A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is a subtype of gondola lift, from which containers for goods rather than passenger cars are suspended. Ropeway conveyors are found around large mining concerns, can be of considerable length; the COMILOG Cableway, which ran from Moanda in Gabon to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, was over 75 km in length. The Norsjö aerial tramway in Sweden had a length of 96 kilometers; the first recorded mechanical ropeway was by Croatian Fausto Veranzio who designed a bicable passenger ropeway in 1616. The world's first cable car on multiple supports was built by Adam Wybe in Gdańsk, Poland in 1644, it was used to move soil over the river to build defences. In Eritrea the Italians built the Asmara-Massawa Cableway in 1936, 75 km long; the Manizales - Mariquita Cableway in Colombia was 73 km long. Conveyors can be powered by a wide variety of forms of energy, engines, or gravity. Gravity-driven conveyors may qualify as zip-lines. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Blondin Ropeway Zip-line La Teleferica Massaua-Asmara www.trainweb.org Conveyor & Ropeways Services Pvt. Ltd. www.crspl.com Low-tech Magazine: "Aerial ropeways: automatic cargo transport for a bargain"
A clay pit is a quarry or mine for the extraction of clay, used for manufacturing pottery, bricks or Portland cement. Quarries where clay is mined to make bricks are sometimes called brick pits. A brickyard or brickworks is located alongside a clay pit to reduce the transport costs of the raw material. Today, pottery producers are not sited near the source of their clay and do not own the clay deposits. In these industries, the other essential raw material is fuel for firing and potteries may be located near to fuel sources. Former claypits are sometimes filled with water and used for recreational purposes such as sailing and scuba diving; the Eden Project at Bodelva near St Austell, Cornwall, UK is a major redevelopment of a former china clay pit for educational and environmental purposes. Cattybrook Brickpit History of Banbury, Oxfordshire
Songea is the capital of Ruvuma Region in southwestern Tanzania. It is located along the A19 road; the city has a population of 203,309, it is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Songea. Between 1905 and 1907, the city was a centre of African resistance during the Maji Maji Rebellion in German East Africa; the city is poised to experience significant economic growth in the near future as the Mtwara Corridor opens up in a few years. Songea was a great Ngoni warrior, hanged in 1906 during the time of German repression of the Maji Maji rebellion. Songea had been spared the death sentence; however he demanded to be hanged along with the other Ngoni leaders. The Germans complied. After the Second World War, the area was marked for rapid agricultural development linked to the disastrous groundnut scheme. A railway had been planned from the coast to Songea and appeared in 1950s high school geography text books. During the liberation war with Mozambique the Songea area was a restricted zone and suffered aerial attacks by Portuguese forces.
Its remoteness made it vulnerable to ivory poaching, communications remained unreliable until 1985 when a new British funded road was opened linking it northwards to the road and rail hub of Makambako. Songea became a municipality in 2006. Songea is the home to many educational institutions including The St. Augustine University. Songea is divided into wards, it is managed by the Songea Municipal Council
A pugmill or pug mill is a machine in which clay or other materials are mixed into a plastic state or a similar machine for the trituration of ore. Industrial applications are found in pottery, bricks and some parts of the concrete and asphalt mixing processes. A pugmill may be a fast continuous mixer. A continuous pugmill can achieve a mixed, homogeneous mixture in a few seconds, the right machines can be matched to the right application by taking into account the factors of agitation, drive assembly, discharge and maintenance. Mixing materials at optimum moisture content requires the forced mixing action of the pugmill paddles, while soupy materials might be mixed in a drum mixer. A typical pugmill consists of a horizontal boxlike chamber with a top inlet and a bottom discharge at the other end, 2 shafts with opposing paddles, a drive assembly; some of the factors affecting mixing and residence time are the number and the size of the paddles, paddle swing arc, overlap of left and right swing arc, size of mixing chamber, length of pugmill floor, material being mixed.
Road Base - Dense well-graded aggregate, uniformly mixed and densely compacted for building the foundation under a pavement. Lime Addition to asphalt – Lime may be added to the cold feed of an asphalt plant to strengthen the binding properties of the asphalt. Flyash Conditioning – Wetting fly ash in a pugmill to stabilize the ash so that it won’t create dust; some flyashes have cementitious properties when can be used to stabilize other materials. Waste stabilization – various waste streams are remediated with pugmills forcing the mixing of the wastes with remediation agents. Roller-compacted concrete – or rolled concrete is a special blend of concrete that has the same ingredients as conventional concrete but in different ratios, it has cement and aggregates, but RCC is much drier and has no slump. RCC is placed in a manner similar to paving by dump trucks or conveyors, spread by bulldozers or special modified asphalt pavers. After placement it is compacted by vibratory rollers; the “stiff” nature of RCC may require a paddle type pugmill to force the materials to mix and discharge easily.
Ceramics pug mills, or just "pugs", are not used to grind or mix, rather they extrude clay bodies prior to shaping processes. Some can be fitted with a vacuum system. According to the 1913 edition of Webster's Dictionary, a clay pug mill consists of an upright shaft armed with projecting knives, caused to revolve in a hollow cylinder, tub, or vat, in which the clay body is placed. Pugmills that run intermittently are used in the kaolin mining industry to mix certain grades of kaolin clay with water. Concrete slump test Pugmill mixing explanation Pug Mill page at potteries.org Pugmill Mixer Selection Guide
Molding or moulding is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This itself may have been made using a model of the final object. A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block, filled with a liquid or pliable material such as plastic, metal, or ceramic raw material; the liquid hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the counterpart to a cast; the common bi-valve molding process uses two molds, one for each half of the object. Articulated moulds have multiple pieces that come together to form the complete mold, disassemble to release the finished casting. Piece-molding uses a number of different molds, each creating a section of a complicated object; this is only used for larger and more valuable objects. A manufacturer who makes molds is called a moldmaker. A release agent is used to make removal of the hardened/set substance from the mold easily. Typical uses for molded plastics include molded furniture, molded household goods, molded cases, structural materials.
There are several types of molding methods. These include: Blow molding Powder metallurgy plus sintering Compression molding Extrusion molding Injection molding Laminating Reaction injection molding Matrix molding Rotational molding Spin casting Transfer molding Thermoforming Vacuum forming, a simplified version of thermoforming Injection molding die with side pulls Casting
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith within the surface of the crust of the Earth or other terrestrial planets. Bedrock refers to the substructure composed of hard rock exposed or buried at the earths surface, an exposed portion of bedrock is called an outcrop. Bedrock may have various chemical and mineralogical compositions and can be igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary in origin; the bedrock may be overlain by weathered regolith which includes soil and the subsoil. The surface of the bedrock beneath the soil cover is known as rockhead in engineering geology, its identification by digging, drilling or geophysical methods is an important task in most civil engineering projects. Superficial deposits can be thick, such that the bedrock lies hundreds of meters below the surface. Bedrock when exposed or within the subsurface may experience weathering and erosion by external factors. Weathering may be physical or chemical and alters the structure of the rock and may cause it to erode and or alter over time based on the interactions between the mineralogy and its interactions.
Bedrock may experience subsurface weathering at its upper boundary, forming saprolite. A geologic map of an area will show the distribution of differing bedrock types, rock that would be exposed at the surface if all soil or other superficial deposits were removed. Geology – The study of the composition, physical properties, history of Earth's components, the processes by which they are shaped. Outcrop Regolith – A layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock Soil – mixture of organic matter, gases and organisms that together support life Weathering – Breaking down of rocks and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere and waters Rafferty, John P. "Bedrock GEOLOGY". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 April 2019. Harris, The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 1. 5th ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. P515-516. Media related to Bedrock at Wikimedia Commons
A brickyard, or brickfield, is a place or yard where the earthen building material called bricks are made and stored, or sometimes sold or otherwise distributed from. Brick makers work in a brick yard. A brick yard may be constructed near natural sources of clay or on or near a construction site if necessity or design requires the bricks to be made locally. Brickfield, a common location name in south east England where bricks used to be made Brickworks, another type of place where bricks are made on a larger scale, with mechanization Clay pit, a quarry or mine for clay Kiln, the type of high heat oven that bricks are baked in Watt, Kathleen Ann. "Nineteenth Century Brickmaking Innovations in Britain: Building and Technological Change". Etheses. Retrieved 17 May 2018. "Brickmaking History". Brickcollecting.com. Retrieved 17 May 2018