Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, disclosure, modification, recording or destruction of information. The information or data may take e.g. electronic or physical. Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality and availability of data while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity; this is achieved through a multi-step risk management process that identifies assets, threat sources, potential impacts, possible \controls, followed by assessment of the effectiveness of the risk management plan. To standardize this discipline and professionals collaborate and seek to set basic guidance and industry standards on password, antivirus software, encryption software, legal liability and user/administrator training standards; this standardization may be further driven by a wide variety of laws and regulations that affect how data is accessed, processed and transferred.
However, the implementation of any standards and guidance within an entity may have limited effect if a culture of continual improvement isn't adopted. At the core of information security is information assurance, the act of maintaining the confidentiality and availability of information, ensuring that information is not compromised in any way when critical issues arise; these issues include but are not limited to natural disasters, computer/server malfunction, physical theft. While paper-based business operations are still prevalent, requiring their own set of information security practices, enterprise digital initiatives are being emphasized, with information assurance now being dealt with by information technology security specialists; these specialists apply information security to technology. It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with some memory; such devices can range from non-networked standalone devices as simple as calculators, to networked mobile computing devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
IT security specialists are always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that attempt to acquire critical private information or gain control of the internal systems; the field of information security has grown and evolved in recent years. It offers many areas for specialization, including securing networks and allied infrastructure, securing applications and databases, security testing, information systems auditing, business continuity planning, electronic record discovery, digital forensics. Information security professionals are stable in their employment; as of 2013 more than 80 percent of professionals had no change in employer or employment over a period of a year, the number of professionals is projected to continuously grow more than 11 percent annually from 2014 to 2019. Information security threats come in many different forms.
Some of the most common threats today are software attacks, theft of intellectual property, identity theft, theft of equipment or information and information extortion. Most people have experienced software attacks of some sort. Viruses, phishing attacks, Trojan horses are a few common examples of software attacks; the theft of intellectual property has been an extensive issue for many businesses in the IT field. Identity theft is the attempt to act as someone else to obtain that person's personal information or to take advantage of their access to vital information. Theft of equipment or information is becoming more prevalent today due to the fact that most devices today are mobile, are prone to theft and have become far more desirable as the amount of data capacity increases. Sabotage consists of the destruction of an organization's website in an attempt to cause loss of confidence on the part of its customers. Information extortion consists of theft of a company's property or information as an attempt to receive a payment in exchange for returning the information or property back to its owner, as with ransomware.
There are many ways to help protect yourself from some of these attacks but one of the most functional precautions is user carefulness. Governments, corporations, financial institutions and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees, products and financial status. Should confidential information about a business' customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor or a black hat hacker, a business and its customers could suffer widespread, irreparable financial loss, as well as damage to the company's reputation. From a business perspective, information security must be balanced against cost. For the individual, information security has a significant effect on privacy, viewed differently in various cultures. Possible responses to a security threat or risk are: reduce/mitigate – implement safeguards and countermeasures to eliminate vulnerabilities or block threats assign/transfer – place the cost of the threat onto another entity or organization such as purchasing insurance or outsourcing accept – evaluate if the cost of the countermeasure outweighs the possible cost of loss due to the threat Since the earl
Conflict of interest
A conflict of interest is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, serving one interest could involve working against another. This relates to situations in which the personal interest of an individual or organization might adversely affect a duty owed to make decisions for the benefit of a third party; the presence of a conflict of interest is independent of the occurrence of impropriety. Therefore, a conflict of interest can be discovered and voluntarily defused before any corruption occurs. A conflict of interest exists if the circumstances are reasonably believed to create a risk that a decision may be unduly influenced by other, secondary interests, not on whether a particular individual is influenced by a secondary interest. A used definition is: "A conflict of interest is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest."
Primary interest refers to the principal goals of the profession or activity, such as the protection of clients, the health of patients, the integrity of research, the duties of public officer. Secondary interest includes personal benefit and is not limited to only financial gain but such motives as the desire for professional advancement, or the wish to do favours for family and friends; these secondary interests are not treated as wrong in and of themselves, but become objectionable when they are believed to have greater weight than the primary interests. Conflict of interest rules in the public sphere focus on financial relationships since they are more objective and quantifiable, involve the political and medical fields. Judicial disqualification referred to as recusal, refers to the act of abstaining from participation in an official action such as a court case/legal proceeding due to a conflict of interest of the presiding court official or administrative officer. Applicable statutes or canons of ethics may provide standards for recusal in a given proceeding or matter.
Providing that the judge or presiding officer must be free from disabling conflicts of interest makes the fairness of the proceedings less to be questioned. In the legal profession, the duty of loyalty owed to a client prohibits an attorney from representing any other party with interests adverse to those of a current client; the few exceptions to this rule require informed written consent from all affected clients, i.e. an "ethical wall". In some circumstances, a conflict of interest can never be waived by a client. In the most common example encountered by the general public, the same firm should not represent both parties in a divorce or child custody matter. Found conflict can lead to denial or disgorgement of legal fees, or in some cases, criminal proceedings. In 1998, a Milbank, Hadley & McCloy partner was found guilty of failing to disclose a conflict of interest and sentenced to 15 months of imprisonment. In the United States, a law firm cannot represent a client if the client's interests conflict with those of another client if the two clients are represented by separate lawyers within the firm, unless the lawyer is segregated from the rest of the firm for the duration of the conflict.
Law firms employ software in conjunction with their case management and accounting systems in order to meet their duties to monitor their conflict of interest exposure and to assist in obtaining waivers. More conflicts of interest can be defined as any situation in which an individual or corporation is in a position to exploit a professional or official capacity in some way for their personal or corporate benefit. Depending upon the law or rules related to a particular organization, the existence of a conflict of interest may not, in and of itself, be evidence of wrongdoing. In fact, for many professionals, it is impossible to avoid having conflicts of interest from time to time. A conflict of interest can, become a legal matter, for example, when an individual tries influencing the outcome of a decision, for personal benefit. A director or executive of a corporation will be subject to legal liability if a conflict of interest breaches his/her duty of loyalty. There is confusion over these two situations.
Someone accused of a conflict of interest may deny that a conflict exists because he/she did not act improperly. In fact, a conflict of interest can exist if there are no improper acts as a result of it; as an example, in the sphere of business and control, according to the Institute of Internal Auditors: conflict of interest is a situation in which an internal auditor, in a position of trust, has a competing professional or personal interest. Such competing interests can make it difficult to fulfill her duties impartially. A conflict of interest exists if no unethical or improper act results. A conflict of interest can create an appearance of impropriety that can undermine confidence in the internal auditor, the internal audit activity, the profession. A conflict of interest could
In the fields of physical security and information security, access control is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource. The act of accessing may mean entering, or using. Permission to access a resource is called authorization. Locks and login credentials are two analogous mechanisms of access control. Geographical access control may be enforced with a device such as a turnstile. There may be fences to avoid circumventing this access control. An alternative of access control in the strict sense is a system of checking authorized presence, see e.g. Ticket controller. A variant is e.g. of a shop or a country. The term access control refers to the practice of restricting entrance to a property, a building, or a room to authorized persons. Physical access control can be achieved by a human, through mechanical means such as locks and keys, or through technological means such as access control systems like the mantrap. Within these environments, physical key management may be employed as a means of further managing and monitoring access to mechanically keyed areas or access to certain small assets.
Physical access control is a matter of who and when. An access control system determines, allowed to enter or exit, where they are allowed to exit or enter, when they are allowed to enter or exit; this was accomplished through keys and locks. When a door is locked, only someone with a key can enter through the door, depending on how the lock is configured. Mechanical locks and keys do not allow restriction of the key holder to specific dates. Mechanical locks and keys do not provide records of the key used on any specific door, the keys can be copied or transferred to an unauthorized person; when a mechanical key is lost or the key holder is no longer authorized to use the protected area, the locks must be re-keyed. Electronic access control uses computers to solve the limitations of mechanical keys. A wide range of credentials can be used to replace mechanical keys; the electronic access control system grants access based on the credential presented. When access is granted, the door is unlocked for a predetermined time and the transaction is recorded.
When access is refused, the door remains locked and the attempted access is recorded. The system will monitor the door and alarm if the door is forced open or held open too long after being unlocked; when a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential's information a number, to a control panel, a reliable processor. The control panel compares the credential's number to an access control list, grants or denies the presented request, sends a transaction log to a database; when access is denied based on the access control list, the door remains locked. If there is a match between the credential and the access control list, the control panel operates a relay that in turn unlocks the door; the control panel ignores a door open signal to prevent an alarm. The reader provides feedback, such as a flashing red LED for an access denied and a flashing green LED for an access granted; the above description illustrates a single factor transaction. Credentials can be passed around. For example, Alice has access rights to the server room.
Alice either gives Bob her credential. To prevent this, two-factor authentication can be used. In a two factor transaction, the presented credential and a second factor are needed for access to be granted. There are three types of authenticating information: something the user knows, e.g. a password, pass-phrase or PIN something the user has, such as smart card or a key fob something the user is, such as fingerprint, verified by biometric measurementPasswords are a common means of verifying a user's identity before access is given to information systems. In addition, a fourth factor of authentication is now recognized: someone you know, whereby another person who knows you can provide a human element of authentication in situations where systems have been set up to allow for such scenarios. For example, a user have forgotten their smart card. In such a scenario, if the user is known to designated cohorts, the cohorts may provide their smart card and password, in combination with the extant factor of the user in question, thus provide two factors for the user with the missing credential, giving three factors overall to allow access.
A credential is a physical/tangible object, a piece of knowledge, or a facet of a person's physical being that enables an individual access to a given physical facility or computer-based information system. Credentials can be something a person knows, something they have, something they are, or some combination of these items; this is known as multi-factor authentication. The typical credential is an access card or key-fob, newer software can turn users' smartphones into access devices. There are many card technologies including magnetic stripe, bar code, Wiegand, 125 kHz proximity, 26-bit card-swipe, contact smart cards, contactless smart cards. Available are key-fobs, which are more compact than ID cards, attach to a key ring. Biometric technologies include fingerprint, facial recognition, iris recognition, retinal scan and hand geometry; the built-in biometric technologies found o