Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, between possibility and actuality. The word "metaphysics" comes from two Greek words that, together mean "after or behind or among the natural", it has been suggested that the term might have been coined by a first century CE editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle’s works into the treatise we now know by the name Metaphysics. Metaphysics studies questions related to what it is for something to exist and what types of existence there are. Metaphysics seeks to answer, in an abstract and general manner, the questions: What is there? What is it like? Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence and their properties and time, cause and effect, possibility. Metaphysics study, conducted using deduction from that, known a priori. Like foundational mathematics, it tries to give a coherent account of the structure of the world, capable of explaining our everyday and scientific perception of the world, being free from contradictions.
In mathematics, there are many different ways. While metaphysics may, as a special case, study the entities postulated by fundamental science such as atoms and superstrings, its core topic is the set of categories such as object and causality which those scientific theories assume. For example: claiming that "electrons have charge" is a scientific theory. There are two broad stances about; the strong, classical view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist independently of any observer, so that the subject is the most fundamental of all sciences. The weak, modern view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist inside the mind of an observer, so the subject becomes a form of introspection and conceptual analysis; some philosophers, notably Kant, discuss both of these "worlds" and what can be inferred about each one. Some philosophers, such as the logical positivists, many scientists, reject the strong view of metaphysics as meaningless and unverifiable. Others reply that this criticism applies to any type of knowledge, including hard science, which claims to describe anything other than the contents of human perception, thus that the world of perception is the objective world in some sense.
Metaphysics itself assumes that some stance has been taken on these questions and that it may proceed independently of the choice—the question of which stance to take belongs instead to another branch of philosophy, epistemology. Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as the core of metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, subdivided according to similarities and differences. Identity is a fundamental metaphysical issue. Metaphysicians investigating identity are tasked with the question of what it means for something to be identical to itself, or — more controversially — to something else. Issues of identity arise in the context of time: what does it mean for something to be itself across two moments in time? How do we account for this? Another question of identity arises when we ask what our criteria ought to be for determining identity?
And how does the reality of identity interface with linguistic expressions? The metaphysical positions one takes on identity have far-reaching implications on issues such as the mind-body problem, personal identity and law; the ancient Greeks took extreme positions on the nature of change. Parmenides denied change altogether, while Heraclitus argued that change was ubiquitous: "ou cannot step into the same river twice." Identity, sometimes called Numerical Identity, is the relation that a "thing" bears to itself, which no "thing" bears to anything other than itself. A modern philosopher who made a lasting impact on the philosophy of identity was Leibniz, whose Law of the Indiscernibility of Identicals is still in wide use today, it states that if some object x is identical to some object y any property that x has, y will have as well. Put formally, it states ∀ x ∀ y However, it seems, that objects can change over time. If one were to look at a tree one day, the tree lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree.
Two rival theories to account for the relationship between change and identity are perdurantism, which treats the tree as a series of tree-stages, endurantism, which maintains that the organism—the same tree—is present at every stage in its history. Objects appear to us in space and time, while abstract entities such as classes, r
Philosophy of religion
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy. The field is related to many other branches of philosophy, including metaphysics and ethics; the philosophy of religion differs from religious philosophy in that it seeks to discuss questions regarding the nature of religion as a whole, rather than examining the problems brought forth by a particular belief system. It is designed such that it can be carried out dispassionately by those who identify as believers or non-believers. Philosopher William L. Rowe characterized the philosophy of religion as: "the critical examination of basic religious beliefs and concepts." Philosophy of religion covers alternative beliefs about God, the varieties of religious experience, the interplay between science and religion, the nature and scope of good and evil, religious treatments of birth and death.
The field includes the ethical implications of religious commitments, the relation between faith, reason and tradition, concepts of the miraculous, the sacred revelation, mysticism and salvation. The term "Philosophy of Religion" did not come into general use in the West until the nineteenth century, most pre-modern and early modern philosophical works included a mixture of religious themes and "non-religious" philosophical questions. In Asia, examples include texts such as the Hindu Upanishads, the works of Daoism and Confucianism and Buddhist texts. Greek philosophies like Pythagoreanism and Stoicism included religious elements and theories about deities, Medieval philosophy was influenced by the big three Monotheistic Abrahamic religions. In the Western world, early modern philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, George Berkeley discussed religious topics alongside secular philosophical issues as well; the philosophy of religion has been distinguished from theology by pointing out that, for theology, "its critical reflections are based on religious convictions".
"theology is responsible to an authority that initiates its thinking and witnessing... philosophy bases its arguments on the ground of timeless evidence."Some aspects of philosophy of religion have classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotle's Metaphysics, the prior cause of eternal motion was an unmoved mover, like the object of desire, or of thought, inspires motion without itself being moved. This, according to Aristotle, is the subject of study in theology. Today, philosophers have adopted the term "philosophy of religion" for the subject, it is regarded as a separate field of specialization, although it is still treated by some Catholic philosophers, as a part of metaphysics. Different religions have different ideas about Ultimate Reality, its source or ground and about what is the "Maximal Greatness". Paul Tillich's concept of'Ultimate Concern' and Rudolf Otto's'Idea of the Holy' are concepts which point to concerns about the ultimate or highest truth which most religious philosophies deal with in some way.
One of the main differences among religions is whether the Ultimate Reality is a personal God or an impersonal reality. In Western religions, various forms of Theism are the most common conceptions of the ultimate Good, while in Eastern Religions, there are theistic and various non-theistic conceptions of the Ultimate. Theistic vs non-theistic is a common way of sorting the different types of religions. There are several philosophical positions with regard to the existence of God that one might take including various forms of Theism and different forms of Atheism. Monotheism is the belief in a single deity or God, ontologically independent. There are many forms of monotheism. Keith Yandell outlines three kinds of historical monotheisms: Greek and Hindu. Greek monotheism holds that the world has always existed and does not believe in Creationism or divine providence, while Semitic monotheism believes the world is created by a God at a particular point in time and that this God acts in the world.
Indian monotheism meanwhile teaches that the world is beginningless, but that there is God's act of creation which sustains the world. The attempt to provide proofs or arguments for the existence of God is one aspect of what is known as natural theology or the natural theistic project; this strand of natural theology attempts to justify belief in God by independent grounds. Most of philosophy of religion is predicated on natural theology's assumption that the existence of God can be justified or warranted on rational grounds. There has been considerable philosophical and theological debate about the kinds of proofs and arguments that are appropriate for this discourse. Common types of arguments for the existence of god include: Cosmological Argument Ontological Argument Teleological argument Argument from religious experience Argument from morality Wager arguments like Pascal's Wager attempts to rationally argue that one should believe in God. Skeptics and atheists have put forth various arguments against the existence of God including: The argument from inconsistent revelations The problem of evil, the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with that of a deity who is, in either absolute or relative terms, omnipotent and omnibenevolent.
Argument from poor design Argument from nonbelief or the argument from divine hiddenness Eastern Religions have included both theistic and other alternative positions about the ultimate nature of reality. One such v
Richard G. Swinburne is a British philosopher, he is an Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford. Over the last 50 years Swinburne has been an influential proponent of philosophical arguments for the existence of God, his philosophical contributions are in the philosophy of religion and philosophy of science. He aroused much discussion with his early work in the philosophy of religion, a trilogy of books consisting of The Coherence of Theism, The Existence of God, Faith and Reason. Swinburne received an Open Scholarship to study classics at Exeter College, but in fact graduated with a first class BA in philosophy and economics. Swinburne has held various professorships through his career in academia. From 1972 to 1985 he taught at Keele University. During part of this time, he gave the Gifford lectures at Aberdeen from 1982 to 1984, resulting in the book The Evolution of the Soul. From 1985 until his retirement in 2002 he was Nolloth Professor of the Philosophy of the Christian Religion at the University of Oxford.
He has continued to publish since his retirement. Swinburne has been an active author throughout his career, producing a major book every two to three years, he has played an important role in recent debate over the mind-body problem, defending a substance dualism that recalls the work of René Descartes in important respects. See The Evolution of the Soul, 1997, his books are very technical works of academic philosophy, but he has written at the popular level as well. Of the non-technical works, his Is There a God?, summarising for a non-specialist audience many of his arguments for the existence of God and plausibility in the belief of that existence, is the most popular, is available in 22 languages. A member of the Orthodox Church, he is noted as one of the foremost Christian apologists, arguing in his many articles and books that faith in Christianity is rational and coherent in a rigorous philosophical sense. William Hasker writes that his "tetralogy on Christian doctrine, together with his earlier trilogy on the philosophy of theism, is one of the most important apologetic projects of recent times."
While Swinburne presents many arguments to advance the belief that God exists, he argues that God is a being whose existence is not logically necessary, but metaphysically necessary in a way he defines in his The Christian God. Other subjects on which Swinburne writes include personal identity, epistemic justification, he has written in defence of Cartesian libertarian free will. Although he is best known for his vigorous rational defence of Christian intellectual commitments, he has a theory of the nature of passionate faith, developed in his book Faith and Reason. According to an interview Swinburne did with Foma magazine, he converted from Anglicanism to Eastern Orthodoxy around 1996: I don't think I changed my beliefs in any significant way. I always believed in the Apostolic succession: that the Church has to have its authority dating back to the Apostles, the general teaching of the Orthodox Church on the saints and the prayers for the departed and so on, these things I have always believed.
Swinburne's philosophical method reflects the influence of Thomas Aquinas. He admits. Swinburne, like Aquinas, moves from basic philosophical issues, to more specific Christian beliefs. Swinburne moves in his writing program from the philosophical to the theological, building his case rigorously, relying on his previous arguments as he defends particular Christian beliefs, he has attempted to reassert classical Christian beliefs with an apologetic method that he believes is compatible with contemporary science. That method relies on inductive logic, seeking to show that his Christian beliefs fit best with the evidence. National Life Stories conducted an oral history interview with Richard Swinburne in 2015 for its Science and Religion collection held by the British Library. Space and Time, 1968 The Concept of Miracle, 1970, The Coherence of Theism, 1977 The Existence of God, 1979. Faith and Reason, 1981; the Evolution of the Soul, 1986, ISBN 0-19-823698-0. Miracles, 1989 Responsibility and Atonement, 1989 Revelation, 1991 The Christian God, 1994 Is There a God?, 1996, ISBN 0-19-823545-3 Simplicity as Evidence of Truth, The Aquinas Lecture, 1997 Providence and the Problem of Evil, 1998 Epistemic Justification, 2001 The Resurrection of God Incarnate, 2003 Was Jesus God?, 2008 Free Will and Modern Science, Ed.
2011, ISBN 978-0197264898 Mind and Free Will, 2013 Richard Swinburne, "The Vocation of a Natural Theologian," in Philosophers Who Believe, Kelly James Clark, ed. pp. 179–202. Theodicy in contemporary philosophy of religion List of science and religion scholars Vardy, Peter; the Puzzle of God. Collins Sons and Co. pp. 99–106. Brown, Colin. Miracles and the Critical Mind. Exeter: Paternoster. 180-4. Chartier, Ga
Medieval philosophy is a term used to refer to the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century. Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Baghdad, in the middle of the 8th century, in France, in the itinerant court of Charlemagne, in the last quarter of the 8th century, it is defined by the process of rediscovering the ancient culture developed in Greece and Rome during the Classical period, by the need to address theological problems and to integrate sacred doctrine with secular learning. The history of medieval philosophy is traditionally divided into two main periods: the period in the Latin West following the Early Middle Ages until the 12th century, when the works of Aristotle and Plato were rediscovered and studied upon, the "golden age" of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries in the Latin West, which witnessed the culmination of the recovery of ancient philosophy, along with the reception of its Arabic commentators, significant developments in the fields of philosophy of religion and metaphysics.
The Medieval Era was disparagingly treated by the Renaissance humanists, who saw it as a barbaric "middle period" between the Classical age of Greek and Roman culture, the rebirth or renaissance of Classical culture. Modern historians consider the medieval era to be one of philosophical development influenced by Christian theology. One of the most notable thinkers of the era, Thomas of Aquinas, never considered himself a philosopher, criticized philosophers for always "falling short of the true and proper wisdom"; the problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and simplicity of God, the purpose of theology and metaphysics, the problems of knowledge, of universals, of individuation. Medieval philosophy places heavy emphasis on the theological. With the possible exceptions of Avicenna and Averroes, medieval thinkers did not consider themselves philosophers at all: for them, the philosophers were the ancient pagan writers such as Plato and Aristotle.
However, their theology used the methods and logical techniques of the ancient philosophers to address difficult theological questions and points of doctrine. Thomas Aquinas, following Peter Damian, argued. Despite this view of philosophy as the servant of theology, this did not prevent the medievals from developing original and innovative philosophies against the backdrop of their theological projects. For instance, such thinkers as Augustine of Hippo and Thomas of Aquinas made monumental breakthroughs in the philosophy of temporality and metaphysics, respectively; the principles that underlie all the medieval philsophers' work are: The use of logic and analysis to discover the truth, known as ratio. One of the most debated topics of the period was that of faith versus reason. Avicenna and Averroes both leaned more on the side of reason. Augustine stated that he would never allow his philosophical investigations to go beyond the authority of God. Anselm attempted to defend against what he saw as an assault on faith, with an approach allowing for both faith and reason.
The Augustinian solution to the faith/reason problem is to believe, seek to understand. The boundaries of the early medieval period are a matter of controversy, it is agreed that it begins with Augustine who belongs to the classical period, ends with the lasting revival of learning in the late eleventh century, at the beginning of the high medieval period. After the collapse of the Roman empire, Western Europe lapsed into the so-called Dark Ages. Monasteries were among the limited number of focal points of formal academic learning, which might be presumed to be a result of a rule of St Benedict's in 525, which required monks to read the Bible daily, his suggestion that at the beginning of Lent, a book be given to each monk. In periods, monks were used for training administrators and churchmen. Early Christian thought, in particular in the patristic period, tends to be intuitional and mystical, is less reliant on reason and logical argument, it places more emphasis on the sometimes-mystical doctrines of Plato, less upon the systematic thinking of Aristotle.
Much of the work of Aristotle was unknown in the West in this period. Scholars relied on translations by Boethius into Latin of Aristotle's Categories, the logical work On Interpretation, his Latin translation of Porphyry's Isagoge, a commentary on Aristotle's Categories. Two Roman philosophers had a great influence on the development of medieval philosophy: Augustine and Boethius. Augustine is regarded as the greatest of the Church Fathers, he is a theologian and a devotional writer, but much of his writing is philosophical. His themes are truth, the human soul, the meaning of history, the state and salvation. For over a thousand years, there was hardly a Latin work of theology or philosophy that did not quote his writing, or invoke his authority; some of his writing had an influence on the development of early modern philosophy, such as that of Descartes. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius was a Christian philosopher born in Rome to an ancient and influential family, he became consul in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths.
His influence on the early medieval pe
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City. Founded by the Catholic Diocese of New York in 1841, it is the oldest Catholic university in the northeastern United States, the third-oldest university in New York, the only Jesuit university in New York City. Established as St. John's College by John Hughes a coadjutor bishop of New York, it was placed in the care of the Society of Jesus shortly thereafter, has since become a Jesuit-affiliated independent school under a lay board of trustees; the college's first president, John McCloskey, was the first Catholic cardinal in the United States. While governed independently of the Church since 1969, every president of Fordham University since 1846 has been a Jesuit priest, the curriculum remains influenced by Jesuit educational principles. Fordham enrolls 15,300 students from more than 65 countries, is composed of ten constituent colleges, four of which are undergraduate and six of which are postgraduate, across three campuses in southern New York State: the Rose Hill campus in the Bronx, the Lincoln Center campus in Manhattan's Upper West Side, the Westchester campus in West Harrison, New York.
In addition to these locations, the university maintains a study abroad center in London and field offices in Spain and South Africa. The university offers degrees in over 60 disciplines. Fordham's alumni and faculty include U. S. Senators and representatives, four cardinals of the Catholic Church, several theologians, several U. S. governors and ambassadors, a number of billionaires, two directors of the CIA, Academy Award and Emmy-winning actors, royalty, a foreign head of state, a White House Counsel, a vice chief of staff of the U. S. Army, a U. S. Postmaster General, a U. S. Attorney General, a U. S. vice-presidential candidate, a president of the United States, Donald Trump. The university's athletic teams, the Rams, include a football team that boasts a win in the Sugar Bowl, two Pro Football Hall of Famers, two All-Americans, two Canadian Football League All-Stars, numerous NFL players. Fordham's baseball team played the first collegiate baseball game under modern rules in 1859, has fielded 56 major league players, holds the record for most NCAA Division I baseball victories in history.
Fordham was founded as St. John's College in 1841 by the Irish-born coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of New York, John Hughes; this makes it the third-oldest university in the state of New York, the first Catholic institution of higher education in the northeastern United States. In 1839, Hughes 42 years old, had purchased the 106-acre Rose Hill Manor farm in the village of Fordham, New York for $29,750, his intent was to establish St. Joseph's Seminary following the model of Mount Saint Mary's University, of which he was an alumnus. "Rose Hill" was the name given to the site in 1787 by its owner, Robert Watts, a wealthy New York merchant, in honor of his family's ancestral home in Scotland. In 1840, St. Joseph's Seminary opened at Rose Hill; the seminary was paired with St. John's College, which opened at Rose Hill with a student body of six on June 24, 1841, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist; the Reverend John McCloskey was the school's first president, the faculty were secular priests and lay instructors.
The college presidency went through a succession of four diocesan priests in five years, including the Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, a distant cousin of Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt and a nephew of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. In 1845, the seminary church, Our Lady of Mercy, was built; the same year, Bishop Hughes convinced several Jesuit priests from the St. Mary's College in Kentucky to staff St. John's; the college received its charter from the New York State Legislature in 1846, the first Jesuits began to arrive about three months later. In 1846 Bishop Hughes sold St. John's College to the Jesuits for $40,000. Hughes deeded the college over but retained title to the seminary property, which totaled about nine acres. In 1847, Fordham's first school in Manhattan opened; the school became the independently chartered College of St. Francis Xavier in 1861, it was in 1847 that the American poet Edgar Allan Poe arrived in the village of Fordham and began a friendship with the college Jesuits that would last throughout his life.
In 1849, he published his famed work The Bells. Some traditions credit the college's church bells as the inspiration for this poem. Poe spent considerable time in the Fordham Library, occasionally stayed overnight. St. John's curriculum consisted of a junior division, requiring four years of study in Latin, grammar, history, geography and religion. Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, famed commander of the all-black 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry American Civil War regiment, attended the junior division. An Artium Baccalaureus degree was earned for completion of both curricula, an additional year of philosophy would earn a Magister Artium degree. There was a "commercial" track similar to a modern business school, offered as an alternative to the Classical curriculum and resulting in a certificate instead of a degree. In 1855, the first student stage production, Henry IV, was presented by the St. John's Dramatic Society; the seminary was closed in 1859. The Civil War was a significant time for the college.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Grove City College
Grove City College is a Christian liberal arts college in Grove City, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1876 as a normal school, the college emphasizes a humanities core curriculum and offers 60 majors and 6 pre-professional programs with undergraduate degrees in the liberal arts, business, education and music. Though once associated with the Presbyterian Church, the college is now non-denominational. Students are not required to sign a statement of faith, but are required to attend sixteen chapel services per semester. Founded in 1876 by Isaac C. Ketler, the school was chartered as Pine Grove Normal Academy, it had twenty-six students in its first year. In 1884, the trustees of Pine Grove Normal Academy in Grove City amended the academy charter to change the name to Grove City College. By charter, the doors of the College were open to qualified students "without regard to religious test or belief." The founders of Grove City College, consciously avoiding narrow sectarianism, held a vision of Christian society transcending denomination and confessions.
Isaac Ketler was a devout Presbyterian who served as president until 1913. This was a span of 37 years altogether and occurred during a formative period for the school. Grove City was supported by Joseph Newton Pew, founder of the Sun Oil Company. Pew was a lifelong mentor and friend of the educator. Pew, like Ketler a devout Presbyterian and strong believer in the importance of good education accepted the presidency of the school's board of trustees. Pew and Ketler's influence continued with their sons, Weir C. Ketler and John Howard Pew. During the summer of 1925, J. Gresham Machen gave the lectures that formed the basis of his book, What Is Faith? John Howard Pew graduated from the college in 1900 and, like his father, became trustee-board president. J. Howard Pew continued his father's legacy. A Presbyterian and a conservative, J. Howard Pew insisted that the college operate only on what it received in tuition and fees. In the 1930s, J. Howard Pew, who became the president of Sun Oil Company, was one of the nation's most outspoken critics of the New Deal, so it was natural that Grove City College look unfavorably upon federal aid and involvement in education and that it would strive to remain the independent institution it is today.
As World War II began, Grove City College was one of six schools selected by the United States Navy to participate in the unusual Electronics Training Program. Starting March 1942, each month a new group of 100 Navy and Marine students arrived for three months of 14-hour days in concentrated electrical engineering study. ETP admission required passing the Eddy Test, one of the most selective qualifying exams given during the war years. Professor Russell P. Smith was the program's Director of Instruction. By the fall of 1943, there were only 81 civilian men in the student body; this training at Grove City continued until April 1945. Under President Dr. Charles S. MacKenzie, the college was the plaintiff-appellee in the landmark U. S. Supreme Court case in 1984, Grove City College v. Bell; the ruling came seven years after the school's refusal to sign a Title IX compliance form, which would have subjected the entire school to federal regulations ones not yet issued. The court ruled 6–3 that acceptance by students of federal educational grants fell under the regulatory requirements of Title IX, but it limited the application to the school's financial aid department.
In 1988, new legislation subjected every department of any educational institution that received federal funding to Title IX requirements. In response, Grove City College withdrew from the Pell Grant program beginning with the 1988–89 academic year, replacing such grants to students with its own program, the Student Freedom Fund. In October 1996, the college withdrew from the Stafford Loan program, providing entering students with replacements through a program with PNC Bank. Grove City is one of a handful of colleges that does not allow its students to accept federal financial aid of any kind, including grants and scholarships. From 1963 until 2016, the American Association of University Professors placed Grove City under censure for violations of tenure and academic freedom because of the dismissal of Professor of History and Political Science Dr. Larry Gara. By the end of this period, Grove City's administration was on the AAUP's list of censured administrations longer than any other college on the list.
In its report, the AAUP Investigative Committee at Grove City concluded that "the absence of due process raises... doubts regarding the academic security of any persons who may hold appointment at Grove City College under existing administrative practice. These doubts are of an order of magnitude which obliges us to report them to the academic profession at large." In 2013 Grove City started working to remove itself from the censure list. Two years the school admitted that they would have handled Dr. Gara's case rather differently under their current procedures; this led the AAUP to lift their sanction on the school at its annual meeting in 2016. Gara received an apology from the school in October 2015. In 2005, Grove City founded its Center for Vision and Values, further advancing its programs in the humanities; the Center aims to educate the world about faith and freedom by giving its faculty members the opportunity to share their scholarship with a community