Cissonius was an ancient Gaulish/Celtic god. After Visucius, Cissonius was the most common name of the Gaulish/Celtic Mercury. Cissonius was represented either as a bearded, helmeted man riding a ram and carrying a wine cup, or else as a young man with winged helmet and herald's staff accompanied by a rooster and goat; the name has been interpreted as meaning "courageous", "remote" or else "carriage-driver". He was a god of trade and protector of travellers, since Mercury exercised similar functions in the Roman pantheon. In one inscription from Promontogno in Switzerland, Cissonus is identified with Matutinus; the name of Niederzissen, a village in northern Rhineland-Palatinate, may be derived from the name of Cissonius. A goddess Cissonia is recorded
In Celtic polytheism, Belisama was a goddess worshipped in Gaul. She is identified with Minerva in the interpretatio romana; the etymology of her name has been taken to translate to "brightest one", i.e. containing a superlative suffix -isama attached to the root bel "bright". But the root bel has been interpreted differently, e.g. as bel "strong". A Gaulish inscription found at Vaison-la-Romaine in Provence shows that a nemeton was dedicated to her: СΕΓΟΜΑΡΟС/ ΟΥΙΛΛΟΝΕΟС/ ΤΟΟΥΤΙΟΥС/ ΝΑΜΑΥСΑΤΙС/ ΕΙѠΡΟΥ ΒΗΛΗ/СΑΜΙ СΟСΙΝ/ ΝΕΜΗΤΟΝ Segomaros Ouilloneos tooutious Namausatis eiōrou Bēlēsami sosin nemēton "Segomarus Uilloneos, citizen of Namausus, dedicated this sanctuary to Belesama"The identification with Minerva in Gallo-Roman religion is established in a Latin inscription from Saint-Lizier, Ariège department: Minervae / Belisamae / sacrum / Q Valerius / Montan / x vThe French toponyms Beleymas and Bellême are based on the theonym; the presence of the goddess in Britain is more difficult to establish.
Based on Ptolemy listing a "Belisama estuary", River Ribble in England seems to have been known by the name Belisama in Roman times. Belisama: a Gaulish and Brythonic goddess
Toutatis or Teutates is a Celtic god, worshipped in ancient Gaul and Britain. On the basis of his name's etymology, he has been interpreted to be a tribal protector. Today, he is best known under the name Toutatis through the Gaulish oath/catchphrase "By Toutatis!", invented for the Asterix comics by Goscinny and Uderzo. The spelling Toutatis is attested by about ten ancient inscriptions. Under the spelling Teutates, the god is known from a passage in Lucan; the name "Teutates" is derived from the stem teutā-, meaning "people" or "tribe", cognate with the Germanic *þeudō. Teutates was one of three Celtic gods mentioned by the Roman poet Lucan in the 1st century AD, the other two being Esus and Taranis. According to commentators, victims sacrificed to Teutates were killed by being plunged headfirst into a vat filled with an unspecified liquid. Of two commentators on Lucan's text, one identifies Teutates with Mercury, the other with Mars. Toutatis was worshipped in Gaul and in Roman Britain. Inscriptions to him have been recovered in the United Kingdom, for example that at Cumberland Quarries, dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus and Mars Toutatis.
Two dedications have been found in Noricum and Rome. As noted above, among a pair of scholiasts on Lucan's work, one identifies Teutates with Mercury and Esus with Mars. At times the Gaulish “Mercury" may have the characteristic of a warrior, while the Gaulish “Mars" may act as a god of protection or healing. Paul-Marie Duval argues. A large number of Romano-British finger rings inscribed with the name "TOT", thought to refer to Toutatis, have been found in eastern Britain, the vast majority in Lincolnshire, but some in Bedfordshire and Leicestershire; the distribution of these rings matches the territory of the Corieltauvi tribe. In 2005 a silver ring inscribed DEO FELIX was discovered at Hockliffe, Bedfordshire; this inscription confirms. In 2012 a silver ring inscribed "TOT" was found in the area where the Hallaton Treasure had been discovered twelve years earlier. Adam Daubney, an expert on this type of ring, suggests that Hallaton may have been a site of worship of the god Toutatis. Interpretatio Romana Germanic Mercury 4179 Toutatis The dictionary definition of Toutatis at Wiktionary Media related to Toutatis at Wikimedia Commons
In Gallo-Roman religion, Dea Aveta was a mother goddess associated with the fresh-water spring at Trier in what is now Germany. Aveta is known from clay figurines found at Toulon-sur-Allier in France and at Trier; these figurines show the goddess with infants at small lap-dogs, or baskets of fruit. There was a temple dedicated to Aveta in the Altbachtal complex at Trier, her name is known from inscriptions found in Switzerland, the Côte-d'Or
Erecura or Aerecura was a goddess worshipped in ancient times thought to be Celtic in origin represented with the attributes of Proserpina and associated with the Roman underworld god Dis Pater, as on an altar from Sulzbach. She appears with Dis Pater in a statue found at Oberseebach, in several magical texts from Austria, once in the company of Cerberus and once with Ogmios. A further inscription to her has been found near Germany. Besides her chthonic symbols, she is depicted with such attributes of fertility as the cornucopia and apple baskets, she is believed to be similar to Greek Hecate. She is depicted in a seated posture, wearing a full robe and bearing trays or baskets of fruit, in depictions from Cannstatt and Sulzbach. Miranda Green calls Aericura a "Gaulish Hecuba", while Noémie Beck characterizes her as a "land-goddess" sharing both underworld and fertility aspects with Dis Pater. Representations of Erecura are most found in the Danubian area of Southern Germany and Slovenia, but they occur in Italy, Great Britain, France.
Her inscriptions are concentrated along the Rhine. Several monuments in honour of Erecura occur in other funereal contexts. Jona Lendering notes the similarity between her iconography and that of Nehalennia, worshipped in Germania Inferior, while Beck sees no significant difference between her attributes and those of the Matres and Matronae. Geographically, the areas in which Erecura and Dis Pater were worshipped appear to be in complementary distribution with those where the cult of Sucellus and Nantosuelta is attested, Beck suggests that these cults were functionally similar although iconographically distinct. A male deity called Arecurius or Aericurus is named on an altar-stone in Northumberland, although Beck cautions that "this inscription is quite uncertain, it might be a misreading of Mercurio"; the theonym is of unclear origin. It has been connected with Latin aes, aeris'copper, money, wealth', era'mistress' and the name of the Greek goddess Hera. Many different Latinised forms of this goddess’s name occur: Aeraecura at Perugia.
The alternation between the initial H and A may be due to the letters' similar shape in the classical Latin capitals ordinarily used in epigraphic inscriptions in the Roman Empire since less literate members of the Roman Empire’s community sometimes misinterpreted the phonemic value of a given letter. A name of the form */aireˈkura/ or */eːreˈkura/ appears to underlie the alternations Aeraecura ~ Aerecura ~ Aericura ~ Eracura ~ Ercura ~ Erecura ~ Heracura ~ Herecura ~ Herequra. Though the goddess herself may be Celtic, it is open to question whether the name is of Celtic origin or Indo-European. Lendering considers her cult to be of Illyrian origin, spreading from Aquileia and only reaching the Danubian and Rhenish border regions through the Roman troops deployed there. Beck considers the name to be of Germanic origin. Beck, Noémie. Goddesses in Celtic Religion—Cult and Mythology: A Comparative Study of Ancient Ireland and Gaul. Université Lumière Lyon 2, University College of Dublin. Ellis, Peter Berresford, Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Oxford University Press,: ISBN 0-19-508961-8 Egger, Rudolf.
Römische Antike und frühes Christentum: Ausgewählte Schriften von Rudolf Egger. Lebensjahres, ed. Artur Betz and Gotbert Moro. 2 vols. Klagenfurt: Verlag des Geschichtsvereines für Kärnten, 1962-63. Green, Miranda; the gods of the Celts. Sparkford, UK: Sutton Publishing. MacKillop, James. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1. Wood, The Celts: Life and Art, Thorsons Publishers: ISBN 0-00-764059-5 Proto-Celtic — English lexicon Ogmios Ogma and Heracles Livius.org: Herecura
In Gallo-Roman religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was a deity depicted as carrying a large mallet and an olla and/or barrel. A Celtic deity, his cult flourished not only among Gallo-Romans, but to some extent among the neighbouring peoples of Raetia and Britain, he has been associated with agriculture and wine in the territory of the Aedui. He is portrayed as a middle-aged bearded man, with a long-handled hammer, or a beer barrel suspended from a pole, his companion Nantosuelta is sometimes depicted alongside him. When together, they are accompanied by symbols associated with domesticity. In a well-known relief from Sarrebourg, near Metz, wearing a long gown, is standing to the left. In her left hand she holds a small house-shaped object with two circular holes and a peaked roof – a dovecote – on a long pole, her right hand holds a patera. To the right Sucellus stands, bearded, in a tunic with a cloak over his right shoulder, he holds an olla in his left. Above the figures is a dedicatory inscription and below them in low relief is a raven.
This sculpture was dated by Reinach, from the form of the letters, to the end of the first century or start of the second century. At least eleven inscriptions to Sucellus are known from Gaul. One is from Eboracum in Britain. In an inscription from Augusta Rauricorum, Sucellus is identified with Silvanus: In honor / d d deo Su/ cello Silv / Spart l d d dThe syncretism of Sucellus with Silvanus can be seen in artwork from Narbonensis. In Gaulish, the root cellos can be interpreted as'striker', derived from Proto-Indo-European *-kel-do-s whence come Latin per-cellere, Greek klao and Lithuanian kálti; the prefix is found in many Gaulish personal names. Sucellus is therefore translated as'the good striker.' An alternate etymology is offered by Celticist Blanca María Prósper, who posits a derivative of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel- ‘to protect’, i.e. *su-kel-mó "having a good protection" or *su-kel-mṇ-, an agentive formation meaning "protecting well, providing good protection", with a thematic derivative built on the oblique stem, *su-kel-mn-o-.
Prósper suggests the name would be comparable to the Indic personal name Suśarman-, found in Hindu mythology. The Dagda – a similar figure from Irish mythology. Delamarre, Xavier. Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise. Paris: Éditions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-237-6. Deyts, Simone, ed.. À la rencontre des Dieux gaulois, un défi à César. Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux. ISBN 2-7118-3851-X. Duval, Paul-Marie. Les dieux de la Gaule. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France / Éditions Payot. Jufer, Nicole. Répertoire des dieux gaulois. Paris: Éditions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-200-7. Reinach, Salomon. Cultes, mythes et religions
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman history; the Corpus continues to be updated in new supplements. CIL refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin inscriptions, it was founded in 1853 by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey. The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire, ordering them geographically and systematically; the earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been published in a wide range of publications. The descriptions include images of the original inscription if available, drawings showing the letters in their original size and position, an interpretation reconstructing abbreviations and missing words, along with discussion of issues and problems.
The language of the CIL is Latin. In 1847 a committee was created in Berlin with the aim of publishing an organized collection of Latin inscriptions, described piecemeal by hundreds of scholars over the preceding centuries; the leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen. Much of the work involved personal inspections of sites and monuments in an attempt to replicate the original as much as possible. In those cases where a cited inscription could no longer be found, the authors tried to get an accurate reading by comparing the versions of the published inscription in the works of previous authors who had seen the original; the first volume appeared in 1853. The CIL presently consists of 17 volumes in about 70 parts, recording 180,000 inscriptions. Thirteen supplementary volumes have special indices; the first volume, in two sections, covered the oldest inscriptions, to the end of the Roman Republic. The other volumes cover other topics. Volume XVII, for instance, is devoted to milestones.
A volume XVIII is planned. A two-volume "Index of Numbers", correlating inscription numbers with volume numbers, was published in 2003; the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften continues to update and reprint the CIL. Epigraphy Inscriptiones Graecae Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Prosopographia Imperii Romani "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum". Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 13 November 2009. "CIL volumes". Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 19 December 2009. "English translations of selected inscriptions from CIL". Attalus.org. Retrieved 8 October 2012