Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about 7.5 miles long and 3000–3500 feet deep, surrounded by high granite summits such as Half Dome and El Capitan, densely forested with pines. The valley is drained by the Merced River, a multitude of streams and waterfalls flow into it, including Tenaya, Illilouette and Bridalveil Creeks. Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in North America, is a big attraction in the spring when the water flow is at its peak; the valley is renowned for its natural environment, is regarded as the centerpiece of Yosemite National Park, attracting visitors from around the world. The Valley is the main attraction in the park for the majority of visitors, a bustling hub of activity during tourist season in the summer months. Most visitors pass through the Tunnel View entrance. Visitor facilities are located in the center of the valley. There are both hiking trail loops that stay within the valley and trailheads that lead to higher elevations, all of which afford glimpses of the park's many scenic wonders.
Yosemite Valley is located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 150 miles due east of San Francisco. It stretches for 7.5 miles in a east–west direction, with an average width of about 1 mile. Yosemite Valley represents only one percent of the park area, but this is where most visitors arrive and stay. More than half a dozen creeks tumble from hanging valleys at the top of granite cliffs that can rise 3000–3500 feet above the valley floor, which itself is 4000 ft above sea level; these streams combine into the Merced River, which flows out from the western end of the valley, down the rest of its canyon to the San Joaquin Valley. The flat floor of Yosemite Valley holds both forest and large open meadows, which have views of the surrounding crests and waterfalls. Below is a description of these features, looking first at the walls above, moving west to east as a visitor does when entering the valley visiting the waterfalls and other water features, returning east to west with the flow of water.
The first view of Yosemite Valley many visitors see is the Tunnel View. So many paintings were made from a viewpoint nearby that the National Park Service named that viewpoint Artist Point; the view from the lower end of the Valley contains the great granite monolith El Capitan on the left, Cathedral Rocks on the right with Bridalveil Fall. Just past this spot the Valley widens with the Cathedral Spires the pointed obelisk of Sentinel Rock to the south. Across the Valley on the northern side are the Three Brothers, rising one above the other like gables built on the same angle – the highest crest is Eagle Peak, with the two below known as the Middle and Lower Brothers. To this point the Valley has been curving to the left. Now a grand curve back to the right begins, with Yosemite Falls on the north, followed by the Royal Arches, topped by North Dome. Opposite, to the south, is Glacier Point, 3,200 feet above the Valley floor. At this point the Valley splits in two, one section slanting northeast, with the other curving from south to southeast.
Between them, at the eastern end of the valley, is Half Dome, among the most prominent natural features in the Sierra Nevada. Above and to the northeast of Half Dome is Clouds Rest. Snow melting in the Sierra forms lakes. In the surrounding region, these creeks flow to the edge of the Valley to form cataracts and waterfalls. A fan of creeks and forks of the Merced River take drainage from the Sierra crest and combine at Merced Lake; the Merced flows down to the end of its canyon, where it begins what is called the Giant Staircase. The first drop is Nevada Fall. Below is one of the most picturesque waterfalls in the Valley; the Merced descends rapids to meet Illilouette Creek, which drops from the valley rim to form Illilouette Fall. They combine at the base of the gorges that contain each stream, flow around the Happy Isles to meet Tenaya Creek at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley proper. Tenaya Creek flows southwest from Tenaya Lake and down Tenaya Canyon flowing between Half Dome and North Dome before joining the Merced River.
The following falls tumble from the Valley rim to join it at various points: Yosemite Falls 2,425 feet Upper Yosemite Fall 1,430 feet, the middle cascades 670 feet, Lower Yosemite Fall 320 feet. Snow Creek Falls 2,140 feet Sentinel Falls 1,920 feet Ribbon Fall 1,612 feet Royal Arch Cascade 1,250 feet Lehamite Falls 1,180 feet Staircase Falls 1,020 feet Bridalveil Fall 620 feet. Nevada Fall 594 feet Silver Strand Falls 574 feet Vernal Fall 318 feet The features in Yosemite Valley are made of granitic rock emplaced as plutons miles deep during the late Cretaceous. Over time the Sierra Nevada was uplifted; the oldest of these granitic rocks, at 114 million years, occur along the Merced River Gorge west of the valley. The El Capitan pluton intruded the valley, forming most of the granitic rock that makes up much of the central part of the valley, including Cathedral Rocks, Three Brothers, El Capitan; the youngest Yosemite Valley pluton is the 87-million-year-old Half Dome granodiorite, which makes up most of the rock at
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is an American national park located in the western Sierra Nevada of Central California, bounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 747,956 acres and sits in four counties: centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its granite cliffs, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, mountains, meadows and biological diversity. 95% of the park is designated wilderness. On average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, most spend the majority of their time in the 7 square miles of Yosemite Valley; the park set a visitation record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864.
John Muir led a successful movement to have Congress establish a larger national park by 1890, one which encompassed the valley and its surrounding mountains and forests, paving the way for the National Park System. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, the park supports a diversity of plants and animals; the park has an elevation range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones: chaparral and oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone, alpine. Of California's 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada and more than 20% are within Yosemite; the park contains suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy. The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes.
The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in the formation of deep, narrow canyons. About one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode; the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name "Yosemite" referred to the name of a renegade tribe, driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion; the area had been called "Ahwahnee" by indigenous people. Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, although humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahnechee, meaning "dwellers in Ahwahnee." They are related to the Northern Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, who lived along the drainage area of the Tuolumne and Stanislaus Rivers.
A major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today; the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century increased travel by European-Americans in the area, causing competition for resources between the regional Paiute and Miwok and the miners and hangers on. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance, United States Army Major Jim Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into the west end of Yosemite Valley, he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya.
Bunnell wrote. The Miwok, a neighboring tribe, most white settlers considered the Ahwahneechee to be violent because of their frequent territorial disputes; the Miwok term for the Pai-Ute band was yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers". Correspondence and articles written by members of the battalion helped to popularize the natural wonders of the Yosemite Valley and the surrounding area. Chief Tenaya and his Ahwahneechee were captured and their village burned; the chief and some others were allowed to return to Yosemite Valley. In the spring of 1852 they attacked a group of eight gold miners, moved east to flee law enforcement. Near Mono Lake, they took refuge with the nearby Mono tribe of Paiute, they stole horses from their hosts and moved away, but the Mono Paiutes tracked down and killed many of the Ahwahneechee, including Chief Tenaya. The Mono Paiute took the survivors as captives back to Mono Lake and absorbed them into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe. After these wars, a number of Native Americans continued to live within the boundaries of Yosemite.
A number of Indians supported the growing tourism industry by worki
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression, longer than it is wide; the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. Other terms used for valleys are: Vale: A valley. Dell: A small and wooded valley. Glen: A long valley bounded by sloped concave sides. Strath: A wide, flat valley through which a river runs. Mountain cove: A small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. Hollow: A term used sometimes for a small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges. Cwm: A deep, narrow valley. A steephead valley is a deep, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.
Structural valley: A valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands. Dry valley: A valley not created by sustained surface water flow. Longitudinal valley: An elongated valley found between two parallel mountain chains. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, gullies and kloofs, are not referred to as valleys. A valley formed by flowing water, called fluvial valley or river valley, is V-shaped; the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce a bottom. Shallower slopes may produce gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain; some broad V examples are: North America: Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, others in Grand Canyon NP Europe: Austria: narrow passages of upper Inn valley, affluents of Enns Switzerland: Napf region, Zurich Oberland, Engadin Germany: affluents to the middle reaches of Rhine and MoselSome of the first human complex societies originated in river valleys, such as that of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Ganges, Yellow River and arguably Amazon.
In prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, stimulating the development of agriculture. Most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a wide river valley with a wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the chalk dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock claystone. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift and Gregory Rift are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. There are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is U-shaped and resembles a trough; this trough valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size. Continuously flowing glaciers – in the ice age – and large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys, sometimes with valley steps that reflect differing erosion rates. Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation; the glaciers carved it out wider and deeper changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of glaciation and abrasion, which results in large rocky material being carried in the glacier. A material called; as the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley; this replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. Other interesting glacially carved valleys include: Yosemite Valley Side valleys of the Austrian river Salzach for their parallel directions and hanging mouths.
Some Scottish glens full with flowers. That of the St. Mary River in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be up to 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water, they served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. In northern Central Europe, the Scandinavian ice sheet during the various ice ages advanced uphill against the lie of the land; as a result, its meltwaters flowed parallel to the ice margin to reach the North Sea basin, formin
Tuolumne Meadows is a gentle, dome-studded, sub-alpine meadow area along the Tuolumne River in the eastern section of Yosemite National Park in the United States. Its approximate location is 37°52.5′N 119°21′W. Its approximate elevation is 8,619 feet; the term Tuolumne Meadows is often used to describe a large portion of the Yosemite high country around the meadows in context of rock climbing. The meadow vegetation is supported by shallow groundwater; the water comes from 1,000 mm of precipitation predominately in the form of snow. Water arises from snowmelt and hill-slope aquifers, flows through the Tuolumne River, Budd Creek, Delaney Creek, Unicorn Creek. In spring, as soon as the snow melts, it is not uncommon to see large areas of the meadows flooded and transformed into lakes. While the mountains of the Sierra near the meadows have had some permanent snowfields, in the summer they are free of snow. Although brief, the late spring and summer wildflower bloom in Tuolumne Meadows is host to a wide variety of California wildflowers, including the rare Purple Webber, a type of lupin.
Plant species composition changes across the meadows with different landforms, landscape positions, summer water-table depths. Areas with seasonal flooding and deep-standing water support Sierra willow; the main herbaceous wet-meadow species include alpine aster, nearly-black sedge, King's ricegrass, western bistort, Breweri's reed grass, dwarf bilberry. Thread-leaved sedge, pussy-toes, Sierra lodgepole pine, Ross sedge are found in drier uplands within or on the edge of the meadows. See Hiking, rock climbing, mountain climbing around Tuolumne Meadows. Tuolumne Meadows has a good view of the Cathedral Range and Unicorn Peak, Lembert Dome, Mount Dana. Camping is available at the Tuolumne Meadows campground. Excellent hiking and rock climbing are accessible from Tuolumne Meadows, which tends to be less crowded than Yosemite Valley. Downstream, the Tuolumne River cascades over Waterwheel Falls near Glen Aulin pooling at Hetch Hetchy Reservoir; the road to the meadows is free of snow from June through October.
Due to the extreme elevation, road access over Tioga Pass along Highway 120 is closed through winter season. Many backcountry hiking and backpacking trails start in Tuolumne Meadows including the primary route to summit Mount Lyell, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park; the John Muir and the Pacific Crest Trails are long-distance backpacking trails and follow a route through Lyell Canyon into Tuolumne Meadows. A large number of backpackers hike these trails each year. Along with these longer trails, Tuolumne Meadows feature a wide range of day trails to locations including Gaylor Lakes, Cathedral Lakes, Mono Pass, Lembert Dome; the day hike trails are popular, become busy during the summer high seasons. These trails are serviced by the Tuolumne Meadows shuttle bus from June to September, though the dates are subject to change due to weather. In contrast to the big walls of Yosemite Valley, climbing at Tuolumne consists of short- to medium-length routes on eleven major domes and a number of minor ones, stretching from the Stately Pleasure Dome above Tenaya Lake to Lembert Dome on the east side of the Meadows.
Since the area is all at a high elevation, the climbing season is limited to June through September. The rock is porphyritic granite, a strong form of granite, it has a tendency for exfoliation, which helps preserve the distinctive dome shapes. The resulting climbing includes both face and crack routes, the former runout due to limited numbers of bolts, the latter following thin cracks; the local ethic is to limit the placement of bolts on new routes and to forbid the addition of bolts to existing routes, resulting in distances of 40 feet or more between bolts. The major domes include: Stately Pleasure Dome Polly Dome Daff Dome Pothole Dome Lembert Dome Fairview DomeSee Granite Domes of Yosemite National Park for a list of granite domes in Yosemite National park, not just around Tuolumne. In addition, the peaks of the nearby Cathedral Range, such as Cathedral Peak, Pywiack Dome, Medlicott Dome, are traditionally considered part of the climbing area. Yosemite National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage National Park Service Maps Tuolumne Meadows Day Hikes Tuolumne Meadows Campground Site Photos
Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in Yosemite National Park, dropping a total of 2,425 feet from the top of the upper fall to the base of the lower fall. Located in the Sierra Nevada of California, it is a major attraction in the park in late spring when the water flow is at its peak; the falls consist of three sections: Upper Yosemite Fall: The 1,430-foot plunge alone is among the twenty highest waterfalls in the world. Trails from the valley floor and down from other park areas outside the valley lead to both the top and base of Upper Yosemite Fall; the upper fall is formed by the swift waters of Yosemite Creek, after meandering through Eagle Creek Meadow, hurl themselves over the edge of a hanging valley in a spectacular and deafening show of force. Middle Cascades: Between the two obvious main plunges there are a series of five smaller plunges collectively referred to as the Middle Cascades. Taken together these account for a total drop of 675 feet, more than twice the height of the Lower Fall.
Because of the narrow, constricted shape of the gorge in which these drops occur and the lack of public access, they are noted. Most viewpoints in the valley miss them entirely. Several vantage points for the cascades are found along the Yosemite Falls trail. Several hikers climbing down from the trail towards the cascades have required an expensive helicopter rescue due to steep and slippery terrain and features. Lower Yosemite Fall: The final 320-foot drop adjacent to an accessible viewing area, provides the most-used viewing point for the waterfalls. Yosemite Creek emerges from the base of flows into the Merced River nearby. Like many areas of Yosemite the plunge pool at the base of the Lower Fall is surrounded by dangerous jumbles of talus made more treacherous by the high humidity and resulting slippery surfaces. In all but the wettest years, the falls cease flowing altogether in late fall. A small number of rock climbers have taken the opportunity to climb the inaccessible rock face beneath the falls, although this is an extraordinarily dangerous undertaking.
Lower Yosemite Fall is accessible near the Yosemite Lodge in Yosemite Valley. The top of Upper Yosemite Fall may be reached via a steep and crowded 3.5 miles hike beginning near Camp 4. The Upper Fall may be reached via several routes from the Tioga Road to the north; the main village of the native people of Yosemite Valley, the Ahwahneechee, was located at the base of the falls. The Ahwahneechee people called the waterfall "Cholock" and believed that the plunge pool at its base was inhabited by the spirits of several witches, called the Poloti. An Ahwaneechee folktale describes a woman going to fetch a pail of water from the pool, drawing it out full of snakes; that night, after the woman had trespassed into their territory, the spirits caused the woman's house to be sucked into the pool by a powerful wind, taking the woman and her newborn baby with it. List of waterfalls "Yosemite Falls". World Waterfall Database. World of Waterfalls.com: Yosemite Falls
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Chilnualna Falls is a series of waterfalls totaling 690 feet, located on Chilnualna Creek in the southern section of Yosemite National Park. The falls are a popular horseback riding destination. Chilnualna Falls consists of five tiers ranging from 30–300 feet in height; the first tier is 90–120 feet high. The second is a 30-foot high cascade; the third and largest is 300 feet high. The fourth is 60 feet high; the final tier is a 180–210 foot high cascade. The trailhead to the falls is in the eastern extremity of Wawona, at the end of Chilnualna Creek Road; the trailhead elevation is 4,000 feet, the trail reaches the main portion of the waterfall at 6,200 feet. "Chilnualna Falls". California Waterfalls. Yudschin Internet Publications. October 10, 2002. Archived from the original on 2003-07-26. Retrieved April 24, 2006