Brittany is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown. Brittany has been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain, it is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,023 km². Brittany is the site of some of the world's oldest standing architecture, home to the Barnenez, the Tumulus Saint-Michel and others, which date to the early 5th millennium BC. Today, the historical province of Brittany is split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany.
The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71 % lived in the region of Brittany. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic; the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain, more the Roman province of Britain; this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC.
The Greek word itself comes from the common Brythonic ethnonym reconstructed as *Pritanī, itself from Proto-Celtic *kʷritanoi. The Romans called Brittany Armorica, together with a quite indefinite region that extended along the English Channel coast from the Seine estuary to the Loire estuary, according to several sources, maybe along the Atlantic coast to the Garonne estuary; this term comes from a Gallic word, which means "close to the sea". Another name, was used until the 12th century, it means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many Britons settled in western Armorica, the region started to be called Britannia, although this name only replaced Armorica in the sixth century or by the end of the fifth. Authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor and Britannia major to distinguish Brittany from Britain. Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin.
Breton can be divided into the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it and would write it Breih; the official spelling is a compromise with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, a standard which has never been accepted. On its side, Gallo language has never had a accepted writing system and several ones coexist. For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, a couple of other scripts exist. Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic; the first settlers were Neanderthals. This population was scarce and similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe, their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". One of the oldest hearths in the world has been found in Finistère, it is 450,000 years old. Homo sapiens settled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago.
They replaced or absorbed the Neanderthals and developed local industries, similar to the Châtelperronian or to the Magdalenian. After the last glacial period, the warmer climate allowed the area to become wooded. At that time, Brittany was populated by large communities who started to change their lifestyles from a life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers. Agriculture was introduced during the 5th millennium BC by migrants from the east. However, the Neolithic Revolution in Brittany did not happen due to a radical change of population, but by slow immigration and exchange of skills. Neolithic Brittany is characterised by important megalithic production, it is sometimes designated as the "core area" of megalithic culture; the oldest monuments, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows. The Morbihan département, on the southern coast, comprises a large share of these structures, including the Carnac stones and the Broken Menhir of Er Grah in the Locmariaquer megaliths, the largest single stone erected by Neoli
A mononymous person is an individual, known and addressed by a single name, or mononym. In some cases, that name has been selected by the individual, who may have been given a polynym. In other cases, it has been determined by some interested segment. In the case of historical figures, it may be the only one of the individual's names that has survived and is still known today; the structure of persons' names has varied across geography. In some societies, individuals have been mononymous. Alulim, first king of Sumer, is one of the earliest names known. In addition, Biblical names were mononymous, as were names in the surrounding cultures of the Fertile Crescent. Ancient Greek names follow the pattern, with epithets only used subsequently by historians to avoid confusion, as in the case of Zeno the Stoic and Zeno of Elea. A departure from this custom occurred, for example, among the Romans, who by the Republican period and throughout the Imperial period used multiple names: a male citizen's name comprised three parts: praenomen and cognomen — the nomen and cognomen were always hereditary.
Mononyms in other ancient cultures include the Numidian king Jugurtha. However, the historical records of some of these figures are scanty or rely on the documentation of those outside the person's culture, so it is possible such figures may have had other names within their own cultures that have since been lost to history. During the early Middle Ages, mononymity declined, with northern and eastern Europe keeping the tradition longer than the south. By the end of the period, surnames had become commonplace: Edmund Ironside, for example, ruled England, Brian Boru was High King of Ireland, Kenneth MacAlpin had united Scotland, in Scandinavia surnames were taking hold; the Dutch Renaissance scholar and theologian Erasmus is a late example of mononymity. Between Columbus' arrival in the New World and the late 19th century, most Native Americans were mononymous. Examples include Moctezuma, Anacaona, Agüeybaná, Urracá, Guamá, Lempira, Tamanaco, Auoindaon and Tecumseh. Uniquely, the Dutch-Seneca diplomat Cornplanter received both a Seneca-language mononym from his mother and a given name and surname from his father, he used both throughout his life.
His descendants, such as Jesse Cornplanter, used "Cornplanter" as the family name instead of "Abeel". In the 19th century, most chiefs involved in the Apache Wars had mononym birth names, some replaced those with mononymous nicknames: Geronimo, Cochise, so on. Since the medieval period, mononyms in the West have exclusively been used to identify people who had surnames; these nicknames conferred by contemporaries. Some French authors have shown a preference for mononyms. In the 17th century, the dramatist and actor Jean-Baptiste Poquelin took the mononym stage name Molière. In the 18th century, François-Marie Arouet adopted the mononym Voltaire, for both literary and personal use, in 1718 after his imprisonment in Paris' Bastille, to mark a break with his past; the new name combined several features. It was an anagram for a Latinized version of his family surname, "Arouet, l j". "Arouet" would not have served the purpose, given that name's associations with "roué" and with an expression that meant "for thrashing".
The 19th-century French author Marie-Henri Beyle used many pen names, most famously the mononym Stendhal, adapted from the name of the little Prussian town of Stendal, birthplace of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whom Stendhal admired. In the 20th century, a fourth French writer, Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, used her actual surname as her mononym pen name, Colette; some French actors and singers have used surname as a stage mononym. Nadar was an early French photographer. In the 17th and 18th centuries, most Italian castrato singers used mononyms as stage names; the German writer, mining engineer and philosopher, Georg Friedrich Philipp Freiherr von Hardenberg, became famous as Novalis. The 19th-century Dutch writer Eduard Douwes Dekker, better known by his mononymous pen name Multatuli (from the Latin multa tuli, "I have
Brian Howard Clough, OBE was an English football player and manager. He played as a striker and remains one of the Football League's highest goalscorers, but his career was shortened by a serious injury; as a manager, Clough's name is associated with that of Peter Taylor, who served as his assistant manager at various clubs in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. They achieved great successes with Nottingham Forest. Clough is remembered for doing frequent radio and television interviews in which he made controversial remarks about players, other managers, the overall state of the game. During his playing career with Middlesbrough and Sunderland, Clough scored 251 league goals from 274 starts, making him the third most prolific scorer in the league, with a conversion rate of 91.61%. He won two England caps, both in 1959. Clough retired after sustaining anterior cruciate ligament damage. In 1965, Clough took the manager's job at Fourth Division Hartlepools United and appointed Peter Taylor as his assistant, the start of an enduring partnership that would bring them success at several clubs over the next two decades.
In 1967, the duo moved on to Second Division Derby County. In 1968–69, Derby were promoted as Second Division champions. Three years Derby were crowned champions of England for the first time in the club's history. In 1973, they reached the semi-finals of the European Cup. However, by this point, Clough's relationship with chairman Sam Longson had deteriorated, he and Taylor resigned; this was followed by an eight-month spell in charge of Third Division Brighton & Hove Albion, before Clough returned north in the summer of 1974 to become manager of Leeds United. This was regarded as a surprise appointment, given his previous outspoken criticism of the Leeds players and their manager Don Revie, he was sacked after just 44 days in the job. Within months, Clough had joined Second Division Nottingham Forest, he was re-united with Taylor in 1976. In 1977, Forest were promoted to the top flight and the following season won the league title, making Clough one of only four managers to have won the English league with two clubs.
Forest won two consecutive European Cups and two League Cups, before Taylor retired in 1982. Clough stayed on as Forest manager for another decade and won two more League Cups and reached the FA Cup final in 1991, but could not emulate his earlier successes. Forest were relegated from the Premier League in 1993. Charismatic and controversial, Clough is considered one of the greatest managers of the English game, his achievements with Derby and Forest, two struggling provincial clubs with little prior history of success, are rated among the greatest in football history. His teams were noted for playing attractive football and for their good sportsmanship. Despite applying several times and being a popular choice for the job, he was never appointed England manager, has been dubbed the "greatest manager England never had". Born at 11 Valley Road, an interwar council house in Grove Hill, North Riding of Yorkshire, Brian Clough was the sixth of nine children of a local sweet shop worker sugar boiler and manager.
The eldest, died in 1927 of septicaemia at the age of four. When talking of his childhood he said. If anyone should be grateful for their upbringing, for their mam and dad, I'm that person. I was the kid who came from a little part of paradise." On his upbringing in Middlesbrough, Clough claimed that it was not the most well-appointed place in the world, "But to me it was heaven". "Everything I have done, everything I've achieved, everything that I can think of that has directed and affected my life – apart from the drink – stemmed from my childhood. Maybe it was the constant sight of Mam, with eight children to look after, working from morning until night, working harder than you or I have worked." In 1946, Clough failed his Eleven-plus examination and attended Marton Grove Secondary Modern School. He admitted in his autobiography that he had neglected his lessons in favour of sport, although at school he became head boy. Clough stated in his autobiography'Walking on Water' that cricket, rather than football, was his first love as a youngster, that he would have far rather scored a test century at Lord's than a hat-trick at Wembley.
Clough left school in 1950 without any qualifications, to work at ICI and did his national service in the RAF Regiment between 1953 and 1955. Clough played for Billingham Synthonia before his national service in the RAF between 1953 and 1955. Following this, he became a prolific striker for his home town club Middlesbrough scoring 204 goals in 222 league matches for Boro, including 40 or more goals in four consecutive seasons; however Clough regularly submitted transfer requests and had a tense relationship with some of his fellow players. He was irked by Boro's leaky defence, which conceded goals as as he scored them. After a 6–6 draw against Charlton Athletic, Clough sarcastically asked his teammates how many goals they would have to score in order to win a match, he publicly accused some of his teammates of betting against the team and deliberately letting in goals. While at Middlesbrough, Clough became acquainted with goalkeeper Peter Taylor, with whom he would form a successful managerial partnership at various clubs.
Clough played twice for the England national football team, against Wales on 17 October 1959 and Sweden on 28 October 1959, without scoring. In July 1961, one of Clough's transfer requests was
Brân the Blessed
Brân the Blessed is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. He appears in several of the Welsh Triads, but his most significant role is in the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, Branwen ferch Llŷr, he is a son of Llŷr and Penarddun, the brother of Brânwen, Manawydan and Efnysien. The name "Brân" in Welsh is translated as crow or raven; the Irish king Matholwch sails to Harlech to speak with Bran the Blessed high king of the Island of the Mighty and to ask for the hand of his sister Branwen in marriage, thus forging an alliance between the two islands. Bendigeidfran agrees to Matholwch's request, but the celebrations are cut short when Efnisien, a half-brother to the children of Llŷr, brutally mutilates Matholwch's horses, angry that his permission was not sought in regard to the marriage. Matholwch is offended until Bran offers him compensation in the form of a magic cauldron that can restore the dead to life. Pleased with the gift and Branwen sail back to Ireland to reign. Once in Matholwch's kingdom, Branwen gives birth to a son, but Efnysien's insult continues to rankle among the Irish and Branwen is mistreated, banished to the kitchen and beaten every day.
She tames a starling and sends it across the Irish Sea with a message to her brother Bendigeidfran, who sails from Wales to Ireland to rescue her with his brother, Manawydan and a huge host of warriors, mustered from the 154 cantrefs of Britain. The Irish offer to make peace and build a house big enough to entertain Bendigeidfrân but hang a hundred bags inside containing flour but containing armed warriors. Efnysien, suspecting treachery, reconnoiters the hall and kills the warriors by crushing their skulls. At the feast, again feeling insulted, murders Gwern by burning him alive, and, as a result, a vicious battle breaks out. Seeing that the Irish are using the cauldron to revive their dead, he hides among the Irish corpses and is thrown into the cauldron by the unwitting enemy, he destroys the cauldron from within. Only seven men survive the conflict, among them Manawydan and Pryderi fab Pwyll, prince of Dyfed, Branwen having herself died of a broken heart; the survivors are told by a mortally wounded Bran to return it to Britain.
For seven years the seven survivors stay in Harlech, where they are entertained by Bran's head, which continues to speak. They move on to Gwales where they live for eighty years without perceiving the passing of time. Heilyn fab Gwyn opens the door of the hall facing Cornwall and the sorrow of what had befallen them returns; as instructed they take the now silent head to the Gwynfryn, the "White Hill", where they bury it facing France so as to ward off invasion. The imagery of the talking head is considered to derive from the ancient Celtic "cult of the head". According to the Welsh Triads, Brân's head was buried in London; as long as it remained there, Britain would be safe from invasion. However, King Arthur dug up the head, declaring the country would be protected only by his great strength. There have been attempts in modern times to link the still-current practice of keeping ravens at the Tower of London under the care of Yeomen Warder Ravenmaster with this story of Brân, whose name means crow.
Several scholars have noted similarities between Brân the Blessed and the Arthurian character the Fisher King, the keeper of the Holy Grail. The Fisher King first appears in Chrétien de Troyes's 12th century French romance Perceval, the Story of the Grail. A author who took up the story, Robert de Boron, describes the history of the Grail in ancient times, says the first Fisher King was a man called "Bron". Additionally, the Welsh story Peredur son of Efrawg, a version of the Percival story with several striking deviations, features the hero visiting a mysterious castle, but he does not find the Grail there, but rather a severed human head. Additionally, some works attribute to the Grail the power to restore the fallen, making it somewhat similar to Brân's cauldron. Others have identified Bendigeidfran with the Irish hero Bran mac Febal. John T. Koch proposes a number of parallels between the mythological Bendigeidfran and the historical Celtic chieftain Brennus, who invaded the Balkans in the 3rd century BC.
He goes on to suggest an association between Brân and Brancaster, a fort on the Norfolk coast, while Rachel Bromwich suggests that Castell Dinas Brân in Denbighshire is related. Count Nikolai Tolstoy proposes that Brân's original function was that of a psychopomp, guiding the souls of the dead to the Otherworld. Brân is praised in the poetry of 12th century bard Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, in which he is described as "a good commander of the host. A poem found in the Black Book of Carmarthen refers to Bendigeidfran's death in Ireland, claiming that Gwyn ap Nudd was present at the battle, either as a warrior or in his traditional role as a psychopomp; the Welsh mythological texts of the Mabinogion were recorded between the 14th and 15th centuries in Middle Welsh. As a result, there are discrepancies regarding the spe
Brian Bernard Cowen is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach from 2008 to 2011, Leader of Fianna Fáil from 2008 to 2011, Minister for Foreign Affairs from January 2011 to March 2011 and 2000 to 2004, Minister for Defence from February 2011 to March 2011, Tánaiste from 2007 to 2008, Deputy Leader of Fianna Fáil from 2002 to 2008, Minister for Finance from 2004 to 2008, Minister for Health and Children from 1997 to 2000, Minister for Transport and Communications from 1993 to 1994, Minister for Energy in January 1993 and Minister for Labour from 1992 to 1993. He served as a Teachta Dála for Laois–Offaly from 1984 to 2011, he became leader of Fianna Fáil upon the resignation of Bertie Ahern. On 7 May 2008, following the resignation of Ahern as Taoiseach, Cowen was nominated by Dáil Éireann to replace him and was appointed by the President that day, his administration coincided with the Irish financial and banking crises. He has received substantial criticism for his failure to stem the tide of either crisis culminating in his government's formal request for financial rescue from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund seen in Ireland as a national humiliation.
Cowen's leadership saw public support for Fianna Fáil plunge to record lows, as well as the lowest public support on record for both a sitting Irish government and a sitting Taoiseach. With approval at 8 percent, by the time the 30th Dáil was dissolved, he was the least popular incumbent politician in the history of Irish opinion polling. In January 2011, following a failed and controversial attempt at a cabinet reshuffle and facing growing political pressure, Cowen resigned as leader of Fianna Fáil, but stayed on as Taoiseach until the election held that year. A month he announced he would retire from politics at that election; the Sunday Times described Cowen's tenure as Taoiseach as "a dismal failure." In 2011, the Irish Independent called Cowen the "worst Taoiseach in the history of the State." Brian Cowen was born to a Roman Catholic family, in Tullamore, County Offaly, on 10 January 1960. He was raised in Clara by his parents and Bernard Cowen, a former Fianna Fáil TD and Senator; the family owned a public house, butcher shop and undertaking business in Clara, beside the family home.
His father worked as an auctioneer. Cowen worked as a barman in his father's pub when he was growing up, he has two brothers and Barry. Barry Cowen is a TD for Laois–Offaly since 2011. Cowen was educated at Clara National School, Árd Scoil Naomh Chiaráin, in Clara and the Cistercian College of Mount St. Joseph in Roscrea, County Tipperary, he was twelve years old. After secondary school, he attended University College Dublin, he subsequently qualified as a solicitor from the Incorporated Law Society of Dublin. He continues to serve as president of Clara club, he played with the Offaly Gaelic football team in the early 1980s. Cowen likes to socialise with his constituents in some of the local pubs in his native Offaly. In May 2003, he took part in a charity CD project organised by The Brewery Tap pub in Tullamore; the CD featured 28 songs, including Cowen singing the Phil Coulter song, "The Town I Loved So Well". In May 2007, Cowen told Jason O'Toole of Hot Press that, as a student: "I would say there were a couple of occasions when marijuana was passed around – and, unlike President Clinton, I did inhale.
There wasn't a whole lot in it really."Cowen is married to Mary Molloy and they have two daughters. In 2017, Cowen was conferred with a Doctor of Laws degree by the National University of Ireland. Cowen was elected to Dáil Éireann in the Laois–Offaly by-election of 1984, caused by the death of his father Bernard Cowen. At the time Cowen, at the age of 24, became the youngest member of the 24th Dáil, he was elected to Offaly County Council in the same year, taking over the seat vacated by his late father. He served on that authority until 1992. Cowen remained on the backbenches of Dáil Éireann for the next seven years. Following the 1989 general election when Fianna Fáil formed a coalition government, with the Progressive Democrats, for the first time, Cowen was one of a number of TDs who were vehemently opposed to the move. Two years in November 1991, the Minister for Finance, Albert Reynolds, challenged Charles Haughey, for the leadership of the party. Cowen aligned himself behind Reynolds and became associated with the party's so-called'"Country & Western" wing.
Reynolds became leader on his second attempt, when Haughey was forced to retire as Taoiseach in 1992. Reynolds appointed Cowen, aged 32, to his first cabinet position as Minister for Labour. In spite of being a member of the cabinet, Cowen was hostile toward the PDs; this was evident at the Fianna Fáil party's Ardfheis in March 1992. In the warm-up speech before the leader's address, Cowen remarked, "What about the PDs? When in doubt, leave them out." He fought with the PDs, being furious at their interference with Fianna Fáil's view that, as majority partner, they should have wielded the power. The 1992 general election produced a hung Dáil and resulted in negotiations between all the main parties. Cowen, along with Noel Dempsey and Bertie Ahern, negotiated on behalf of Fianna Fáil in an attempt to form a government with the Labour Party. A deal was reached between the two parties, Cowen was again appointed Minister for Transport and Communications. In that role, he implemented
The Irish diaspora refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside the island of Ireland. The phenomenon of migration from Ireland is recorded since the Early Middle Ages, but it is only possible to quantify it from around 1700: since between 9 and 10 million people born in Ireland have emigrated; this is more than the population of Ireland at its historical peak of 8.5 million in the 1840s. The poorest of them went to Great Britain Liverpool. After 1840, emigration from Ireland became a massive and efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890, 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad. By the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent, which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity; as as the second half of the nineteenth century, the majority of Irish emigrants spoke Irish as their first language. This had social and cultural consequences for the cultivation of the language abroad, including innovations in journalism.
The language continues to be cultivated abroad by a small minority as a social medium. The Irish diaspora are assimilated in most countries outside Ireland. Ciarán Cannon is the Republic of Ireland's Minister of State for the Diaspora; the term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. The diaspora, broadly interpreted, contains all those known to have Irish ancestors, i.e. over 100 million people, more than fifteen times the population of the island of Ireland, about 4.6 million in 2011. It has been argued the idea of an Irish diaspora, as distinct from the old identification of Irishness with Ireland itself, was influenced by the perceived advent of global mobility and modernity. Irishness could now be identified with dispersed groups of Irish descent, but many of those individuals were the product of complex ethnic intermarriage in America and elsewhere, complicating the idea of a single line of descent. "Irishness" might rely on individual identification with an Irish diaspora. The Government of Ireland defines the Irish diaspora as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland.
This includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission. Under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is smaller—some 3 million persons, of whom 1.47 million are Irish-born emigrants. Given Ireland's population of 4.85 million, this is still a large ratio. However, the usage of Irish diaspora is not limited by citizenship status, thus leading to an estimated membership of up to 80 million persons—the second and more emotive definition; the Irish Government acknowledged this interpretation—although it did not acknowledge any legal obligations to persons in this larger diaspora—when Article 2 of the Constitution of Ireland was amended in 1998 to read "urthermore, the Irish nation cherishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry living abroad who share its cultural identity and heritage."
The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation. This contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel and other countries which practice jus sanguinis or otherwise permit members of the diaspora to register as citizens. There are people of Irish descent abroad who reject inclusion in an Irish "diaspora" and who designate their identity in other ways, they may see the diasporic label as something used by the Irish government for its own purposes. The Irish, whom the Romans called Scotti, had raided and settled along the West Coast of Roman Britain, numbers were allowed to settle within the province, where the Roman Army recruited many Irish into auxiliary units that were dispatched to the German frontier; the Attacotti, who were recruited into the Roman army, may have been Irish settlers in Britain. Following the withdrawal of the Roman army, the Irish began increasing their footholds in Britain, with part of the north-West of the island annexed within the Irish kingdom of Dál Riata.
In time, the Irish colonies became independent, merged with the Pictish kingdom, formed the basis of modern Scotland. The traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland are still referred to in the Gaelic language as a' Ghàidhealtachd. Irish monks, the Celtic church, pioneered a wave of Irish emigration into Great Britain, continental Europe. Throughout early Medieval times Britain and continental Europe experienced Irish immigration of varying intensity from clerics and scholars who are collectively known as peregrini. Irish emigration to western Europe, to Great Britain, has continued at a greater or lesser pace since then. Today, the ethnic-Irish are the single largest minority group in both England and Scotlan
Brian Anthony Boitano is an American figure skater from Sunnyvale, California. He is the 1988 Olympic champion, the 1986 and 1988 World Champion, the 1985–1988 U. S. National Champion, he turned professional following the 1988 season. He competed at the 1994 Winter Olympics, where he placed sixth. Brian Boitano was born in Mountain View, as an adult has lived in San Francisco. Boitano is a graduate of Marian A. Peterson High School in California. Brian Boitano first made his mark on the international scene when he won the bronze medal at the 1978 World Junior Figure Skating Championships, beating future rival Brian Orser for that medal. In 1982 Boitano became the first American to land a triple axel. In 1987 he introduced his signature jump, the'Boitano triple lutz' in which the skater raises his left arm above his head, he attempted a quadruple jump throughout the 1986–87 season and at the 1988 World Figure Skating Championships, but did not cleanly land the jump. Boitano was known as a jumper early in his career and he, along with several other skaters, helped push the technical envelope of men's skating.
It was not until his failure to defend his World title in 1987 that he focused on improving his artistry. Boitano placed second at the 1984 United States Figure Skating Championships, earning himself a trip to the 1984 Winter Olympics, he placed 5th at the Olympics. Following the 1984 Olympics, several skaters emerged as medal hopes following the retirement of Scott Hamilton. Boitano won the 1985 United States Figure the first of his four titles. At the first World Championships of the post-Hamilton era in 1985, Alexander Fadeev won, with Brian Orser finishing 2nd and Boitano 3rd, he had injured tendons in his right ankle a few weeks before the 1986 U. S. Championships but went on to win his second national title. At the 1986 World Championships, Boitano took the title, while Fadeev had a disastrous free skate despite having been in an excellent position to win. During the 1986–87 season, Boitano had introduced two new elements to his programs: the'Tano triple lutz and a quadruple toe loop, although he never succeeded in landing a clean quadruple jump in competition.
The 1987 World Championships were held in Cincinnati, giving defending World champion Boitano a home-field advantage. The outcome of the event would set the tone for the 1988 Olympics. At Worlds, Boitano placed second. After losing the world title to Orser at home and his coach Linda Leaver decided that some changes needed to be made if Boitano was to become the Olympic champion. Boitano had always been good at the technical requirements, he was a self-described "jumping robot." In order to help his growth as an artist, he hired choreographer Sandra Bezic to choreograph his programs for the 1987–1988 Olympic season. Bezic choreographed two programs that featured clean lines and accentuated the skating abilities of the 5' 11" Boitano; the short program was based on Giacomo Meyerbeer's ballet Les Patineurs in which Boitano plays a cocky young man showing off his tricks, using movements dating back to the 19th century. In one famous moment, Boitano wipes ice shavings called snow, off his skate blade and tosses it over his shoulder after landing a triple axel combination.
The free skating program was based on the film score, detailing various phases of a soldier's life. Boitano debuted his new programs at 1987 Skate Canada, held in the Saddledome in Calgary, Canada, the same venue in which he would compete against Brian Orser for the Olympic title three months later. Boitano's new programs were received with standing ovations by the audience. Although Orser won the competition, Boitano skated clean, landing seven triple jumps, including a footwork section into a jump, he did however pop his planned 2nd triple axel. Boitano and Bezic were so confident about the strength of Boitano's new programs that they omitted the quadruple toe loop, which if landed, could have put him a shoulder above Orser in technical merit; the short program at the 1988 United States Figure Skating Championships proved to be a highlight. Boitano received marks of 6.0 from eight of the nine judges for the second mark. His free skate was flawed. Due to delays, he did not skate until after midnight.
Still, Boitano won the competition, went into the Olympics as the national champion, as did Orser. Going into the Olympics and Brian Orser each had won a World title and each had an excellent, balanced repertoire, with Boitano being known as the better technician and Orser as the better artist. Adding to the rivalry and Orser were both performing military-themed programs. Boitano's was to the music of Napoleon; the Battle of the Brians at the 1988 Winter Olympics was the highlight of Boitano's amateur career. Boitano and Orser were tied going into the free skating portion of the event and whoever won that portion would win the event. Alexander Fadeev had won the compulsory figures section of the competition with Boitano second and Orser third. In the short program, Orser placed first and Boitano second; the free skating was, at the time, worth 50% of the score, so Boitano's lead would not be enough to hold him in first place if he lost the free skate. Boitano skated a clean, technically excellent long program, with eight triple jumps, two Axels, a triple-triple combination.
Orser made one small mistake on a jump and omitted his planned second triple