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Brewarrina, New South Wales

Brewarrina is a town in North West New South Wales, Australia on the banks of the Barwon River in Brewarrina Shire. The name Brewarrina is derived from'burru waranha', a Weilwan name for a species of Acacia, Cassia tree, "Acacia clumps", "a native standing" or "place where wild gooseberry grows", it is 96 km east of Bourke and west of Walgett on the Kamilaroi Highway, 787 km from Sydney. The population of Brewarrina in 2016 was 1,143. Other towns and villages in the Brewarrina district include; the site of the Brewarrina Aboriginal Mission is now heritage-listed. The town is located amid the traditional lands of the Muruwari, Ngemba and Yualwarri peoples; the area has a long Indigenous Australian history and was once the meeting ground for over 5,000 people. The first settlers arrived in the district around 1839-40; the first people to own land where the town now stands were the Lawson brothers, who had two holdings - one called "Walcha" and another called "Moona" The town was first known as "Walcha Hut" but this changed to "Brewarrina".

In 1859, somewhere between 300-400 Aboriginal people were massacred by white settlers in an event known as the Hospital Creek Massacre, recollections of which vary. A memorial was erected by the local Aboriginal Land Council near the site of the massacre. In 1859 a riverboat called; this opened the possibility of developing the town as a port, by the early 1860s Brewarrina was recognised as the furthest navigable point on the Darling River. Brewarrina became a port for shipping wool to Adelaide via the Murray rivers; the town was formally surveyed and laid out in 1861 and proclaimed on 28 April 1863. The paddle steamer Wandering Jew of 66 tonnes, 22 × 4.4 × 1.5 m, was built in 1866 and registered at Sydney. On 15 December 1914, Wandering Jew was lost due to a fire on Brewarrina. "The Wandering Jew represents an earlier maritime era and provides a direct link to the riverine heritage of Brewarrina. Its colourful history and repeated damage by fire is evocative of the dramas associated with riverboat travel".

The 1870s were something of a boom time for Brewarrina. The courthouse was built in 1871; the Telegraph reached town in 1873. The Mechanics Institute formed in 1873; the following year two hotels, two stores and the Commercial Bank all opened, in 1875 The Parish of Brewarrina was formed and public school was opened. All this development was due to Cobb and Co, which had a number of coach services passing through the town. There was a service from Byrock, one from Dubbo via Warren and, in 1874, a direct service from Brewarrina to Enngonia, north of Bourke; the number of people moving through the town at this time would have been considerable and would have given rise to the increase in stores and hotels. The Barwon Bridge opened in 1888, the previous method of crossing the Barwon River was by punt and pontoon; the impetus for Brewarrina bridge, was to capture the New South Wales wool trade from the river paddle steamers and direct it away from Melbourne and Adelaide to Sydney. It is a rare bridge because it, the lift bridge at North Bourke, are the only surviving examples of the first series of lift bridges in New South Wales.

The bridge has been assessed as being of state significance and is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register. In 1901 the Brewarrina railway line opened to Brewarrina on the Nyngan to Bourke line; the Brewarrina Line closed in 1974, the wood-framed Brewarrina Station burned to the ground in 1980. The local telephone exchange was established in 1913; the town was surveyed in 1920. Brewarrina was used as a location for the Australian silent film Moora Neya, or The Message of the Spear; the Brewarrina Ngemba Billabong has a strong cultural history. From 1876 to 1967 the Ngemba Billabong was the Brewarrina Aboriginal Mission for local Aboriginal people whose land was taken for grazing; the entire 261 hectare property is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register. The Brewarrina Aboriginal Mission was the oldest institutional-type community in the state, it ran until 1965. Brewarrina Mission was the first institution formally established by the Aborigines Protection Board as part of its policy to segregate Aboriginal people.

In August 1987 Brewarrina erupted into a riot, triggered by the death in police custody of Lloyd James Boney. On 10 August 1987 the Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced a Royal Commission into indigenous deaths in custody. Brewarrina has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Brewarrina Aboriginal Fish Traps The Old Mission Road: Brewarrina Aboriginal Mission Site Brewarrina's most significant feature is its Aboriginal fish traps. Known in the local Aboriginal language as Baiame's Ngunnhu, it is believed that Ngemba, Wonkamurra and Gomolaroi people have shared and maintained the traps for thousands of years. The age of the fish traps is unknown, but they may be the oldest human construction in the world. Locals claim that the traps are at least 40,000 years old and thus the oldest surviving human-made structure in the world. Consisting of river stones arranged to form small channels, the traps direct fish into small areas from which they are plucked; the traps form a complex net of linked ponds along 500 m of the river.

They can be altered to suit seasonal changes. People use their expert knowledge of the environment to maximise their catch. Brewarrina Ngemba Billabong has been declared a World Conservation Union Category V and VI protected area, it was declared an Indigenous Protected Area in November 2010. The ready availability of fish made Brewarrina one of the great

Italian sausage

In North America, Italian sausage most refers to a style of pork sausage. The sausage is noted for being seasoned with fennel as the primary seasoning. In Italy, however, a wide variety of sausages are made, many of which are quite different from the aforementioned product; the most common varieties marketed as "Italian sausage" in supermarkets are hot and mild. The main difference between hot and mild is the addition of hot red pepper flakes to the spice mix of the former; the difference between mild and sweet is the addition of sweet basil in the latter. In Australia, a variety of mild salsiccia fresca seasoned with fennel is sold as "Italian sausage". Sausage and peppers Sausage sandwich

Ashley Mansour

Ashley Mansour is an American film producer and the founder and CEO of Monikher Productions. Ashley Mansour is an author and producer from Los Angeles, California, her first feature film, Back Roads, starring Juliette Lewis and Alex Pettyfer, premiered as an Official Selection in the Spotlight Narrative section at the 2018 Tribeca Film Festival, won first prize for Best Feature at the 2018 Rhode Island International Film Festival, was an official selection at Heartland Film Festival. In 2019 won best drama feature at Stockholm Independent Film Festival. On IMDb, the film holds an approval rating of 7.2/10. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an audience score rating of 98% based on 708 users and a critics review rating of 74% based on 19 reviews. Mansour's first novel, Blood and Fire was released in 2015 by Upturn Publishing and reaching Amazon Best Seller shortly after its release. In 2019 Mansour's The Writing Success Code. Utilizing her literary and legal background, she continues to develop book-to-screen adaptations for film and television and has been a producer at Upturn Productions for four years.

She set up her own production company in 2018, Monikher Productions with its upcoming adaption of Saving Beck, a novel by NY Times best-selling author Courtney Cox. In 2019. Mansour founded LA Writing Coach business. Filmography -Blood and Fire -The Writing Success Code.