England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the half of the 19th century. It is played on a rectangular table covered with a green cloth, or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each long side. Using a cue and 22 coloured balls, players must strike the white ball to pot the remaining balls in the correct sequence, accumulating points for each pot. An individual game, or frame, is won by the player scoring the most points. A match is won. Snooker gained its own identity in 1884 when army officer Sir Neville Chamberlain, while stationed in Ooty, devised a set of rules that combined pyramid and life pool; the word "snooker" was a long-used military term used to describe inexperienced or first-year personnel. The game grew in popularity in the United Kingdom, the Billiards Association and Control Club was formed in 1919, it is now governed by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association. The World Snooker Championship has taken place since 1927, with Joe Davis becoming a key figure in the early growth of the sport winning the championship fifteen times from 1927 to 1946.
The "modern era" began in 1969 after the BBC commissioned the snooker television show Pot Black and began to air the World Championship in 1978, leading to the sport's new peak in popularity. Ray Reardon dominated the game in the 1970s, Steve Davis in the 1980s, Stephen Hendry in the 1990s. Since 2000, Ronnie O'Sullivan has won the most world titles, with 5. Top professional players now compete around the world and earn millions of pounds; the sport has become popular in China. The origin of snooker dates back to the latter half of the 19th century. In the 1870s, billiards was a popular activity amongst British Army officers stationed in India and several variations of the game were devised during this time. One such variation originated at the officers' mess of the 11th Devonshire Regiment in 1875, which combined the rules of two pocket billiards games and life pool; the former was played with fifteen red balls and one black positioned in a triangle, while the latter involved the potting of designated coloured balls.
The game developed its own identity in 1884 when its first set of rules was finalised by Sir Neville Chamberlain, an English officer who helped develop and popularise the game at Stone House in Ooty on a table built by Burroughes & Watts, brought over by boat. The word "snooker" was a slang term for first-year cadets and inexperienced military personnel, but Chamberlain would use it to describe the inept performance of one of his fellow officers at the table. In 1887, snooker was given its first definite reference in England in a copy of Sporting Life which caused a growth in popularity. Chamberlain came out as the game's inventor in a letter to The Field published on 19 March 1938, 63 years after the fact. Snooker grew in popularity across the Indian colonies and the United Kingdom, but it remained a game for the gentry, many gentlemen's clubs that had a billiards table would not allow non-members inside to play. To accommodate the growing interest and more open snooker-specific clubs were formed.
In 1919, the Billiards Association and the Billiards Control Board merged to form the Billiards Association and Control Club and a new, standard set of rules for snooker first became official. The game of Snooker grew in the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, by 1927 the first World Snooker Championship had been organised by Joe Davis who, as a professional English billiards and snooker player, moved the game from a pastime activity into a more professional sphere. Davis won every world championship until 1946; the game went into a decline through the 1950s and 1960s with little interest generated outside of those who played. In 1959, Davis introduced a variation of the game known as "Snooker Plus" to try to improve the game's popularity by adding two extra colours, but it never caught on. A major advance occurred in 1969, when David Attenborough commissioned the snooker television series Pot Black to demonstrate the potential of colour television with the green table and multi-coloured balls being ideal for showing off the advantages of colour broadcasting.
The series was for a time the second-most popular show on BBC Two. Interest in the game increased and the 1978 World Snooker Championship was the first to be televised; the game became a mainstream game in the UK, Ireland and much of the Commonwealth and has enjoyed much success since the late 1970s, with most of the ranking tournaments being televised. In 1985 a total of 18.5 million viewers watched the concluding frame of the world championship final between Dennis Taylor and Steve Davis known as the "black ball final". The loss of tobacco sponsorship during the 2000s led to a decrease in the number of professional tournaments, although some new sponsors were sourced. By 2007, the BBC dedicated 400 hours to snooker coverage compared to just 14 minutes forty years earlier. In 2010, promoter Barry Hearn gained a controlling interest in World Snooker Ltd. the professional sport's commercial arm, pledging to revitalise the "moribund" professional game. Under his direction, the number of professional tournaments has increased, certain tournament formats have been changed in an attempt to increase their appeal, and, by 2013, total prize money had more than doubled from £3 million to more than £7 million for the tour.
The objective of
In snooker, a century break is a score of 100 points or more within one visit at the table without missing a shot and requires potting at least 25 consecutive balls. The ability to score century breaks is regarded as a mark of the highest skill in snooker, while the first career century has been described by Ronnie O'Sullivan as the "ultimate milestone for any snooker player". Over 20,000 century breaks have been recorded by snooker players throughout professional tournaments. In 2014, Neil Robertson became the first person to have scored over 100 century frames throughout a single season, a threshold that only some 60 other players had surpassed throughout their entire careers. Ronnie O'Sullivan holds the record for the most career centuries with more than 1000 century breaks. A century break is a score of 100 points or more within one visit at the table, without missing a shot; the player does this by potting red balls and coloured balls alternately, where the coloured balls are repositioned on their starting locations.
After repositioning the coloured ball paired to the last red on the table, the six coloured balls are potted in order of their increasing value. Because a break is defined as series of consecutive pots by a player during a single frame, scoring 100 points over the course of a whole frame does not constitute a century break, as it must be done on a single turn at the table. Points for a foul shot by the opponent do not count in a player's break. Under normal circumstances, the highest possible century in snooker is 147, composed of 15 reds, 15 blacks and the six remaining colours. If for example only the least-valued colour would be used instead of the black ball, the break value would only be 72 points; this means that only a single century break is possible in a frame of snooker under a limited number of combinations, but it requires the potting of at least 25 consecutive balls. To score one, there must be at least ten reds on the table when the player comes to play since if there are only nine reds left, only 99 points may be scored.
An exception exists if the opponent fouls and leaves the incoming player snookered on all the remaining reds. In such a situation, the player can nominate one of the other colours as a red, known as a "free ball", which carries the same value as a red for just that shot, therefore, a century break is still possible with only nine reds left. Breaks above 147 are possible when an opponent fouls and leaves a free ball with all fifteen reds still remaining on the table, creating a situation identical to as if there were 16 red balls on the table; this has happened only once in professional competition, when Jamie Burnett made a 148 at the qualifying stage of the 2004 UK Championship. A "century of centuries" refers to a total of 100 breaks of at least 100 points each. Only 15 players had reached this milestone in professional snooker tournaments by December 2001. With an increase in the occurrence of centuries in the past decades, another 27 players achieved this landmark by October 2011, by the end of the 2013/2014 season the total number of players reaching this threshold had grown to 52.
Only Neil Robertson has achieved one hundred centuries in a single season, during 2013/2014. By the end of the 2018 English Open 66 players had reached 100 century breaks; the following players are reported to have passed 100 breaks and at least the given threshold above this. Joe Davis compiled the first televised century break in 1962; the record for most century breaks scored in official tournament play is held by Ronnie O'Sullivan with 1000 centuries. The record was held by Stephen Hendry who compiled 775 centuries over the course of his career; the first player to record 1,000 centuries in public performance is Horace Lindrum. The first player—and so far only—to record 1,000 centuries in professional competition is Ronnie O'Sullivan, a feat he achieved at the 2019 Players Championship on 10 March 2019. Stacey Hillyard became the first female to record a competitive century in January 1985; the quickest recorded century break in tournament play was by Tony Drago at 1996 UK Championship, taking 3 minutes 31 seconds to score a hundred points.
The youngest player to record a century break is Michael White at the age of nine in March 2001. The first player to reach 50 centuries in a season was Hendry, with 53 century breaks from the 1994/1995 season. Hendry achieved another 51 centuries during the 1995/1996 season, while O'Sullivan came close with 48 in the 2006/2007 season, but it was not until the 2010/2011 season when the record was broken by Mark Selby with 54 centuries, again by Selby with 55 century breaks in the 2011/2012 season. Judd Trump took the record with 61 centuries in the 2012/2013 season and the record was broken for the fourth successive season in 2013/2014 when Neil Robertson overtook Trump's tally; the first player to reach the'century of centuries' mark during a single season is Neil Robertson in the 2013/2014 season on 30 April 2014 during his quarter final match against Judd Trump at the 2014 World Championship. In total, Robertson compiled 103 century breaks throughout the season; the most centuries made by a player in a single match during a professional tournament is seven and the record is shared by Stephen Hendry and Ding Junhui.
Hendry set the record during the final of the 1994 UK Championship. During this match, Hendry compiled six cent
Ronald Antonio O'Sullivan is an English professional snooker player, regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of the sport. Since turning professional in 1992, he has won five World Championships, a record seven Masters titles, a record seven UK Championships, setting a record total of 19 titles in Triple Crown tournaments, he shares the record for the most ranking titles with Stephen Hendry, while his career earnings of over £10 million put him in first place on snooker's all-time prize-money list. Winning the Tour Championship on 24 March 2019 made him the sport's current world number one, the fourth time in his career that he has held the top position and the first time he has been number one since May 2010; this is the longest gap between number one spells by any player in history. A prolific break-builder, O'Sullivan holds the record for the most century breaks in professional competition, is the only player to have achieved 1,000 career centuries, he holds the records for the most recognised maximum breaks in professional competition, with 15, the fastest competitive maximum break, compiled in a time of 5 minutes and 8 seconds at the 1997 World Championship.
Noted for his unpredictable temperament and his struggles with alcohol and depression, O'Sullivan has been a controversial figure in the sport. He has received many warnings and sanctions from its governing body over his conduct and comments, has threatened to retire, took a prolonged break from the sport during the 2012/2013 season, threatened in late 2018 to form a breakaway snooker tour. Outside his playing career, he has worked as a pundit for Eurosport's snooker coverage, has written crime novels and autobiographies, has starred in the miniseries Ronnie O'Sullivan's American Hustle, he was awarded an OBE in the 2016 New Year Honours. O'Sullivan plays in a fast and attacking manner, he is solid tactical player. He has stated his disdain for drawn-out games, saying that it harms the game of snooker, he is regarded by many other professionals as an excellent front-runner. In previous years, he could become demoralized by being behind and not playing well, was liable to lose several consecutive frames.
He is right-handed but can play to a high standard with his left hand and alternates where needed. While not quite possessing the same power in his left arm, being ambidextrous enables him to attempt shots with his left hand that would otherwise require awkward cueing with a rest or spider; when he first displayed this left-handed ability in the 1996 World Championship against Alain Robidoux, the Canadian accused him of disrespect. He was summoned to a disciplinary hearing in response to Robidoux's formal complaint, where he had to prove that he could play to a high level with his left hand, he played three frames of snooker against former world championship runner-up Rex Williams, winning all three. The charge of bringing the game into disrepute was subsequently dropped, he is considered by many to be the most talented player in the history of the sport, with some labelling him a "genius". Several of his peers regard him as the greatest player ever. However, a temperamental streak sometimes leads to O'Sullivan having a lack of confidence or interest, he has performed inconsistently throughout his controversial career thus far, with observers noting the "two Ronnies" aspect of his character.
According to Stephen Hendry after his defeat at the 2008 World Championship, "O'Sullivan is the best player in the world by a country mile". O'Sullivan has compiled the highest number of competitive century breaks in the sport's history, surpassing Hendry's previous record of 775. O'Sullivan targeted reaching 1,000 century breaks before he retires, a feat he achieved in the winning frame of the 2019 Players Championship final. O'Sullivan is one of the most popular players on the circuit, noted for being a "showman", has helped improve the image of snooker to the general public. O'Sullivan himself has stated his desire for entertaining the watching public, has said that slow, gritty games put viewers off, he has been compared to Alex Higgins and Jimmy White, because of both his natural talent and popularity. O'Sullivan has three verified social network accounts, on Twitter, Sina Weibo, Instagram, with over 300,000, over 160,000 and over 145,000 followers respectively, he updates his Weibo account with the help of two assistants.
O'Sullivan started broadcasting on Brentwood radio station Phoenix FM in May 2015, co-hosting the Midweek Matchzone show with Chris Hood. O'Sullivan has broadcast a number of hour-long specials for the station. In March 2014, Eurosport announced that it had signed an exclusive deal with O'Sullivan to make him its global ambassador for snooker, with the goal of driving the sport's international appeal; as part of the deal, O'Sullivan creates an exclusive snooker series for the network called The Ronnie O'Sullivan Show, which includes his insights into the game, interviews with other professional players, playing tips. He wrote for Yahoo! websites and mobile apps during the World Championship. O'Sullivan works for Eurosport with Jimmy White and Neal Foulds doing analysis for events that he does not take part in or if he is knocked out of an event he joins the team for the rounds. O'Sullivan starred in a mini series Ronnie O'Sullivan's American Hustle touring the United States with broadcasting friend Matt Smith.
The series showed the pair travelling to different cities in the US learning the art of pool hustling. O'Sullivan has written three crime novels in collaboration with Emlyn Rees: Framed, Double Kiss and The Break; the novels are not autobiographi
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
The Masters is a professional invitational snooker tournament. Held every year since 1975, it is the second-longest running tournament behind the World Championship, it is one of the Triple Crown events, although not a ranking event, it is regarded as one of the most prestigious tournaments on the circuit. The reigning champion is Judd Trump; the Masters began as an invitational event for 10 top players. The field was expanded to 12 competitors in 1981, 16 in 1983. Since 1984, the standard invitees have been the top 16 players in the world rankings, with the addition of two or three wild-card places in tournaments held between 1990 and 2010. Ronnie O'Sullivan holds the record for the most Masters titles, having won the tournament seven times. Stephen Hendry has won six titles, Cliff Thorburn, Steve Davis, Mark Selby, Paul Hunter three, Alex Higgins, Mark Williams and John Higgins two. In 2016, the Masters trophy was renamed the Paul Hunter Trophy in honour of the three-time champion, who died in 2006, aged 27.
The oldest champion in Masters history is Ray Reardon, who won the title in 1976 aged 43 years and 114 days. The youngest champion is O'Sullivan, who won his first title in 1995 aged 69 days. Three maximum breaks have been made in the history of the tournament, all by overseas players. Canada's Kirk Stevens made the first in 1984, China's Ding Junhui made the second in 2007 and Hong Kong's Marco Fu made the third in 2015; the tournament was held for the first time in 1975 at the West Centre Hotel in London, when ten leading players were invited. The event was sponsored by the cigarette company Hedges. John Spencer won the inaugural tournament by defeating Ray Reardon 9–8 in the final; the following year the event moved to the New London Theatre and in 1979 to the Wembley Conference Centre. In 1981 the number of players invited to compete was increased to 12, increased again to 16 in 1983. From 1984 onwards the top 16 players in the world rankings were automatically invited to the tournament. In 1984 Kirk Stevens became the first player to make a maximum break at the event against Jimmy White in the semi-final.
In 1988 Mike Hallett became the first and to date only player to be whitewashed in a Masters final, losing 0–9 to Steve Davis. Stephen Hendry maintained an unbeaten record in the event, a run which included five successive championship victories, from his first appearance in 1989 until his defeat by Alan McManus in a final-frame decider in the 1994 final. Hallett reached his second final in four years in 1991, but lost 8–9 against Hendry, despite leading 7–0 and 8–2; this defeat ended Hallett's days as a major force in the game. In 1990 the sponsors introduced two wild-cards, granted by the game's governing body at their discretion, who would play wild-card matches against the players seeded 15th and 16th for a place in the first round of the tournament. For the 1991 tournament, the Benson & Hedges Championship was introduced: this granted the winner one of the two wild-card places; the other continued to be granted by the governing body. In the 1997 final, Steve Davis defeated Ronnie O'Sullivan in a match disrupted by a streaker.
Davis came back from 4–8 down to win the remaining six frames in a row, clinching the final at 10–8. The 1998 final went down to a re-spotted black in the deciding frame. In the 2000 final Ken Doherty missed the final black in a 147 attempt, the first time this had happened in competition, lost to Matthew Stevens. After the 2003 Masters, Benson & Hedges had to end their sponsorship of the event due to UK restrictions on tobacco advertising, the tournament was unsponsored in 2004. In 2005, Rileys Club became the sponsor of the event. There was no qualifying competition, both wild-card places were awarded by the governing body, but the competition returned the following season. SAGA Insurance took over sponsorship of the tournament in 2006 and the same year agreed to a deal to sponsor the event until 2009. 2006 was the last year the tournament was held at the Wembley Conference Centre, before it was demolished in the same summer to make place for redevelopment. Following the death of Paul Hunter in October 2006, Jimmy White led calls for the Masters trophy or tournament to be renamed in honour of Hunter, who had won the title three times in four years between 2001 and 2004.
Lindsey Hunter, widow of Paul Hunter expressed her wishes for the trophy to be renamed, claiming that "...everybody expected it. Every player I've spoken to, every fan, thought it would be a definite". World Snooker, the sport's governing body, decided against renaming the trophy, stating "Our board unanimously agreed that the Paul Hunter Scholarship was the most fitting tribute. Just as Hunter himself rose swiftly through the amateur ranks, the scholarship will give a gifted young player the chance to fulfil his talent through elite training."In a slight change for 2007, one extra discretionary wild-card place was awarded, bringing the total number of players up to 19. The event was held at the Wembley Arena. For 2008 the tournament reverted to having only two wild-card players. Ronnie O'Sullivan appeared in four successive finals from 2004 to 2007, winning in 2005 and 2007. Paul Hunter won the first of these, recovering from 2–7 down to win 10–9 against Ronnie, making five century breaks along the way.
This was Hunter's third Masters win in four years. O'Sullivan put on a great display to defeat John Higgins in the 2005 final, 10–3; the next year, they met once again in the final, which saw a high standard of play throughout the match, including back-to-back total clearances of 138 and 139 for O'Sullivan to win frames 2 and 3, before losing the next five frames in a row. In the deciding frame, O'Sulliva
Stephen Gordon Hendry is a Scottish former professional snooker player and current commentator for the BBC and ITV. Regarded as one of the greatest snooker players he is best known for dominating the sport in the 1990s, when he won the World Championship seven times, a record in the modern era, his first world title in 1990, at the age of 21, made him the youngest world champion, a record he still holds. He was ranked world number one for eight consecutive seasons between 1990 and 1998 and regained the number one ranking for the 2006/2007 season, he and Ronnie O'Sullivan jointly hold the record for the most ranking titles in the sport, with 36 each. Hendry won six Masters titles, five UK Championship titles, the 1987 World Doubles Championship, his 18 Triple Crown tournament wins is surpassed only by O'Sullivan's 19. One of only three players to have won all three Triple Crown events in a single season, Hendry is the only player to have achieved the feat twice, in the 1989/1990 and 1995/1996 seasons.
A prolific break builder, he recorded the second-highest total of career century breaks. He made 11 recognised maximum breaks in professional competition, second only to O'Sullivan's 15, he was awarded an MBE in 1994, voted BBC Scotland's Sports Personality of the Year in 1987 and 1996. In May 2012, after featuring in his 27th consecutive World Championship, he announced his retirement from the game, bringing to an end his record 23 consecutive seasons in the top 16 of the world rankings. Hendry started playing snooker in 1981, aged 12, when his father, bought him a child-sized snooker table as a Christmas present. Two years he won the Scottish U-16 Championship, he appeared on BBC's Junior version of Pot Black. The following year he won the Scottish Amateur Championship and became the youngest entrant in the World Amateur Championship. In 1985, after retaining the Scottish Amateur Championship, he turned professional. At 16 years and three months old he was the youngest professional. Hendry was managed by entrepreneur Ian Doyle.
In his first season, he reached the last 32 in the Classic and was the youngest Scottish Professional champion, winning the 1986 edition. He became the youngest player to qualify for the World Championship, a record he held until 2012 when Luca Brecel qualified at the age of 17 years and one month, he lost 8–10 to Willie Thorne who applauded him out of the arena. In the next season he retained the Scottish Professional Championship title and reached the quarter-finals of both the Grand Prix and World Championship, losing 12–13 to defending champion Joe Johnson, the semi-finals of the Classic. Hendry and Mike Hallett combined to win that year's World Doubles Championship. In the 1987/1988 season, Hendry won his first world ranking titles, the Grand Prix, beating Dennis Taylor 10–7 in the final, the 1988 British Open, he claimed three other tournament victories, retaining both the Scottish Professional Championship and the World Doubles Championship, the Australian Masters. By the end of that season he was ranked world no. 4 and was voted the BBC Scotland Sports Personality of the Year.
No ranking titles came his way the following season, although he did win the New Zealand Masters and his first Masters at Wembley. The 1989/1990 season saw the beginning of Hendry's period of dominance; that year, he won the UK Championship, Dubai Classic, Asian Open, Scottish Masters, The Masters and his first World Championship, beating Jimmy White 18–12 in the final, elevating him to the summit of the world rankings at the age of 21. The following season, he set a record of five world ranking titles in one season and recorded a hat-trick of Masters, beating Mike Hallett 9–8 after coming back from 0–7 and 2–8 behind in the final. However, Hendry failed losing to Steve James in the quarter-finals. In the 1991/1992 season, Hendry regained the World title, winning 10 frames in a row to come from 8–14 down to defeat White 18–14, adding to the victories in both the Grand Prix and the Welsh Open, he won the Masters and achieved his first competitive 147 break, in the Matchroom League. A year he retained both his World Championship title and a fifth consecutive Masters crown.
The following season, he retained the World Championship, narrowly beating Jimmy White 18–17 in the final. In 1997, Stephen Hendry played Ronnie O'Sullivan in the Liverpool Victoria Charity Challenge final; the match was best of 17 frames. Hendry raced into a 6–1 and 8–2 lead with breaks of 110, 129 and 136, whereas O'Sullivan made a break of 106 in one of the two frames he won. O'Sullivan won the next 6 frames to level the match at 8–8. In the deciding frame, Hendry potted a long red to land himself on the black. Hendry went on to make a 147 maximum break, to win the match 9–8. In 1994/1995, after being awarded an MBE, he won three ranking events, including the World and UK Championships, both of which he would retain the following year. In the 1994 UK final, Hendry defeated Ken Doherty 10 -- 5; this performance has been described by snooker journalist David Hendon as "possibly the best anybody has played". His run of successes continued in 1995/1996 with three titles, including the World Championship, where an 18–12 victory in the final against Peter Ebdon saw him equal the achievement of Ray Reardon and Steve Davis by notching up a sixth World crown.
In 1997, he won BBC Scotland Sports Personality of the Year award for a second time and added another three ranking titles to his collection, although Ken Doherty denied him a sixth consecutive World crown by defeating him 18–12 in the final. Hendry's dominant position in snooker a