The Anaheim Ducks are a professional ice hockey team based in Anaheim, California. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League. Since their inception, the Ducks have played their home games at the Honda Center; the club was founded in 1993 by The Walt Disney Company as the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, a name based on the 1992 film The Mighty Ducks. Disney sold the franchise in 2005 to Henry and Susan Samueli, who along with then-general manager Brian Burke changed the name of the team to the Anaheim Ducks before the 2006–07 season; the Ducks have made the playoffs 14 times and won six Pacific Division titles, two Western Conference championships and one Stanley Cup. The Mighty Ducks of Anaheim were founded in 1993 by The Walt Disney Company; the franchise was awarded by the NHL in December 1992, along with the rights to a Miami team that would become the Florida Panthers. An entrance fee of $50 million was required, half of which Disney would pay directly to the Los Angeles Kings in order to "share" Southern California.
On March 1, 1993, at the brand-new Anaheim Arena – located a short distance east of Disneyland and across the Orange Freeway from Angel Stadium – the team got its name, inspired by the 1992 Disney movie The Mighty Ducks, based on a group of misfit kids who turn their losing youth hockey team into a winning team. Philadelphia-arena management specialist Tony Tavares was chosen to be team president, Jack Ferreira, who helped create the San Jose Sharks, became the Ducks' general manager; the Ducks selected Ron Wilson to be the first head coach in team history. The Ducks and the expansion Florida Panthers team filled out their rosters in the 1993 NHL Expansion Draft and the 1993 NHL Entry Draft. In the former, a focus on defense led to goaltenders Guy Hebert and Glenn Healy being the first picks, followed by Alexei Kasatonov and Steven King. In the latter, the Ducks selected as the fourth overall pick Paul Kariya, who only began play in 1994 but would turn out to be the face of the franchise for many years.
The resulting roster had the lowest payroll of the NHL at only $7.9 million. Led by captain Troy Loney, the Ducks' finished the season 33–46–5, a record-breaking number of wins for an expansion team, which the Florida Panthers achieved; the Ducks sold out 27 of 41 home games, including the last 25, filled the Arrowhead Pond to 98.9% of its season capacity. Ducks licensed merchandise shot to number one in sales among NHL clubs, helped by their presence in Disney's theme parks and Disney Stores; the lockout-shortened 1994–95 NHL season saw the debut of Paul Kariya, who would play 47 of the team's 48 games that year, scoring 18 goals and 21 assists for 39 points. The Ducks had another respectable season, going 16–27–5. 1995–96 would mark a big change for the team for second-year superstar Paul Kariya. During the season, he was chosen to play for the Western Conference in the 1996 NHL All-Star Game as the lone Ducks representative. At the time of his selection, Kariya was ranked 14th in league scoring with 51 points over 42 games, although the Ducks were overall a low-scoring team.
A mid-season blockbuster deal with the Winnipeg Jets improved the franchise. The Ducks sent Chad Kilger, Oleg Tverdovsky and a third-round pick to the Jets in return for Marc Chouinard, a fourth-round draft pick and right winger Teemu Selanne. Following the trade, Ducks center Steve Rucchin commented, "Paul had a lot of pressure on him... He singlehandedly won some games for us this year... Now that we have Teemu, there's no way everybody can just key on Paul." These three players formed one of the most potent lines of their time. Although the trade proved to be an important effort in the team, they still finished short of the playoffs, losing the eight spot in the Western Conference to the Winnipeg Jets based on the number of wins. During the 1996–97 season, Kariya became team captain following Randy Ladouceur's retirement in the off-season, led the Ducks to their first post-season appearance after recording the franchise's first winning record of 36–33–13, good enough for home ice in the first round as the fourth seed against the Phoenix Coyotes.
The Ducks trailed 3–2 going into Phoenix for Game 6. Kariya scored in overtime to force the franchise's first Game 7. However, in the second round, they lost to the eventual Stanley Cup champions the Detroit Red Wings in a four-game sweep. After the season, Ron Wilson was fired after saying. Pierre Page succeeded him; the Ducks started out in 1997–98, in part because Kariya missed the first 32 games of the season in a contract dispute. He came back in December, but on February 1, he suffered a season-ending concussion when the Chicago Blackhawks' Gary Suter cross-checked him in the face. With Kariya playing only a total of 22 games that season, the Ducks missed the playoffs and fired Page; the Ducks followed that season up by finishing sixth in the Western Conference in 1998–99 with new head coach Craig Hartsburg. However, they were swept by Detroit again, this time in the first round. In the 1999–2000 season, the Ducks finished with the same amount of points as the previous season, but a much more competitive Western Conference had them miss the playoffs by four points behind rival San Jose Sharks.
Despite this, the Mighty Ducks scored more goals than the conference champion Dallas Stars. In the following season, 2000–01, the Ducks ended up performing worse, as Paul Kariya and Teemu Selanne's point production declined from the previous season – Kariya went from 86 points to 67 points and Selanne went fr
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
The ECHL is a mid-level professional ice hockey league based in Princeton, New Jersey, with teams scattered across the United States and two franchises in Canada. It is a tier below the American Hockey League; the ECHL and the AHL are the only minor leagues recognized by the collective bargaining agreement between the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, meaning any player signed to an entry-level NHL contract and designated for assignment must report to a club in either the ECHL or the AHL. Additionally, the league's players are represented by the Professional Hockey Players' Association in negotiations with the ECHL itself; some 623 players have played at least one game in both the NHL and the ECHL. For the 2018–19 season, 25 of 31 National Hockey League teams have affiliations with an ECHL team with the Anaheim Ducks, Columbus Blue Jackets, Florida Panthers, Montreal Canadiens, Nashville Predators, San Jose Sharks having no official affiliations as of September 29, 2018.
The two independent teams are Rapid City Rush. However, unaffiliated NHL teams do sometimes lend contracted players to ECHL teams for development and increased playing time; the league's regular season ends in April. The current ECHL champion is the Colorado Eagles, although the organization has since left the league to join the American Hockey League; the league, which combined teams from the defunct Atlantic Coast Hockey League and All-American Hockey League, began play as the East Coast Hockey League in 1988 with 5 teams—the Carolina Thunderbirds. In 2003, the West Coast Hockey League ceased operations, the ECHL Board of Governors approved membership applications from the Anchorage/Alaska Aces, the Bakersfield Condors, the Fresno Falcons, the Idaho Steelheads, the Las Vegas Wranglers, the Long Beach Ice Dogs and the San Diego Gulls as well as from potential teams in Ontario and Reno, Nevada. Alaska, Fresno, Las Vegas, Long Beach and San Diego began play in the 2003–04 season as expansion teams.
In a change reflective of the league's now-nationwide presence, the East Coast Hockey League shortened its name to the orphan initialism ECHL on May 19, 2003. The ECHL reached its largest size to date that season before being reduced to 28 teams for the 2004–05 season; the ECHL has attempted to be more tech-friendly to its fans. Some improvements on the league's website have included a new schedule and statistics engine powered by League Stat, Inc. internet radio coverage for most teams, pay-per view broadcasting of ECHL games through B2 Networks. In 2008, the league introduced the ECHL toolbar for internet browsers which gave users short cut access to statistics, scores and news updates. At the annual ECHL Board of Governors Meeting on June 15, 2010, in Henderson, the Board of Governors approved changes to the names of the conferences and divisions; the former American Conference was renamed the Eastern Conference, while the National Conference was re-designated the Western Conference. Within the Eastern Conference, the East Division was renamed the Atlantic Division, the Western Conference's former West Division was dubbed the Mountain Division.
The league lost its only Canadian team with the folding of the Victoria Salmon Kings subsequent to the 2010–11 season. The league increased to 20 teams for the 2011–12 season with the addition of the expansion franchise Chicago Express and the Colorado Eagles who played in the Central Hockey League. With the folding of the Chicago Express at the conclusion of the 2011–12 season and the announcement of expansion franchises in Orlando, San Francisco and Fort Wayne the league played the 2012–13 season with 23 teams; that number dropped to 22 for the 2013–14 season with the folding of the Trenton Titans and subsequently fell to 21 with the mid-season folding of the San Francisco Bulls on January 27, 2014. On November 26, 2013, the ECHL announced that the Indy Fuel would begin play for the 2014–15 season and would play its home games at the Fairgrounds Coliseum, a 6,145-seat building located on the Indiana State Fairgrounds in Indianapolis. On October 7, 2014, the ECHL announced that the seven remaining active members of the Central Hockey League would be admitted as new members for the 2014–15 season, raising the number of teams to 28 and placing a team in Canada for the first time since 2011.
Before the 2015–16 season, the AHL's creation of a Pacific Division led the three California ECHL teams to relocate to former AHL cities with the Bakersfield Condors, Ontario Reign, Stockton Thunder relocating to become the Norfolk Admirals, Manchester Monarchs, Adirondack Thunder, respectively. By the 2018–19 season, the ECHL had expanded into other markets vacated by the AHL in the Maine Mariners, Newfoundland Growlers, Worcester Railers. Notes Representatives from all potential expansion franchises, markets that have been granted expansion franchises and franchises that have suspended operations must attend th
Winchester is a small suburban town located 8.2 miles north of downtown Boston, United States in Middlesex County. It is the 7th wealthiest municipality in Massachusetts and functions as a bedroom community for professionals who work in the greater Boston area; the population was 21,374 at the 2010 United States Census. The land on which Winchester now sits was purchased from Native Americans by representatives of the settlement of Charlestown in 1639, the area was first settled by Europeans in 1640. In the early years of the settlement, the area was known informally as Waterfield, a reference to its many ponds and to the river which bisected the central village. In its second century, the area was referred to as Black Horse Village, after the busy tavern and hostelry in its center; until the middle of the 19th century, parts of Arlington, Medford and Woburn comprised what is now Winchester. The movement toward incorporation of what, by this time, was called South Woburn was precipitated by the rise of the Whig Party in Massachusetts.
The Whigs sought to split a new jurisdiction away from Democratic Woburn and found enough supporters in the burgeoning village to organize a movement toward incorporation. Representatives of the planned new town selected the name Winchester in recognition of Colonel William P. Winchester of nearby Watertown, who pledged $3,000 toward the construction of the first town hall. Upon the signature of Governor Briggs, the town of Winchester was incorporated on April 30, 1850. Colonel Winchester did not live to visit the town, he succumbed to typhoid fever within months of its incorporation. The town's early growth paralleled improvements in transportation. Prior to incorporation, the Middlesex Canal, linking the Merrimack River to Boston, was completed through Waterfield, it flourished from 1803–36, until the Boston and Lowell Railroad completed a line which neatly bisected the town and provided it with two stations. Able to deliver passengers as well as goods, the railroad soon bankrupted the canal and spurred more people to move to the area.
The first church was built in 1840, the Post Office followed in 1841, soon after incorporation town schools were started. Industries small and large followed, including the Beggs and Cobb tannery and the Winn Watch Hand factory which would operate well into the 20th century. By the time of the Civil War, to which Winchester lent many citizens, the need for a municipal water supply became apparent. Engineers convinced a skeptical public to fund a dam in the highlands to the east of town; the structure blocked the creek which flowed from the Middlesex Fells and produced the first of three reservoirs which continue to provide clear water today. In the early 20th century, growth continued apace as Winchester evolved from its agri-industrial roots into the bedroom community it is today. A rich mix of immigrants complemented Winchester's Yankee forebears; the constant in these times of change and up to the present day has been the public spirited efforts of all to continue to maintain the innate physical charm of the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 6.3 square miles, of which 6.0 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. The total area is 3.97% water. The town is bisected by a central valley, the remnant of the original course of the Merrimack River. After glacial debris rerouted the Merrimack north to its current location, all that remained of its original course through present day Winchester is the Aberjona River and the several ponds it feeds en route to the Mystic Lakes on Winchester's southern border. On its eastern third, the valley rises steeply into the wooded hills of the Middlesex Fells Reservation, in which lie the North and South Reservoirs; the western edge of the valley yields to Arlington and Lexington heights, the boundaries with those two towns. To the north, the town's longest border is shared with Woburn. Winchester has several major bodies of water, including the Mystic Lakes, Wedge Pond, Winter Pond, the Aberjona River, as well as several minor bodies of water such as Sucker Brook and Sachem Swamp.
Winchester borders the towns of Woburn, Medford and Lexington. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,382 people, 7,647 households, 5,785 families residing in the town; the population density was 3,394.6 people per square mile. There were 7,988 housing units at an average density of 1,267.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.1% White, 9.3% Asian, 1.0% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 7,647 households, of which 40.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.3% were non-families. 21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.26. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18 and 16.2% over the age of 65.
The median age was 42.7 years. The population was 47.7 % male. According to a 2008 estimate, the median income for a hou
Penalty (ice hockey)
A penalty in ice hockey is a punishment for an infringement of the rules. Most penalties are enforced by sending the offending player to a penalty box for a set number of minutes. During the penalty the player may not participate in play. Penalties are enforced by the referee, or in some cases, the linesman; the offending team may not replace the player on the ice, leaving them short-handed as opposed to full strength. When the opposing team is said to be on a power play, they will have one more player on the ice than the short-handed team; the short-handed team is said to be "on the penalty kill" until the penalty expires and the penalized player returns to play. While standards vary somewhat between leagues, most leagues recognize several common varieties of penalties, as well as common infractions; the statistic used to track penalties was traditionally called "Penalty Infraction Minutes", although the alternate term "penalty minutes" has become common in recent years. It represents the total assessed length of penalties each team has accrued.
The first codified rules of hockey, known as the Halifax Rules, were brought to Montreal by James Creighton, who organized the first indoor hockey game in 1875. Two years the Montreal Gazette documented the first set of "Montreal Rules", which noted that "charging from behind, collaring, kicking or shinning the ball shall not be allowed"; the only penalty outlined by these rules was that play would be stopped, a "bully" would take place. Revised rules in 1886 mandated that any player in violation of these rules would be given two warnings, but on a third offence would be removed from the game, it was not until 1904. At that time, a referee could assess a two-, three- or five-minute penalty, depending on the severity of the foul. By 1914, all penalties were five minutes in length, reduced to three minutes two years and the offending player was given an additional fine; when the National Hockey League was founded in 1917, it mandated that a team could not substitute for any player, assessed a penalty, thus requiring them to play shorthanded for the duration.
The penalty was shortened to two minutes for the 1921–22 season, while five- and ten-minute penalties were added two years later. Both the NHL and the International Ice Hockey Federation recognize the common penalty degrees of minor and major penalties, as well as the more severe misconduct, game misconduct, match penalties. A minor penalty is the least severe type of penalty. A minor penalty is two minutes in length; the offending player is sent to the penalty box and in most cases, his team will play shorthanded. If the offending player is the goaltender or a team is given a "bench minor" penalty any skater, on the ice at the time of the infraction may serve the penalty. In rare cases, when the offending player suffers an injury on the same play, whoever is on the ice at the time of the penalty may serve the penalty, as was the case of Game 2 of the Pittsburgh Penguins-Washington Capitals during the 2017 Stanley Cup playoffs, when Phil Kessel served a penalty in place of Tom Kuhnhackl. A team with a numerical advantage in players will go on a power play.
If they score a goal during this time, the penalty will end and the offending player may return to the ice. In hockey's formative years, teams were shorthanded for the entire length of a minor penalty; the NHL changed this rule following the 1955–56 season where the Montreal Canadiens scored multiple goals on one power play. Most famous was a game on November 5, 1955, when Jean Béliveau scored three goals in 44 seconds, all on the same power play, in a 4–2 victory over the Boston Bruins. Coincidental minor penalties occur when an equal number of players from each team are given a minor penalty at the same time; the permission of a substitute player depends on the league and the situation at the time of the infractions. In some leagues, such as the NHL, the teams will play four-on-four for the duration of the penalties if they occurred when both teams were at strength. However, if there is a manpower differential both teams are allowed to make substitutions while the penalized players will remain in the penalty box until the first stoppage in play after their penalty expires.
In other competitions, such as IIHF events, coincidental penalties do not affect manpower in any situation. Coincidental minor penalties are not ended. In some cases, a referee can impose a triple minor; the infraction is counted as three separate minor penalties. If a team scores a power play goal during such a penalty, only the current block of two minutes being counted down is canceled. Expiration rules of double- or triple-minor penalties due to goals being scored are identical to that of regular minor penalties being served back-to-back. A major penalty is a stronger degree of penalty for a more severe infraction of the rules than a minor. Most infractions which incur a major penalty are more severe instances of minor penalty infractions. A player who receives a major penalty will remain off the ice for five minutes of play during which his team will be short-handed. A major penalty cannot end early if a goal is scored against the short-handed team, unless the goal is scored during an overtime period.
If major penalties are assessed to one player on each team at
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
The Iserlohn Roosters are a professional ice hockey team based in Iserlohn, North Rhine-Westphalia. They are members of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga since 2000 and play their home games at the Eissporthalle Iserlohn, known as Eissporthalle am Seilersee; the team made the playoffs three times in its first 15 seasons in the DEL. The Roosters are regarded for their fans and having one of the best atmospheres at home games in Europe despite having an arena capacity for just 4967 spectators; the club caused much controversy in 1987 when, under Heinz Weifenbach, a US$900,000 advertising deal was signed for former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's The Green Book. The book is acknowledged as having been inspired by Mao Zedong's The Little Red Book; the history of ice hockey in Iserlohn began in the neighbouring town of Hemer. Canadian soldiers were deployed to a district of Hemer called Deilinghofen, they came to the town after the end of the Korean War in 1953 and soon built an arena – first without a roof.
The teenagers in Deilinghofen were interested in this strange kind of sport and wanted to play it, too. They played on streets or frozen ponds, were allowed to play in the arena in 1957 for the first time. Recognizing the joy of the teenagers, the Canadians found some coaches, with Charles McCuaig becoming a regular trainer. After a long period of preparation, the first game against a Canadian youth team from Soest was on 8 March 1958 in front of 120 people. Deilinghofen played well, but lost 2–6; the equipment was borrowed from the soldiers. After that game, matches were more regular and attracted more fans, so a roof was built on the arena in 1958. On 28 February 1959 EC Deilinghofen was founded. In 1959 a team from Deilinghofen reached second place. A year they took part in the German championship and finished fifth. In the second season, 1960–61, they came in first in North Rhine-Westphalia and were the second best team in the country. Between 1962 and 1964, they were champions of the north of Germany, but they lost the playoffs against the champions of the south.
As a result, they missed promotion, although they were promoted. In 1971 the Canadian soldiers were sent home, the incoming British soldiers were not interested in ice hockey; the team had to search for a new home. Local politicians wanted to have an arena in Iserlohn. With the agreement of Iserlohn's town council, the Eissporthalle am Seilersee was built. In the 1976–77 season, Deilinghofen finished two places behind Kaufbeuren in the new Zweite Bundesliga. However, Kaufbeuren waived their right to promotion, Deilinghofen received the chance to play in Germany's top hockey league for the first time. In 1980 the club was renamed ECD Iserlohn because of its long history being based there. In the following season, the team was relegated for the first time in its history. Two years it moved back up again; the following years were the most successful seasons in the club's history. In 1986 ECD reached the semi-finals in the playoffs with stars like Jaroslav Pouzar and Martti Jarkko. Due to the added expenses created by the addition of these star players, the team president, Heinz Weifenbach, looked for financial help in Libya, where Muammar al-Gaddafi agreed to pay if the team advertised his "Green Book".
On 4 December 1987 they came to an agreement. However, due to negative attention, ECD scrapped that plan a few days later; the next season, ECD Sauerland was founded. They started playing in the Oberliga; the club had the same significant financial problems as its predecessors. The 1991–92 season was a catastrophe, so the fans were afraid that the team would not receive a license to continue operating. ECD obtained a license, but went bankrupt a few days after the end of the 1993–94 season. One day on 9 April 1994, the ECD Sauerland Iserlohn Penguins were founded, but the peewee players didn't contract in, so the club's history was short-lived. Iserlohner EC was founded on 20 April in the same year; the new committee wanted to avoid financial difficulties. After one season, the team moved up to the second-tier league; the following two years were more difficult, but new players during this time helped revived the club. In 1997 a new coach, Greg Poss, came to Iserlohn. After three successful years, the club moved up again after purchasing the operating license of Starbulls Rosenheim.
40 years after the foundation of the original team, the arena in Deilinghofen was torn down in 1999, despite protests from many people in Deilinghofen. Iserlohner EC adopted the name Iserlohn Roosters. A GmbH, which serves to administer the finances and the business organisation, was created for the professional team; the GmbH was named the Iserlohn Roosters GmbH. All junior teams were still under the control of the IEC; the Roosters continually had the lowest budget of all DEL teams, the media referred to them as an underdog team. In their first two seasons, the Roosters placed 12th. In the 2002–03 season, the team again missed the playoffs by falling just two points short though they beat the German champion of the year, the Krefeld Pinguine, 8–1 on the last day of the season. Before the next season, Poss went on to coach the Nürnberg Ice Tigers. Iserlohn named Dave Whistle as new coach. During the lockout season in 2004–05, Mike York and John-Michael Liles came to Iserlohn and helped the team reach 11th place despite still having the smallest budget in the league.
York signed with Iserlohn after his old college friend Bryan Adams, the captain of the Roosters, talked to him. Brian Gionta signed, but left without