Queens of the Stone Age
Queens of the Stone Age is an American rock band formed in 1996 in Palm Desert, California. The band's line-up includes founder Josh Homme, Troy Van Leeuwen, Michael Shuman, Dean Fertita, Jon Theodore. Formed after the dissolution of Homme's previous band, Queens of the Stone Age developed a style of riff-oriented, heavy rock music, their sound has since evolved to incorporate a variety of different styles and influences, including working with Nirvana drummer and Foo Fighters frontman Dave Grohl, Screaming Trees frontman Mark Lanegan, a steady contributor to the band. After the breakup of his previous band, Kyuss, in 1995, Josh Homme joined Screaming Trees as a touring guitarist, before deciding to form a new band, Gamma Ray. In 1996 they released the eponymous Gamma Ray EP, featuring "Born to Hula" and "If Only Everything"; the EP featured Matt Cameron of Soundgarden and Pearl Jam, Van Conner from Screaming Trees, percussionist Victor Indrizzo. Gamma Ray changed their name in 1997; the name "Queens of the Stone Age" came from a nickname given to Kyuss by their producer Chris Goss.
Homme said of the name: "Kings would be too macho. The Kings of the Stone Age have axes and wrestle; the Queens of the Stone Age hang out with the Kings of the Stone Age's girlfriends when they wrestle... Rock should be sweet enough for the girls; that way everyone's happy and it's more of a party. Kings of the Stone Age is too lopsided."The first release under the Queens of the Stone Age name was the song "18 A. D." released on the compilation album Burn One Up! Music for Stoners which featured members of the Dutch stoner rock band Beaver; the band's first live appearance was on November 20, 1997, at OK Hotel in Seattle, with Cameron on drums, Mike Johnson of Dinosaur Jr. on bass and John McBain of Monster Magnet on guitar. In December that year, the band released a split EP, Kyuss/Queens of the Stone Age, which featured three tracks from the Gamma Ray sessions as well as three Kyuss tracks recorded in 1995 prior to their breakup. Queens of the Stone Age released their self-titled debut in 1998 on Stone Gossard's and Regan Hagar's label Loosegroove Records, on vinyl by Man's Ruin Records.
Homme played guitar and bass on the album, Alfredo Hernández on the drums, several other contributions by Chris Goss and Hutch. Homme asked Screaming Trees vocalist Mark Lanegan to appear on the record, but he was unable due to other commitments. Soon after the recording sessions were finished for the album, former Kyuss bassist Nick Oliveri joined the group, touring commenced with a band consisting of ex-Kyuss members. Guitarist Dave Catching joined shortly after. From this point forward, the band's line-up would change frequently. 2000's Rated R featured a myriad of musicians familiar with Homme and Oliveri's work and "crew" of sorts: among others, drummers Nick Lucero and Gene Trautmann, guitarists Dave Catching, Brendon McNichol, Chris Goss contributed, Judas Priest frontman Rob Halford, recording next door, stepped in for a guest spot on "Feel Good Hit of the Summer." The album garnered positive reviews and received a lot more attention than their debut, despite the fact that the lyrics to "Feel Good Hit of the Summer" were deemed by mega-retailer Wal-Mart to promote drug use causing the record to get pulled from store shelves.
The success of the record earned the band notable opening slots with The Smashing Pumpkins, Foo Fighters, a place at Ozzfest 2000. It was during this time that Homme stated: There's a robotic element to our albums, like the repetition of riffs. We wanted to do a record that had a lot of dynamic range. We wanted to set it up in this band. We don't want to get roped in by our own music. If anyone has a good song we should be able to play it. During the 2001 Rock in Rio show, bassist Nick Oliveri was arrested after performing on stage naked, with only his bass guitar covering his genitals. Oliveri apologized to officials. Following his work on Rated R, former Screaming Trees vocalist Mark Lanegan joined the band as a full-time member, a position he held until early 2005. Towards the end of the Rated R tour, the band's performance at the 2001 Rock am Ring festival in Germany was, according to Homme, "the worst show we've played and it was in front of 40,000 people." The band decided to tattoo themselves with the starting time of the performance, "Freitag 4:15."
As Oliveri explained: Me, Mark and Hutch, our soundman, have the same tattoo, it's from Rock am Ring festival. The time we had to play was 4:15 in the afternoon and it was just a terrible show, it sucked, it was horrible. That's why I tattooed it on my ribs, where it would hurt, so I'd never forget. Foo Fighters frontman and former Nirvana drummer, Dave Grohl, joined in late 2001 to record drums for their third album. Songs for the Deaf was released in August 2002, again featuring Lanegan, along with former A Perfect Circle guitarist Troy Van Leeuwen to the touring line-up following the album's release. Featured on Songs for the Deaf for the final track "Mosquito Song" were former A Perfect Circle bassist Paz Lenchantin on viola and piano, Dean Ween on guitar. Thi
State University of New York
The State University of New York is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 424,051 students, plus 2,195,082 adult education students, spanning 64 campuses across the state. Led by Chancellor Kristina M. Johnson, the SUNY system has 91,182 employees, including 32,496 faculty members, some 7,660 degree and certificate programs overall and a $10.7 billion budget. SUNY includes many institutions and four university Centers: Albany, Binghamton and Stony Brook. SUNY's administrative offices are in Albany, the state's capital, with satellite offices in Manhattan and Washington, D. C. SUNY's largest campus is the University at Buffalo, which has the greatest endowment and research funding; the State University of New York was established in 1948 by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, through legislative implementation of recommendations made by the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University.
The Commission was chaired by Owen D. Young, at the time Chairman of General Electric; the system was expanded during the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state. Apart from units of the City University of New York, SUNY comprises all other institutions of higher education statewide that are state-supported; the first colleges were established with some arising from local seminaries. But New York state had a long history of supported higher education prior to the creation of the SUNY system; the oldest college, part of the SUNY System is SUNY Potsdam, established in 1816 as the St. Lawrence Academy. In 1835, the State Legislature acted to establish stronger programs for public school teacher preparation and designated one academy in each senatorial district to receive money for a special teacher-training department; the St. Lawrence Academy received this distinction and designated the village of Potsdam as the site of a Normal School in 1867.
On May 7, 1844, the State legislature voted to establish New York State Normal School in Albany as the first college for teacher education. In 1865, the endowed Cornell University was designated as New York's land grant college, it began direct financial support of four of Cornell's colleges in 1894. From 1889 to 1903, Cornell operated the New York State College of Forestry, until the Governor vetoed its annual appropriation; the school was moved to Syracuse University in 1911. It is now the State University of New York College of Environmental Forestry. In 1908, the State legislature began the NY State College of Agriculture at Alfred University. In 1946-48 a Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University, chaired by Owen D. Young, Chairman of the General Electric Company, studied New York's existing higher education institutions, it was known New York's private institutions of higher education were discriminatory and failed to provide for many New Yorkers. Noting this need, the commission recommended the creation of a public state university system.
In 1948 legislation was passed establishing SUNY on the foundation of the teacher-training schools established in the 19th century. Most of them had developed curricula similar to those found at four-year liberal arts schools long before the creation of SUNY, as evidenced by the fact they had become known as "Colleges for Teachers" rather than "Teachers' Colleges." On October 8, 1953, SUNY took a historic step of banning national fraternities and sororities that discriminated based on race or religion from its 33 campuses. Various fraternities challenged this rule in court; as a result, national organizations felt pressured to open their membership to students of all races and religions. The SUNY resolution, upheld in court states: Resolved that no social organization shall be permitted in any state-operated unit of the State University which has any direct or indirect affiliation or connection with any national or other organization outside the particular unit. Despite being one of the last states in the nation to establish a state university, the system was expanded during the chancellorship of Samuel B. Gould and the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in the design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state.
Rockefeller championed the acquisition of the private University of Buffalo into the SUNY system, making the public State University of New York at Buffalo. SUNY is governed by a State University of New York Board of Trustees, which consists of eighteen members, fifteen of whom are appointed by the Governor, with consent of the New York State Senate; the sixteenth member is the President of the Student Assembly of the State University of New York. The last two members are the Presidents of the University Faculty Senate and Faculty Council of Community Colleges, both of whom are non-voting; the Board of Trustees appoints the Chancellor. The state of New York assists in financing the SUNY system, along with CUNY, provides lower-cost college-level
Perry Arthur Satullo is an American professional wrestler known by his ring name, Perry Saturn. Since debuting in 1990, Saturn has wrestled for promotions including Extreme Championship Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling, the World Wrestling Federation and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, he is a former ECW World Tag Team Champion, WCW World Tag Team Champion, WCW World Television Champion, WWF European Champion and WWF Hardcore Champion. Satullo enlisted in the United States Army for four years at the age of seventeen, before embarking on a career in professional wrestling. Satullo finished a bachelor's degree. Satullo is a certified graduate of the U. S. Army Ranger School. Satullo began training as a professional wrestler at Killer Kowalski's school in Malden, Massachusetts around 1988, taking the ring name Saturn from the Roman god of the same name before tweaking it to Perry Saturn, he debuted on October 27, 1990 in Waltham, wrestling for the United States Wrestling Association. Satullo wrestled in Kowalski's International Wrestling Federation as "The Iron Horseman", a cowboy complete with black leather stetson and chaps.
Satullo won the IWF Light Heavyweight Championship. Satullo began wrestling for independent promotions throughout New England, as well as touring Japan with New Japan Pro Wrestling in 1993. In 1992 he worked as a jobber in WWF. While working as the manager of a nightclub in Boston, Satullo met bouncer George Caiazzo, who expressed an interest in becoming a wrestler. Satullo sent Caiazzo to Kowalski's school to train, offered to form a tag team with him; the Greek equivalent of the god Saturn was Cronus, so Satullo chose the ring name "John Kronus" for Caiazzo. As Saturn and Cronus were their cultures' respective gods of the harvest, Satullo proposed that they be known as "The Harvesters of Sorrow". Promoter Jerry Lawler advised Satullo that the significance of the name would not be evident to many fans, so they became known as The Eliminators; the Eliminators wrestled their first match together at a USWA house show in 1993. They were hired at a starting salary of $40 a week, shared an apartment with four other wrestlers.
The Eliminators won the World Tag Team Championship on May 2, 1994 from Satullo's mentor, Eddie Gilbert, Brian Christopher. They held the titles until June 13 when they were defeated by PG-13. Satullo traveled to Japan with Caiazzo to wrestle for Wrestle Association "R". On March 22, 1994 Saturn wrestled a dark match at a WWF Superstars taping in Lowell, MA; the compactly-built and tattooed Satullo and the high-flying Caiazzo caught the attention of Paul Heyman's Extreme Championship Wrestling when they were brought in to job to the Steiner Brothers, the Eliminators were hired by ECW in 1995. Heyman abandoned plans to give them a sadism and masochism gimmick and instead booked them as an unstoppable force in the ECW tag division, giving them a manager, Jason; the Eliminators captured the ECW Tag Team Titles three times between 1996 and 1997, feuded with teams such as The Gangstas and The Pitbulls. After The Pitbulls' manager Francine cut Saturn's hair, he shaved his head in a homage to Mickey Knox, the character depicted by Woody Harrelson in Natural Born Killers.
Satullo was a trainer in the ECW House of Hardcore, a professional wrestling school at which Taz and Mikey Whipwreck taught. Saturn was respected for his drive on fundamentals and technical wrestling. On May 31, 1997 in Trenton, New Jersey, Satullo tore his ACL when he landed on a crutch while executing a kick on Big Dick Dudley. After intense reconstructive surgery, Satullo was given a recovery time of up to a year, he returned to action in August. Satullo, had become impatient with what he regarded as Caiazzo's lack of motivation and dedication, refused to reform the Eliminators. Paul Heyman offered to release him from his contract if he could find alternative employment, Satullo entered into negotiations with World Championship Wrestling. On August 28, 1997 Satullo was offered a job by WCW road agent Terry Taylor, impressed by a bump that Satullo had taken in a scaffold match, he debuted in WCW on September 8, facing Billy Kidman, but was sidelined for a month afterwards as his knee had still not healed.
That year, both Saturn and Kidman would go on to join The Flock, a heel stable of misfits and misanthropists led by the nihilistic Raven. Saturn's childhood was referenced, with Raven bringing up the violence Saturn incurred at the hands of his stepfather; the enforcer of The Flock, Saturn would win gold on November 3, 1997 when he defeated Disco Inferno to win the World Television Championship. He held the title for a month before losing it back to Inferno in a rematch. Beginning in 1998, Saturn began feuding with Glacier after Saturn's usage of the Super Kick offended Glacier, who deemed it a plagiarism of his Cryonic Kick finisher. In the year, Saturn was defeated by fellow Flock member Van Hammer in a "Loser Leaves The Flock" match. However, Raven opted to throw Hammer out of the Flock instead. Problems began to arise between Raven and Saturn, the latter left The Flock, turning face by standing up to the domineering Raven. Raven held all the other Flock members in thrall, so Saturn challenged him to match for the September 13 Fall Brawl pay-per-view.
If Saturn won, The Flock would be freed. In the meantime, on the August 26 episode of Nitro, Raven's lackey Lodi challenged him to a match, with
A ranged weapon is any weapon that can engage targets beyond hand-to-hand distance, i.e. at distances greater than the physical reach of the weapon itself. It is sometimes called projectile weapon or missile weapon because it works by launching projectiles, though technically a directed-energy weapon is a ranged weapon. In contrast, a weapon intended to be used in hand-to-hand combat is called a melee weapon. Ranged weapons give the attacker an advantage in combat, since the target is getting hit from beyond immediate visual range, therefore has less time to react and more difficulty defending and hitting back effectively, it puts distance between the attacker and the opponent, a safer combat option since the close physical contact during melee combat puts the attacker within the immediate striking range of enemy counterattack, thus at an equal risk of getting hurt or killed. The line between ranged and melee weapons is not definite. Early ranged weapons included designed hand-thrown weapons such as javelins and darts, as well as more complex elastic weapons such as slingshots and bows.
These ranged weapons were effective in combat when used en masse, as they gave the wielder opportunity to launch multiple rounds of attack before an enemy armed with melee weapons or shorter-ranged missile weapons could get close enough to pose a threat. After the invention of gunpowder and the development of firearms, gun-type ranged weapons became the dominant weapon of choice in armed conflicts in close combat. In modern warfare, ranged weaponry is used both tactically and strategically in the form of long-range artilleries and guided missiles. Maximum effective range of a weapon is the greatest distance from which the weapon can be fired while still inflicting casualties or damage. Most modern projectile weapons fall into the broader category of either direct fire or indirect fire, with the former being regarded as guns and the latter as artilleries. While some are small and light enough to be operated by individuals, most require a team to aim, move or fire. Projectile Trajectory of a projectile Siege engine List of artillery List of missiles List of missiles by nation Gray, David Bows of the World.
The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-478-6 The Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 1; the Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-085-3; the Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 2. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-086-1; the Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 3. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-087-X; the ballistics of the sling, Thom Richardson, Royal Armouries Yearbook, Volume 3 1998. Short Bows and Long Bows: Scaling effects in archery Sling Weapons The Evolution of Sling Weapons The Sling – Ancient Weapon Secrets of Lost Empires: Medieval Siege, from the NOVA website Modern and Civil War Era Cannon Information
Impact Wrestling is a Canadian-based American professional wrestling promotion founded in Nashville and based in Toronto, Canada. The promotion is operated by Anthem Wrestling Exhibitions, LLC, a subsidiary of Anthem Sports & Entertainment. Founded by Jeff and Jerry Jarrett in 2002, in Nashville, Tennessee the promotion was known as NWA: Total Nonstop Action and was associated with the National Wrestling Alliance, it withdrew from the NWA in 2004 and became known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, but it continued to use the NWA World Heavyweight and the NWA World Tag Team championships as part of an agreement. After the agreement ended in 2007, the company created its own TNA World Heavyweight and TNA World Tag Team championships; the promotion was purchased by Anthem at the beginning of 2017, it was renamed Impact Wrestling after its main television series. Impact Wrestling had been considered the second largest professional wrestling promotion in the United States behind WWE up to at least 2015.
However, from mid-2017, Impact has become viewed to have fallen behind longtime rival Ring of Honor. The loss of their former television contract and personnel issues have been noted as contributing factors to their decline; the concept of TNA originated shortly after World Championship Wrestling ended in 2001. Bob Ryder, Jeff Jarrett and Jerry Jarrett went on a fishing trip and contemplated their futures in the professional wrestling business. Only one wrestling product remained on United States national television: the World Wrestling Federation. Ryder felt that this situation led many television stations to regard professional wrestling as bad for business, so he suggested a company not reliant on television, but rather one going straight to pay-per-view. In July 2002, Vince Russo joined Jeff and Jerry Jarrett's NWA-TNA promotion as a creative writer and would assist in the writing and production of the shows. Russo states that he coined the name "Total Nonstop Action", the initials of the company "TNA" being a play on "T&A".
The original intention, as they were exclusive to pay-per-view, was to be viewed as an edgier product than WWE. The Jarretts found the financial backing they needed and the company put on its first show on June 19, 2002; that night, however, in a dark match just before they went on the air, a 450 lb wrestler named Cheex hit the ropes with so much force that one of them broke. The estimated repair time was 30–60 minutes, which they did not have because the schedule called for them to go live in a few minutes, whether the ring was ready or not. Backstage, the producers shuffled the schedule so that some non-wrestling segments went first to give the ring crew some more time, but they did not have many of them; the ring crew fixed the rope with the help of Ron and Don Harris, everyone went live hoping for the best. In October 2002, Panda Energy purchased a controlling interest of Total Nonstop Action Wrestling. TNA's weekly pay-per-view show operated as the company's main source of revenue, in place of monthly pay-per-view events used by other promotions.
These shows took place at the Tennessee State Fairground Sports Arena in Nashville, nicknamed the "TNA Asylum". After 27 months and 111 pay-per-view events, TNA began holding a weekly television show and monthly three-hour pay-per-views; the last weekly pay-per-view took place on September 8, 2004. Xplosion launched on November 27, 2002 as TNA's first regular cable show and featured exclusive matches from the TNA Asylum as well as exclusive interviews with TNA wrestlers. On November 18, 2004, the show became a recap show of the previous week's Impact! in light of alterations in the taping schedule. Xplosion resumed airing exclusive matches once more on October 7, 2005 in addition to recapping Impact!. The "Xplosion Xclusives" aired on the now-ceased TNA Global Impact! internet show. Airing of Xplosion in the United States ceased at the end of 2006, although some of the exclusive matches can be seen on TNA Today. In May 2004, TNA introduced a television program, Impact!, produced at Soundstage 21 at Universal Studios Florida and broadcast on Fox Sports.
The transition included the use of a six-sided wrestling ring, the implementation of the "Fox Box" displaying competitors and timekeeping for the match and a more sports-like style than the sports entertainment style exemplified by WWE. With the switch to cable television, TNA discontinued their weekly pay-per-view shows in favor of a monthly 3-hour pay-per-view format as used by WCW and Extreme Championship Wrestling and as used by WWE. In November 2004, TNA held the first of these pay-per-views, Victory Road, beginning the pattern of pay-per-view shows that continued until 2013; the television contract with Fox Sports expired in May 2005 and was not renegotiated, leaving TNA without television exposure. This prompted TNA to air Impact! Via webcasts – made available via BitTorrent and via RealPlayer – and on Urban America Television replacing Xplosion. During this time, TNA continued pursuing a profitable television deal for regular broadcasting. TNA would secure a deal with Spike TV and aired its first episode on October 1, 2005.
In October 2006, TNA began holding select pay-per-views outside of its central filming location, the Impact Zone in Orlando, with Bound for Glory. In April 2006, TNA began a partnership with YouTube, under which TNA supplied YouTube with exclusive video-content in exchange for hosting, leading to the production of internet shows. In January 2007, TNA's mobile-content deal with New Motion, Inc. led to the introduction of TNA Mobile a
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Roller skating is the traveling on surfaces with roller skates. It is a form of recreational activity as well as a sport, can be a form of transportation. In fact, as the United States readied for World War II, the government entertained the notion to add roller skates as essential equipment to move infantry around Europe to save gas. Skates come in three basic varieties: quad roller skates, inline skates or blades and tri-skates, though some have experimented with a single-wheeled "quintessence skate" or other variations on the basic skate design. In America, this hobby was most popular first between 1935 and the early 1960s and in the 1970s, when polyurethane wheels were created and disco music oriented roller rinks were the rage and again in the 1990s when in-line outdoor roller skating, thanks to the improvement made to inline roller skates in 1981 by Scott Olson, took hold. Roller skating has had a checkered past over its nearly-three century history. Given its ebb and flow of popularity over the past century, writers labeled each generation's attraction a "craze!"
The caption in a 1904 Decatur newspaper read, "Old Craze Comes Back," adding, "Roller skating promises to be as popular as it was twenty years ago." Reported on October 11, 1904, the statement announced the opening events of a new Decatur, Illinois roller rink. In 1906, with the opening of another Chicago rink, the Inter Ocean newspaper complained that "after twenty years of exemption from the affliction the desire to roll is again taking possession of American adults...the mania has struck Chicago!" Nearly forty years Charlie Tyler would write, "This current roller skating'craze' is nothing new." Tyler wrote for Chicago's Herald-American in September 1941 and described the opening of Chicago's Madison Gardens Rink's thirty-fifth season on the eve of World War II. Tyler was referring to the first roller skate craze at the turn of the twentieth century, when ball bearings revolutionized roller technology and roller skaters staged spectacle events and speed-skating marathons. Clamp-on skates were mass-produced for those with great aspirations.
Tyler's reporting attempted to temper the rebirth of enthusiasm for the new roller styles that had become popular, including roller derby and dancing on rollers, suggesting that we had seen this before. Today, the acceptance for roller skating is not unlike a waning moon but the sport persists. Roller skating continues to thrive as a part of pop culture in the form of recreation for leisure and sport. Rollers and present are diehards. 1743: First recorded use of roller skates, in a London stage performance. The inventor of this skate is unknown. 1760: First recorded skate invention, by John Joseph Merlin, who created a primitive inline skate with small metal wheels. 1818: Roller skates appeared on the ballet stage in Berlin. 1819: First patented roller skate design, in France by M. Petitbled; these early skates were similar to today's inline skates, but they were not maneuverable. It was difficult with these skates to do anything but move in a straight line and make wide sweeping turns. Rest of the 19th century: inventors continued to work on improving skate design.
1823: Robert John Tyers of London patented a skate called the Rolito. This skate had five wheels in a single row on the bottom of a boot. 1857: Finally, roller skating had gained enough momentum to warrant the opening of the first public skating rinks. The Strand and Floral Hall had these first roller rinks. 1863: The four-wheeled turning roller skate, or quad skate, with four wheels set in two side-by-side pairs, was first designed, in New York City by James Leonard Plimpton in an attempt to improve upon previous designs. The skate contained a pivoting action using a rubber cushion that allowed the skater to skate a curve just by pressing his weight to one side or the other, most by leaning to one side, it was a huge success, so much so that the first public roller skating rinks were opened in 1866, first in New York City by Plimpton in his furniture store and in Newport, Rhode Island with the support of Plimpton. The design of the quad skate allowed easier turns and maneuverability, the quad skate came to dominate the industry for more than a century.
1875 Roller skating rink in Plymouth, England held its first competition.) 1876: William Brown in Birmingham, patented a design for the wheels of roller skates. Brown's design embodied his effort to keep the two bearing surfaces of an axle and moving, apart. Brown worked with Joseph Henry Hughes, who drew up the patent for a ball or roller bearing race for bicycle and carriage wheels in 1877. Hughes' patent included all the elements of an adjustable system; these two men are thus responsible for modern roller skate and skateboard wheels, as well as the ball bearing race inclusion in velocipedes—later to become motorbikes and automobiles. This was arguably the most important advance in the realistic use of roller skates as a pleasurable pastime. 1876: The toe stop was first patented. This provided skaters with the ability to stop promptly upon tipping the skate onto the toe. Toe stops are still used today on some types of inline skates. 1877: The Royal Skating indoor skating ring building is erected rue Veydt, Brussels.
1880s: Roller skates were being mass-produced in America from then. This was the sport's first of several boom periods. Micajah C. Henley of Richmond, Indiana produced thousands of skates every week during peak sales. Henley skates were the first skate with adjustable tension via a screw, the ancestor of the kingbolt mechanism on modern quad skates. 1884: Levant M. Richardson received a patent for the use of steel ball bearings in skate wheels to reduce friction, allowing skaters to increase speed