinn's franchise became the New Orleans Hornets. In 2004, the NBA established the Charlotte Bobcats, regarded as a new expansion team at the time. In 2013, the New Orleans' franchise announced it would rebrand itself the New Orleans Pelicans returning the Hornets name and official history to Charlotte; the Bobcats were renamed the Charlotte Hornets for the 2014–15 season. In 1985, the NBA was planning to expand by three teams by the 1988–1989 season modified to include a total of four expansion teams.
George Shinn, an entrepreneur from Kannapolis, wanted to bring an NBA team to the Charlotte area, he assembled a group of prominent local businessmen to head the prospective franchise. The Charlotte area had long been a hotbed for college basketball. Charlotte was one of the fastest-growing cities in the United States, was one of the three in-state regional homes to the American Basketball Association's Carolina Cougars from 1969 to 1974. Despite doubt from critics, Shinn's ace in the hole was the Charlotte Coliseum, a state-of-the-art arena that would seat 24,000 spectators – the largest basketball-specific arena to serve as a full-time home for an NBA team. On April 5, 1987, then-NBA Commissioner David Stern called Shinn to tell him his group had been awarded the 24th NBA franchise, to begin play in 1988. Franchises were granted to Miami, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Orlando; the new team was going to be called the Charlotte Spirit, but a name-the-team contest yielded "Hornets" as the winning choice.
The team received further attention when it chose teal as its primary color, setting off a sports fashion craze in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The team's uniforms, designed by international designer and North Carolina native Alexander Julian, featured a first for NBA uniforms—pin stripes. Similar designs by other teams followed. Shinn hired Carl Scheer as the team's first General Manager. Scheer preferred a roster of veteran players, hoping to put together a competitive team as soon as possible. Former college coach and veteran NBA assistant Dick Harter was hired as the team's first head coach. In 1988, the Hornets and the Miami Heat were part of the 1988 NBA Expansion Draft. Unlike many expansion franchises that invest in the future with a team composed of young players, Charlotte stocked its inaugural roster with several veterans in hopes of putting a competitive lineup on the court right away; the team had three draft picks at the 1988 NBA draft. The Hornets' first NBA game took place on November 4, 1988, at the Charlotte Coliseum, losing 133–93 to the Cleveland Cavaliers.
Four days the team notched its first-ever victory over the Los Angeles Clippers, 117–105. On December 23, 1988, the Hornets gave their fans something to cheer about, beating Michael Jordan and the Chicago Bulls 103–101 in Jordan's first return to North Carolina as a professional; the Hornets finished their inaugural season with a record of 20–62. Scheer left prior to the 1989–90 season. Despite initial concerns that the Coliseum was too big, the Hornets were a runaway hit, leading the NBA in attendance, a feat they would achieve seven more times in Charlotte; the Hornets would sell out 364 consecutive games. The Hornets' second season was a struggle from start to finish. Members of the team rebelled against Dick Harter's defense-oriented style, he was replaced mid-season by assistant Gene Littles following an 8–32 start. Despite the change, the team continued to struggle, finishing the season with a disappointing 19–63 record; the team showed improvement during the following season. They won eight of their first fifteen games, including a 120–105 victory over the Washington Bullets.
However, the team went cold. The Hornets, who hosted the 1991 NBA All-Star Game, finished with a 26–56 record. Despite the team's seven-game improvement over the previous season, Gene Littles was fired at the end of the season and replaced by general manager Allan Bristow. With the first pick in the 1991 NBA draft, the Hornets drafted power forward Larry Johnson from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Johnson had an impact season, finishing among the league leaders in points and rebounds, winning the 1992 NBA Rookie of the Year Award. Additionally, Guard Kendall Gill led the club in scoring; the team stayed in contention for a playoff spot until March, but finished the year with a 31–51 record. The Hornets were in the lottery again in 1992 and won the second overall pick in the draft, using it to select Georgetown center Alonzo Mourning. Charlotte now had two 20–10 threats in Johnson and Mourning, who with Kendall Gill, formed the league's top young trio; the team finished their fifth season at 44–38, their first-ever winning record and good enough for the first playoff berth in franchise history.
Finishing fifth in the Eastern Conference, the Hornets upset the Boston Celtics in the first round, with Mourning winning the series with a 20-footer in game four. However, the Hornets lacked the experience and depth to defeat the New York Knicks, falling in five games in the second round; the Horn
NBA Most Valuable Player Award
The National Basketball Association Most Valuable Player Award is an annual National Basketball Association award given since the 1955–56 season to the best performing player of the regular season. The winner receives the Maurice Podoloff Trophy, named in honor of the first commissioner of the NBA, who served from 1946 until 1963; until the 1979–80 season, the MVP was selected by a vote of NBA players. Since the 1980–81 season, the award is decided by a panel of sportswriters and broadcasters throughout the United States and Canada; each member of the voting panel casts a vote for first to fifth place selections. Each first-place vote is worth 10 points. Starting from 2010, one ballot was cast by fans through online voting; the player with the highest point total wins the award. As of June 2018, the current holder of the award is James Harden of the Houston Rockets; every player who has won this award and has been eligible for the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame has been inducted. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar won the award a record six times.
He is the only player to win the award despite his team not making the playoffs back in the 1975–76 season. Both Bill Russell and Michael Jordan won the award five times, while Wilt Chamberlain and LeBron James won the award four times. Russell and James are the only players to have won the award four times in five seasons. Moses Malone, Larry Bird and Magic Johnson each won the award three times, while Bob Pettit, Karl Malone, Tim Duncan, Steve Nash and Stephen Curry have each won it twice. Only two rookies have won the award: Chamberlain in the 1959–60 season and Wes Unseld in the 1968–69 season. Hakeem Olajuwon of Nigeria, Duncan of the U. S. Virgin Islands, Nash of Canada and Dirk Nowitzki of Germany are the only MVP winners considered "international players" by the NBA. Curry in 2015–16 is the only player to have won the award unanimously. Shaquille O'Neal in 1999–2000 and James in 2012–13 are the only two players to have fallen one vote shy of a unanimous selection, both receiving 120 of 121 votes.
Since the 1975–76 season, only two players have been named MVP for a season in which their team failed to win at least 50 regular-season games—Moses Malone and Russell Westbrook. Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award NBA All-Star Game Most Valuable Player Award NBA Development League Most Valuable Player Award General Specific
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni