Royal Malaysia Police
The Royal Malaysia Police, is a uniformed federal police force in Malaysia. The force is a centralised organisation, its headquarters are located at Kuala Lumpur. The police force is led by an Inspector-General of Police who, as of September 2017, is Tan Sri Dato' Sri Mohamad Fuzi Harun; the constitution, employment, funding, discipline and powers of the police force are specified and governed by the Police Act 1967. In carrying out its responsibilities, the regular RMP is assisted by a support group of Extra Police Constables, Police Volunteer Reserves, Auxiliary Police, Police Cadets and a civilian service element; the RMP co-operates with police forces worldwide, including from those six neighbouring countries Malaysia shares a border with: Indonesian National Police, Philippine National Police, Royal Brunei Police Force, Royal Thai Police, Singapore Police Force and Vietnam People's Public Security. A police force has been in existence in Malaysia since the days of the Malacca Sultanate. Malacca's canonical law created what was a police force in Malaysia in the fifteenth century, through the institution of the Temenggung and Hulubalang, or royal warriors.
During the Sultan of Malacca's absence, the Bendahara, or Prime Minister, held absolute authority, with the power to hand out sentences, but it was the Temenggung who acted as the Police Chief or Inspector General of Police. His tasks were to build jails and implement sentences. Apart from the Temenggung, there were a number of Penghulu or village chiefs who had the duty of detroy their respective villages, their main tasks included law enforcement and preserving village security. These Malacca police systems ended when, on 10 August 1511, a Portuguese fleet led by Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca for the Portuguese crown. Police duties were largely performed by the Portuguese soldiers. During the sixteenth century, Malaysia became a cosmopolitan society and the Portuguese government introduced the Kapitan administration. On 14 January 1641, the Portuguese lost Malacca to the Dutch Empire, when the Dutch invaded with the help of soldiers from Johor state, at a time when the Portuguese were at war with the Sultanate of Acheh.
The Dutch retained the Kapitan system, but when the growing number of Europeans in Malaysia made change necessary, a police force known as the'Burgher Guard' was established. The Burgher Guard was controlled by the Dutch, but their subordinates were made up of the local citizens. Village leaders continued to assume the duties of policemen under Dutch rule, as they had since before the Portuguese arrived. Following the assimilation of Malacca into the British Empire in 1795, a modern police organisation in Malaysia was formed, on 25 March 1807, after the Charter of Justice in Penang was granted. Most of the officers were of British origin; this organisation was developed in the Straits Settlements and other Malay states the Federated Malay States. At that time, independent police forces were established for each respective state. Only after World War II was a central police organisation formed, known as the Civil Affairs Police Force; this organisation was formed in Malaya and led by a British colonial, H.
B. Longworthy, who had to stabilise the police forces after the anarchy of Japanese occupation. One of the immediate problems faced by the police at this time was the rebellion of the communist party. During the confrontation between Malaysia and Indonesia, which lasted from 1963 to 1965, the police force, along with military forces, fought against the infiltration of Indonesian forces into the states of Johor and Sabah. A year after Independence Day, on 24 July 1958, the King of Malaysia, Tuanku Abdul Rahman Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhamad, bestowed the title Royal to the Malayan Federations Police Force. In 1963, the Royal Federation of Malayan Police, the North Borneo Armed Constabulary and the Sarawak Constabulary were merged to form the Royal Malaysia Police; the Singapore Police Force became a component unit of the RMP until Singapore's independence in 1965. The flag and insignia of the Royal Malaysia Police has a blue coloured background which symbolises the Malaysian masses. In the centre of the flag is the PDRM symbol coloured silver or white.
The police symbol is made up of an intersected Ilang / Klewang machete. Above the PDRM symbol, there is a tiger head in a garland of Paddy flowers, with a scroll underneath bearing the name Polis Diraja Malaysia. Arabic lettering in the Crown includes the words Allah on Muhammad on the left; the Moon and Star symbolise Islam as the official religion of Malaysia. The crown, depicted on the Royal Malaysia Police insignia, is a panegyric reference to the King of Malaysia, bestowing the "Royal" title to its name; the words Allah and Muhammad in Arabic, which symbolise Allah the Almighty and Muhammad as the Messenger, signifies Islam as the official religion and faith of RMP personnel, who are willing to uphold justice and the security of the people of Malaysia. The Kris is an important symbol of the Malay Peninsular; this particular weapon was used by Malay warriors in the past. According to Frey, who concluded from Sir Stamford Raffles' study of the Candi Sukuh, the kris came into existence around AD 1361.
Others believe. In the temples of Borobudur and Prambanan, renderings of the Kris have been found; the traditional machete, Ilang or Klewang symbolises the states of Sarawak and Sabah in East Malaysia and it represents the spirit of heroism of a multitude of ethnic tribes
Selangor known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west. Selangor surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, both of which were part of it; the state capital of Selangor is Shah Alam and its royal capital is Klang. Petaling Jaya, was awarded city status in 2006. Selangor is one of three Malaysian states; the state of Selangor has the largest economy in Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product, with RM 239.968 billion in 2015, comprising 22.6% of the country's GDP. It is the most developed state in Malaysia; the origin of the name Selangor is uncertain. A common suggestion is that the name refers to the Malay word langau, a large fly or blowfly, found in the marshes along the Selangor River in the state's north-west. According to local lore, a warrior who escaped from Malacca after the Portuguese conquest, took a break from his journey north and rested under a tree here.
However, he was disturbed by whereupon he decided to explore the area. When he found the place to be his liking and chose to settle there, he named the place "satu langau" meaning "a large blowfly". Another suggestion is that the name may have originate from a kind of tree found in Kuala Selangor and along Selangor River named mentangau. In the absence of a firm etymological explanation, alternative theories abound. One theory claims the state's name is derived from the term Salang Ur where ur means "town" or "village" in Tamil, meaning village of the salang people, it has been proposed that the name is derived from a combination of salang and jemur, indicating that it was once a place where traitors were stabbed left to roast in the sun. Tho most important settlement of the area in the ancient period may have been Klang. Ancient artefacts including Bronze Age axes and bronze bell dating from the 2nd century BC, iron tools called "tulang mawas" have been found in or near Klang; the Mao Kun map dating to the Ming dynasty and used by the Admiral Zheng He during his voyages of expedition between 1405 and 1433 refers to places in Selangor such as the Klang River estuary and a hilly area.
The Malay Annals indicates that the Selangor area was under the control of the Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. According to the Malay Annals, Tun Perak was appointed the chief of Klang during the reign of Muzaffar Shah; the son of Mansur Shah and Hang Li Po named Paduka Sri Cina was made raja of Jeram near Langat, which may be due to the presence of Chinese miners there. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, the area came under the control of Johor Sultanate and was governed by Sri Agar Diraja, son of the Bendahara family of Johor. In the 17th century, Johor was involved in a war against Jambi, the Sultan of Johor engaged the help of Bugis mercenaries from Sulawesi to fight against Jambi. After Johor won in 1679, the Bugis started to gain power in the region. Many Bugis settled along the coast of Selangor and some inland regions. In some places, the Bugis displaced the Minangkabaus; the Bugis and the Minangkabaus from Sumatra struggled for control of Johor. In order to establish a power base, the Bugis led by Raja Salehuddin founded the present hereditary Selangor Sultanate with its capital at Kuala Selangor in 1766.
Selangor is unique as the only state on the Malay Peninsula, founded by the Bugis. In the 19th century, the economy of Selangor boomed due to the exploitation of its tin reserves. In 1854, the Sultan of Selangor granted Raja Abdullah control of Klang, passing over Raja Mahdi, the son of the chief who ruled Klang, leading to the Selangor Civil War of 1867 to 1874, a struggle for control of the revenues from tin. Tin mining attracted a large influx of Chinese migrant labourers. Chinese clans allied; the conflicts between Malay and Chinese factions in Perak and Selangor, as well as concerns over piracy that affected coastal trade, led to increasing British involvement in the affairs of the Malay states. In 1874, Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor accepted a British Resident in a system that allowed the British to govern while the Sultan remained the apparent ruler. Klang was the capital of the British colonial administration for Selangor from 1875 until 1880 when it was moved to Kuala Lumpur. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered.
In 1896 through the coordination of the Resident Frank Swettenham, Selangor united with Negeri Sembilan and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States, with Kuala Lumpur its capital. The Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became independent in 1957 and was renamed Malaysia in 1963; the city of Kuala Lumpur functioned as the national capital of Malaysia and as the state capital of Selangor. In 1974, Selangor
Keretapi Tanah Melayu
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad or Malayan Railways Limited is the main rail operator in Peninsular Malaysia. The railway system dates back to the British colonial era. Known as the Federated Malay States Railways and the Malayan Railway Administration, Keretapi Tanah Melayu acquired its current name in 1962; the organisation remains wholly owned by the Malaysian government. The 1,000 mm gauge railway network in Peninsular Malaysia, controlled by KTMB consists of two main lines and several branch lines. Most of the lines are made out of ballasted system and locally made concrete sleepers, which had replaced wooden sleepers as early as 1982 for the Kerdau-Jerantut and Sungai Yu-Tumpat lines; the West Coast Line runs from Padang Besar railway station close to the Malaysia-Thailand Border in Perlis to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore. It is called the West Coast line; the train runs through most of the major stations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, such as KL Sentral in Kuala Lumpur and Butterworth railway station in Butterworth, Penang.
The East Coast Line runs between Gemas railway station, in Negeri Sembilan and Tumpat railway station, in Kelantan. Gemas is the rail junction between the West Coast line and the line itself. Like the West Coast Line, it is called the East Coast Line because it serves two of Peninsular Malaysia's East Coast states, namely Pahang and Kelantan. In fact, it does not run along the coast at all and only meets the South China Sea when it terminates at Tumpat railway station, it runs through the interior through deep jungle, thus earning the nickname Jungle Railway. Terengganu is the only state in Peninsular Malaysia not served by the KTM railway network, though it will be so in the upcoming ECRL project. There are several branch lines running from the two main lines. Bukit Mertajam - Butterworth Port Klang - Kuala Lumpur - Batu Caves Padang Besar - Butterworth Padang Rengas-Bukit Mertajam Butterworth-Gurun Port Klang - Pulau Indah Kempas - Tanjung Pelepas Kempas - Pasir Gudang Butterworth - North Butterworth Container Terminal Pasir Mas - Rantau Panjang - Hat Yai Seremban - Port Dickson Falim - Tronoh Kuang - Batu Arang - Batang Berjuntai Tampin - Melaka Town Taiping - Port Weld Bukit Kuda - Jeram - Kuala Selangor Bahau - Kuala Pilah Tapah Road - Teluk Intan - Teluk Intan Wharf Salak Selatan - Ampang Junction - Sultan Street Ampang Junction - Ampang Singapore, Woodlands Train Checkpoint - Bukit Timah - Tanjong Pagar The total length of the network was 1,699 km, however due to the closure and subsequent removal of the section of tracks between Tanjong Pagar railway station and Woodlands Train Checkpoint, the new total length of the network is 1,677 km.
The West Coast main line is double tracked and electrified to 25 kV AC between Padang Besar railway station on the Malaysian-Thai border and Butterworth railway station, south-wards to the Gemas railway station. The branch lines between Batu Junction and Batu Caves Komuter station, between Port Klang Junction and the Port Klang Komuter station are double-tracked and electrified; the remainder of the West Coast main line from Gemas railway station to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore, as well as the entire East Coast Line from Gemas railway station to Tumpat railway station, is on single track and not electrified. Following the consolidation of all state railway entities in Malaya, Malayan Railway inherited a fleet of British-made steam locomotives, a variation of locomotives introduced to Malaya since its first railway line went into operation. Dieselisation in Malaya began after MR's formation with the launch of its first diesel engine, a Class 15 shunter, in 1948. Efforts by MR to convert to diesel power between the 1950s and 1970s drove steam locomotives out of service - with whatever left of the fleet massively retired in 1972.
KTM drew its diesel rolling stock from a multitude of locomotive companies from England, Japan and more India and China. The company had ventured in the use of DMUs. Electric trains were only introduced in 1995 with the launch of the KTM Komuter commuter service. Consisting of three models of 3-car EMUs, the Komuter EMUs, were for a long time the only electric trains in Malaysia. In 2010, introduction of the KTM ETS services from Kuala Lumpur to Ipoh brought electric traction to long distance travel; as of present, most of the West Coast Main Line are run by ETS and on some sections, Komuter services except for the Gemas to Johor Bahru section, where double tracking works are still in the process. The following is a list of locomotives in the KTM fleet - some have since been retired: Diesel locomotives 20 Class 15 diesel-electric shunters, manufactured by English Electric's Vulcan Foundry in Lancashire, United Kingdom. Brought in 1948 15 Class 17 diesel-hydraulic shunters, manufactured by K
Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia
The Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia, popularly known as Bomba, is the federal fire and rescue services agency in Malaysia. The Malay term ` Bomba' is derived from the Portuguese word bombeiros; the fire and rescue services in Malaysia started in 1883 with the establishment of the Selangor state fire and rescue volunteers squad headed by H. F. Bellamy with 15 crews. In 1946 after the World War II, the Malayan Union Fire Services was formed with Flight Lt. W. J Gerumandi being appointed as the Director of Malayan Union Fire Services. MUS was based in Kuala Lumpur. Through the Federation of Malaya's agreement, the fire and rescue service was handed over to the state governments; the service was integrated as a federal-level department on 1 January 1976, reporting to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. On 15 May 1981, the department was renamed as the Malaysian Fire Services Department. On 8 January 1997, the Cabinet has agreed to change the logo or insignia and name of the Malaysian Fire Services Department to be known as the Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department, which are announced and launched in a ceremony held in Genting Highlands Fire and Rescue Station, Pahang on 21 February 1997, by The Honourable Malaysian Prime Minister of that time, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad-the fourth Malaysian Prime Minister.
JBPM flag divided into 2 sections. Red symbolised the high courage among the firefighters in the line of duty during fire and rescue operations for the nation. 15 yellow and blue lines mean there are rescue states department. Yellow stripes symbolise the department offers a'golden service' to customers and stakeholders in the direction of world-class service and reflects loyalty to King and country. Blue stripes symbolise the water used as a medium to extinguish fire and emphasise environmental hygiene while carrying out emergency operations Crescent and star means that the values of Islam and moral values absorbed into the culture of the department. Helmet and crossed axes means safety to the department personnel. Three grains of layered rice flower stacked nine in two circles symbolizing the nine State Monarchy, department ability to implement the Fire and Rescue Services Act 1988 and nation prosperity. Clove hitch represents the department carrying out the rescue work; the red colour symbolises high courage, while yellow symbolises the department offers a'golden service' to the community.
Section 5 & Fire and Rescue Services Act 1988 stipulates that the duties of the Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department personnel are as follows: Extinguish, fighting and controlling fires. Protect life and property in case of fire. Determining the fire exits and regulation. Carry out an investigation into the cause and circumstances of the fire. Perform humanitarian services, including protection of life and property during the occurrence of any disaster. JBPM can be other than his duties under subsection, perform any other tasks entrusted to it by law or otherwise held by the minister to implement. There are five Fire and Rescue Academy of Malaysia which is: FRAM Central Regional, Kuala Kubu Bharu, Selangor. FRAM Eastern Regional, Wakaf Tapai, Terengganu. FRAM Northern Regional,Tronoh, Perak. FRAM Sabah Regional, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. FRAM Sarawak Regional, Sarawak. FRAM offers certificate and diplomas in fire and rescue related to JBPM personnel and civilians. FRAM Band Unit is attached to FRAM Central Regional.
In 4 May 2014, Malaysian Government has re-established the Auxiliary Firefighter Force during International Firefighters' Day Celebration in Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur. The launch was officiated by the Deputy Prime Minister, Tan Sri Muhyidin Yassin. Auxiliary Firefighter was first formed in 1940, however, in 1946, they are absorbed into the regular firefighter force; the difference between Auxiliary Bomba and Bomba Volunteers is the Auxiliary Firefighters will be training by FRAM while the Firefighter Volunteers will receive their training at local state and district fire stations. Because of this, Auxiliary Firefighters are protected under Section 5 & Fire and Rescue Services Act 1988 and will receive allowances from the government. Firefighter Volunteers in other hand did not receive allowances from the government, instead they will receive allowances from the local community, they are protected by insurance paid by the Malaysian Government. In 23rd Jun 2015, Auxiliary Firefighter Force established their own elite Rescue unit.
The unit was named to MoSAR, an abbreviation for Mountain Search and Rescue Team. At the ceremony at Ranau Fire stations, 20 Mount Kinabalu's Mountain Guides whom Auxiliary Firefighters were appointed to be the first batch of MoSAR; the ceremony was officiated by the Minister of Urban Wellbeing and Local Government, Datuk Abdul Rahman Dahlan. In a big operation involving mountain, MoSAR will be part of Bomba Task Force together with JBPM Special Forces such as MUST, EMRS and STORM. Volunteer Fire and Rescue Force traces their history way back since year 1883; the modern Volunteer Fire and Rescue Force was formed in 1987 and protected under Section 62 Fire and Rescue Services Act 1988. Each Volunteer Fire and Rescue Force has their own Fire Stations and equipment; the primary role of the Volunte
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century. It consists of Hindu temples where the dominating feature is the high gopura or gatehouse. Mentioned as one of three styles of temple building in the ancient book Vastu shastra, the majority of the existing structures are located in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. Various kingdoms and empires such as the Cholas, the Chera, the Kakatiyas, the Pandyas, the Pallavas, the Gangas, the Kadambas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, Vijayanagara Empire among others have made substantial contribution to the evolution of Dravidian architecture. Throughout Tamilakam, a king was considered to be divine by nature and possessed religious significance; the king was'the representative of God on earth’ and lived in a “koyil”, which means the “residence of God”.
The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil. Titular worship was given to kings. Other words for king like “kō” “king”), “iṟai” “emperor”) and “āṇḍavar” “conqueror”) now refer to God. Tolkappiyar refers to the Three Crowned Kings as the “Three Glorified by Heaven”. In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of divine kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state and temple. Mayamata and Manasara shilpa texts estimated to be in circulation by 5th to 7th century AD, is a guidebook on Dravidian style of Vastu Shastra design, construction and joinery technique. Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another text from the 9th century describing the art of building in India in south and central India. In north India, Brihat-samhita by Varāhamihira is the cited ancient Sanskrit manual from 6th century describing the design and construction of Nagara style of Hindu temples. Traditional Dravidian architecture and symbolism are based on Agamas; the Agamas are non-vedic in origin and have been dated either as post-vedic texts or as pre-vedic compositions.
The Agamas are a collection of Tamil and Sanskrit scriptures chiefly constituting the methods of temple construction and creation of murti, worship means of deities, philosophical doctrines, meditative practices, attainment of sixfold desires and four kinds of yoga. Chola style temples consist invariably of the three following parts, arranged in differing manners, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed: The porches or Mandapas, which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell. Gate-pyramids, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples. Gopuras are common in dravidian temples. Pillared halls are the invariable accompaniments of these temples. Besides these, a South Indian temple has a tank called the Kalyani or Pushkarni – to be used for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests – dwellings for all the grades of the priesthood are attached to it, other buildings for state or convenience.
In Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architecture during different times.: From 300 BCE - 300 CE, the greatest accomplishments of the kingdoms of the early Chola and the Pandyan kingdoms included brick shrines to deities Kartikeya, Shiva and Vishnu. Several of these have been unearthed near Adichanallur, Kaveripoompuharpattinam and Mahabalipuram, the construction plans of these sites of worship were shared to some detail in various poems of Sangam literature. One such temple, the Saluvannkuppan Murukan temple, unearthed in 2005, consists of three layers; the lowest layer, consisting of a brick shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India, is the oldest shrine found dedicated to Murukan. It is one of only two brick shrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other being the Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathur dedicated to Lord Vishnu; the dynasties of early medieval Tamilakkam expanded and erected structural additions to many of these brick shrines.
Sculptures of erotic art and deities from the Meenakshi Temple, Ranganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period. The Badami Chalukyas called the Early Chalukyas, ruled from Badami, Karnataka in the period 543 – 753 CE and spawned the Vesara style called Badami Chalukya Architecture; the finest examples of their art are seen in Pattadakal and Badami in northern Karnataka. Over 150 temples remain in the Malaprabha basin; the most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, built between 450 and 700, remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka; the rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Mahakuta are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famous paintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The Persian Embassy" are attributed to them. This is the beginning of a consolidation of South Indian style; the Pallavas ruled from AD and their greatest constructed accomplishments are the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram and their capital Kanchipuram, now located in Tamil Nadu.
The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 – 690 CE and structural temples between 690 – 900 CE. The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram at Mahabalipuram, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, including the Shore Temple; this group includes both excavated pillared halls, with no external roof except the n
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci
Kapitan Cina spelt Kapitan China or Capitan China was a high-ranking government position in the civil administration of colonial Indonesia, Singapore, Borneo and in the Philippines. Office holders exercised varying degrees of power and influence: from near-sovereign political and legal jurisdiction over local Chinese communities, to ceremonial precedence for community leaders. Corresponding posts existed for other ethnic groups, such as Kapitan Arab and Kapitan Keling for the local Arab and Indian communities respectively; the origin of the office, under various different native titles, goes back to court positions in the precolonial states of Southeast Asia, such as the Sultanates of Malacca in the Malay peninsula, the Sultanate of Banten in Java, the Kingdom of Siam in mainland Southeast Asia. Many rulers assigned self-governance to local foreign communities, including the Chinese, under their own headmen; these headmen had responsibilities beyond their local communities, in particular in relation to foreign trade or tax collection.
For example, Souw Beng Kong and Lim Lak Ko, the first two Kapiteins der Chinezen of Batavia, present-day Jakarta, started off as high-ranking courtiers and functionaries to the Sultans of Banten prior to their defection to the Dutch East India Company in the early seventeenth century. The court title of Chao Praya Chodeuk Rajasrethi in Thailand under the early Chakri Dynasty combined the roles of Chinese headman and head of the Department of Eastern Affairs and Commerce. In the late nineteenth century, Kapitan Cina Yap Ah Loy, arguably the founding father of modern Kuala Lumpur, capital of Malaysia, served as Chinese headman while holding the Malay court position of Sri Indra Perkasa Wijaya Bakti; when Europeans established colonial rule in Southeast Asia, this system of'indirect rule' was adopted: first by the Portuguese when they took over Malacca in 1511 in subsequent centuries by the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, as well as the British in British Malaya and Borneo. Use of the title'Kapitan' in the civil administration has parallels in the sixteenth-century, colonial Portuguese Captaincies of Brazil.
Since a long succession of Kapitans formed an intrinsic part of colonial history in Southeast Asia. Kapitans were pivotal in consolidating European colonial rule, in facilitating large-scale Chinese migration to Southeast Asia, or'Nanyang' as the region is known in Chinese history. Instrumental to the establishment of Dutch colonialism in Indonesia were Chinese allies, such as Kapitein Souw Beng Kong and Kapitein Lim Lak Ko in early seventeenth-century Batavia and Banten. In British territories, important Chinese allies and collaborators include Koh Lay Huan, first Kapitan Cina of Penang in the late eighteenth century, yet due to their power and influence, many Kapitans were focal points of resistance against European colonial rule. For instance, in the aftermath of Batavia's Chinese Massacre of 1740, the city's Chinese headman, Kapitein Nie Hoe Kong, became an important player in the so-called Chinese War, or'Perang Cina', between the Dutch East India Company and a Chinese-Javanese alliance.
Over a century the Kapiteins of the kongsi republics in Borneo led their people in the so-called Kongsi Wars against Dutch colonial incursions from the late nineteenth until the early twentieth century. With the consolidation of colonial rule, the Kapitans became part of the civil bureaucracy in Portuguese and British colonies, they exercised both executive and judicial powers over local Chinese communities under the colonial authorities. In British territories, the position lost its importance over time becoming an honorary rank for community leaders before its final abolition in the late nineteenth or the start of the twentieth century. In contrast, the position was consolidated and further elaborated in Dutch territories, remained an important part of the Dutch colonial government until the Second World War and the end of colonialism; the institution of Kapitan Cina was most developed in colonial Indonesia, where an intricate hierarchy of Chinese officieren, or Chinese officers, was put in place by the Dutch authorities.
The officers acted as Hoofden der Chinezen, as the legal and political administrators of the local Chinese community. There were three separate ranks of Majoor and Luitenant der Chinezen depending on the incumbent's seniority in the administrative structure, the importance of their territory or their own personal merit. Thus, the post of Majoor only existed in the colony's principal cities: Batavia and Surabaya in Java, Medan in Sumatra; the Majoor in each of these jurisdictions presided over lower-ranking officers, who sat in council together as the Kong Koan of their local territory. In jurisdictions deemed less important, the presiding officer bore the rank of Kapitein or Luitenant; the officers-in-council acted as an executive governmental body, implementing the directives of the colonial government, as well as a court of law on family and customary law and petty crimes. They were seen as the colonial equivalent of governmental magistracy, in Imperial China. Below the Chinese officers were the Wijkmeesters or ward masters in charge of constituent districts within each officer's territory.
In addition, the officers had recourse to their own basic police force to enforce