Gákti is the Northern Sámi word for a piece of traditional clothing worn by the Sámi in northern areas of Norway, Sweden and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. The gákti is worn both in ceremonial contexts and while working when herding reindeer; the traditional Sami outfit is characterized by a dominant color adorned with bands of contrasting colours, pewter embroidery, tin art, a high collar. In the Norwegian language the garment is called a'kofte', in Swedish it is called'kolt'; the colours and decorations of the costume can signify a person's marital status and geographical origin. There are different gákti for men. Traditionally the gákti was made from reindeer skin, but in modern times, cotton or silk are more common; the gákti can be worn with silver jewellery, traditional leather footwear and a silk scarf. Traditionally, if the buttons on the belt are square, it shows. If they are round, the person is unmarried. If a married couple divorce, the ex-husband still continues to use the Sami costume made by his ex-wife, he states by this that he wants her back.
Inari Sámi: mááccuhSkolt Sámi: määccaǩSouth Sámi: Gaeptie Four winds hat Luhkka Beaska Fra hverdagsplagg til kulturelt kjennetegn Norwegian Digital Learning Arena / Norwegian News Agency Media related to Sami clothing at Wikimedia Commons
A groomsman, or usher is one of the male attendants to the groom in a wedding ceremony. The groom selects close friends and relatives to serve as groomsmen, it is considered an honour to be selected. From his groomsmen, the groom chooses one to serve as best man. For a wedding with many guests, the groom may ask other male friends and relatives to act as ushers without otherwise participating in the wedding ceremony. Ushers may be hired for large weddings. In a military officer's wedding, the roles of groomsmen are replaced by swordsmen of the sword honor guard, they are picked as close personal friends of the groom who have served with him. Their role includes forming the traditional saber arch for the married couple and guests to walk through; the most visible duty of the groomsmen is helping guests find their places before the ceremony and to stand near the groom during the wedding ceremony. Additionally, the groom may request other kinds of assistance, such as planning celebratory events such as a bachelor party called a stag-do or buck's night.
Groomsmen may participate in local or regional traditions, such as decorating the newlywed couple's car. Bridegroom-men had important duties; the men were called bride-knights, represented a survival of the primitive days of marriage by capture, when a man called his friends in to assist to "lift" or kidnap the bride, or from the need to defend the bride from would-be kidnappers. The best man is the chief assistant to the groom at a wedding and is the third most important in attendance after the bride and groom. While the role is older, the earliest surviving written use of the term best man comes from 1782, observing that "best man and best maid" in the Scottish dialect are equivalent to "bride-man and bride-maid" in England. In most modern Anglophone countries, the groom extends this honor to someone, close to him a close friend or a relative; when the groom wishes to give this honor to a woman, she may be termed the best woman or best person, although traditionally she would still be referred to as the'best man'.
The bride's equivalent of the best man is the maid/matron of honor. If this honoree is male, he may be called a "man of honor." During a wedding ceremony the best man stands next to the groom behind him. This means that the four people present at the altar are the officiant, the bride and best man; this is common in some western countries, although in others the best man and bridesmaid participate on an equal footing. While the best man's required duties are only those of a friend, in the context of a western white wedding, the best man will typically: Assist the groom on the wedding day, Be in charge of the ushers Keep the wedding rings safe until needed during the ceremony, Stand next to the groom during the ceremony, Act as a legal witness to the marriage and therefore sign the marriage certificate, Prepare a "best man's speech" to be read at the reception The best man is not a universal custom. In places where a best man is customary, the role may be quite different when compared to other areas of the world.
In Britain, it is traditional for the best man to give a short speech. In Zambia, a best man is expected to lead processions both at the wedding, at preliminary events; this includes pre-wedding dance rehearsals, at which the best man is always expected to be in attendance, is expected to give an outstanding and outlandish dance-performance on the actual wedding-day. In Uganda, a best man is expected to guide the newlyweds in the ways of marriage; this means that ideally a best man must be married, preferably to one wife, should be in position to give sound and tested advice. A best man must be discreet about the details he shares with the new couple. In Bhutan, the best man presents himself at the wedding as a ceremonial guardian to both bride and groom. Thereafter he entertains the guests, sometimes for several hours. In Eastern Orthodox weddings in Greece, the best man is also the koumbaros, or religious sponsor; the koumbaros is an honored participant who crowns the couple and participates in circling the altar three times.
Sometimes, this person pays for most of the wedding expenses. In Ukraine, a best man is responsible for guarding the bride during the wedding festivities; when he or the groom steps away, the bride has a shoe stolen. The groom or the best man must pay a ransom in exchange for returning the bride by paying money or by doing something embarrassing. In the past, the bachelor party was scheduled for a convenient evening during the week before the wedding. A type of farewell dinner, it was always hosted, therefore organized and paid for by the groom; the dinner was seen as the groom's last chance to entertain his friends as a single man. Common slang names for this event are bachelor party, stag do, or bucks' night in different parts of the world. In many areas, this dinner is now most organized by the best man.
Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is referred to synecdochically by its principal element for men, the dinner suit or dinner jacket. In American English, the equivalent term, tuxedo, is common; the dinner suit is a black, midnight blue or white two- or three-piece suit, distinguished by satin or grosgrain jacket lapels and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers. It is worn with a white dress shirt with standing or turndown collar and link cuffs, a black bow tie an evening waist coat or a cummerbund, black patent leather dress shoes or court pumps. Accessories may include bowler, or boater hat. For women, an evening gown or other fashionable evening attire may be worn; the dinner jacket evolved in late 19th century out of the smoking jacket – 19th century informal evening wear without tails designated for more comfortable tobacco smoking – following the first documented example in 1865 of the Prince of Wales King Edward VII.
Thus in many non-English languages, it is known as a "smoking". In American English, its synonym "tuxedo" was derived from the town of Tuxedo Park in New York State, where it was first introduced in 1886 following the example of Europeans. Traditionally worn only for events after 6 p.m. black tie is less formal than white tie but more formal than informal or business dress. As semi-formal, black tie are worn for dinner parties and sometimes to balls and weddings, although etiquette experts discourage wearing of black tie for weddings. Traditional semi-formal day wear. Supplementary semi-formal alternatives may be accepted for black tie: military uniform, religious clothing, folk costumes, etc. Dinner jacket in the context of menswear first appeared in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland around 1887 and in the United States of America around 1889. In the 1960s it became associated in the United States with colored jackets specifically. Tuxedo in the context of menswear originated in the US around 1888.
It was named after Tuxedo Park, a Hudson Valley enclave for New York's social elite where it was seen in its early years. The term was capitalized until the 1930s and traditionally referred only to a white jacket; when the jacket was paired with its own unique trousers and accessories in the 1900s the term began to be associated with the entire suit. In French, Catalan, German, Russian, Spanish and other European languages the style is referred to with the pseudo-anglicism smoking; this generic colloquialism is a false friend deriving from its similarity with the 19th century smoking jacket. In French the dress code may be called "cravate noire," a term, sometimes adopted directly into English; the suit with accompanying accessories is sometimes nicknamed a monkey suit and, since 1918, soup and fish - a term derived from the sort of food thought to be served at black tie dinners. In the 1860s, the increasing popularity of outdoor activities among the middle and upper classes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland led to a corresponding increase in the popularity of the casual lounge suit as a country alternative to the more formal day wear frock coat, traditionally worn in town.
Men sought a similar alternative to the formal evening tailcoat worn every evening. The earliest record of a tailless coat being worn with evening wear is a 1865 midnight blue smoking jacket in silk with matching trousers ordered by the Prince of Wales from Savile Row tailors Henry Poole & Co; the smoking jacket was tailored for use at the Prince's informal country estate. Henry Poole never saw his design become known as a dinner jacket or cross the Atlantic and be called a tuxedo over there. Other accounts of the Prince's experimentation appear around 1885 variously referring to "a garment of many colours, such as was worn by our ancestors" and "short garments coming down to the waist and made on the model of the military men's jackets"; the garment as we know it was first described around the same time and associated with Cowes, a seaside resort in southern England and centre of British yachting, associated with the Prince. It was intended for warm weather use but soon spread to informal or stag winter occasions.
As it was an evening tailcoat substitute, it was worn with all the same accoutrements as the tailcoat, including the trousers. As such, in these early days, black tie was considered informal wear. In the following decades of the Victorian era, the style became known as a dinner jacket: a fashionable, formal alternative for the tailcoat which men of the upper classes wore every evening, thus it was worn with the standard accompaniments for the evening tailcoat at the time: matching trousers, white or black waistcoat, white bow tie, white detachable wing-collar formal shirt and black formal shoes. Lapels were faced or edged in silk or satin in varying widths. In comparison with full dress, etiquette guides declared dinner jacket inappropriate for wear in mixed company, meaning together with ladies. During the Edwardian era, the practice of wearing a black waistcoat and black bow tie with a dinner jacket became the convention, esta
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals; when used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, Bretons. It may refer to citizens of the former British Empire. Though early assertions of being British date from the Late Middle Ages, the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 triggered a sense of British national identity; the notion of Britishness was forged during the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and the First French Empire, developed further during the Victorian era. The complex history of the formation of the United Kingdom created a "particular sense of nationhood and belonging" in Great Britain and Ireland.
Because of longstanding ethno-sectarian divisions, British identity in Northern Ireland is controversial, but it is held with strong conviction by Unionists. Modern Britons are descended from the varied ethnic groups that settled in the British Isles in and before the 11th century: Prehistoric, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Normans; the progressive political unification of the British Isles facilitated migration and linguistic exchange, intermarriage between the peoples of England and Wales during the late Middle Ages, early modern period and beyond. Since 1922 and earlier, there has been immigration to the United Kingdom by people from what is now the Republic of Ireland, the Commonwealth, mainland Europe and elsewhere; the British are a diverse, multinational and multilingual society, with "strong regional accents and identities". The social structure of the United Kingdom has changed radically since the 19th century, with a decline in religious observance, enlargement of the middle class, increased ethnic diversity since the 1950s.
The population of the UK stands at around 66 million, with a British diaspora of around 140 million concentrated in Australia and New Zealand, with smaller concentrations in the United States, Republic of Ireland, South Africa and parts of the Caribbean. The earliest known reference to the inhabitants of Great Britain may have come from 4th century BC records of the voyage of Pytheas, a Greek geographer who made a voyage of exploration around the British Isles. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them. Pytheas called the islands collectively αἱ Βρεττανίαι, translated as the Brittanic Isles, the peoples of what are today England, Wales and the Isle of Man of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Pritani or Pretani; the group included Ireland, referred to as Ierne "inhabited by the different race of Hiberni", Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions". The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands.
Greek and Roman writers, in the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, name the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland as the Priteni, the origin of the Latin word Britanni. It has been suggested that this name derives from a Gaulish description translated as "people of the forms", referring to the custom of tattooing or painting their bodies with blue woad made from Isatis tinctoria. Parthenius, a 1st-century Ancient Greek grammarian, the Etymologicum Genuinum, a 9th-century lexical encyclopaedia, mention a mythical character Bretannus as the father of Celtine, mother of Celtus, the eponymous ancestor of the Celts. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia, although the people of Caledonia and the north were the self same Britons during the Roman period, the Gaels arriving four centuries later.
Following the end of Roman rule in Britain, the island of Great Britain was left open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors such as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Jutes from Continental Europe, who gained control in areas around the south east, to Middle Irish-speaking people migrating from what is today Northern Ireland to the north of Great Britain, founding Gaelic kingdoms such as Dál Riata and Alba, which would subsume the native Brittonic and Pictish kingdoms and become Scotland. In this sub-Roman Britain, as Anglo-Saxon culture spread across southern and eastern Britain and Gaelic through much of the north, the demonym "Briton" became restricted to the Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of what would be called Wales, North West England, parts of Scotland such as Strathearn, Morayshire and Strathclyde. In addition the term was applied to Brittany in what is today France and Britonia in north west Spain, both regions having been colonised by Britons in the 5th century fleeing the Anglo-Saxon invasions.
An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage. During this period, a couple is said to be betrothed, affianced, engaged to be married, or engaged. Future brides and grooms may be called the betrothed, a wife-to-be or husband-to-be, fiancée or fiancé, respectively; the duration of the courtship varies vastly, is dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved. Long engagements were once common in formal arranged marriages, it was not uncommon for parents betrothing children to arrange marriages many years before the engaged couple were old enough; this is still common in some countries. The origins of European engagement in marriage practice is found in the Jewish law, first exemplified by Abraham, outlined in the last Talmudic tractate of the Nashim order, where marriage consists of two separate acts, called erusin, the betrothal ceremony, nissu'in or chupah, the actual ceremony for the marriage.
Erusin changes the couple's interpersonal status, while nissu'in brings about the legal consequences of the change of status. This was adopted in Ancient Greece as the gamos and engeysis rituals, although unlike in Judaism the contract made in front of witness was only verbal; the giving of a ring was borrowed from Judaism by Roman marriage law, with the fiancé presenting it after swearing the oath of marriage intent, presenting of the gifts at the engagement party. Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. In Jewish weddings during Talmudic times, the two ceremonies of betrothal and wedding took place up to a year apart. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a combined ceremony performed in public; the betrothal is now part of the Jewish wedding ceremony, accomplished when the groom gives the bride the ring or another object of at least nominal value. As mentioned above, betrothal in Judaism is separate from engagement. Typical steps of a match were the following: Negotiation of a match done by the couple's families with bride and groom having varying levels of input, from no input, to veto power, to a fuller voice in the selection of marriage partner.
This is not as practiced as it was although it is still common in culturally conservative communities in Israel, India and Persian Gulf countries, although most of these have a requirement that the bride be at least allowed veto power. Negotiation of bride price or dowry In most cultures evolved from Europe, bride prices or dowries have been reduced to the engagement ring accompanying the marriage contract, while in other cultures, such as those on the Arabian Peninsula, they are still part of negotiating a marriage contract. Blessing by the parents and clergy Exchange of Vows and Signing of Contracts Often one of these is omitted Celebration The exact duration of a betrothal varies according to culture and the participants’ needs and wishes. For adults, it may be anywhere from several hours to a period of several years. A year and a day are common in neo-pagan groups today. In the case of child marriage, betrothal might last from infancy until the age of marriage; the responsibilities and privileges of betrothal vary.
In most cultures, the betrothed couple is expected to spend much time together, learning about each other. In some historical cultures, the betrothal was a trial marriage, with marriage only being required in cases of conception of a child. All cultures are loosening restrictions against physical contact between partners in cultures that had strong prohibitions against it; the betrothal period was considered to be a preparatory time, in which the groom built a house, started a business or otherwise proved his readiness to enter adult society. In medieval Europe, in canon law, a betrothal could be formed by the exchange of vows in the future tense, but sexual intercourse consummated the vows, making a binding marriage rather than a betrothal. Although these betrothals could be concluded with only the vows spoken by the couple, they had legal implications: Richard III of England had his older brother's children declared illegitimate on the grounds their father had been betrothed to another woman when he married their mother.
A betrothal is considered to be a'semi-binding' contract. Normal reasons for invalidation of a betrothal include: Revelation of a prior commitment or marriage Evidence of infidelity Failure to conceive Failure of either party to meet the financial and property stipulations of the betrothal contractNormally, either party can break a betrothal, though some financial penalty applies. In some common law countries, including England and Wales and many US states, it was once possible for the spurned partner to sue the other for breach
A wedding planner is a professional who assists with the design and management of a client's wedding. Weddings are significant events in people's lives and as such, couples are willing to spend considerable amount of money to ensure that their weddings are well-organized. Wedding planners are used by couples who work long hours and have little spare time available for sourcing and managing wedding venues and wedding suppliers. Professional wedding planners are based worldwide but the industry is the largest in the USA, western Europe and China. Various wedding planning courses are available to those. Planners charge either a percentage of the total wedding cost, or a flat fee. Planners are popular with couples planning a destination wedding, where the documentation and paperwork can be complicated. Any country where a wedding is held requires different procedures depending on the nationality of each the bride and the groom. For instance, US citizens marrying in Italy require a Nulla Osta, plus an Atto Notorio, legalization of the above.
Some countries instead have agreements and the couple can get their No Impediment forms from their local registrar and have it translated by the consulate in the country of the wedding. A local wedding planner can take care of the different procedures; the services of a wedding planner may include: Interview the couple and parents to identify their needs. Preparation of the budget Design and style of the event Scouting locations Photoshoots Planning a detailed checklist Preparation of the list of participants Identification of venues for events Identification and contracting of wedding professionals and service providers and contract preparation and execution. Acquisition of custom decorations, such as a travel map Coordination of deliveries / services on the wedding day. Have a back-up plan in the event of a disaster. Manages programming with software. Help and prepare legal documentation and translations - for destination weddings Event layout indicating the location of the dance floor, buffet points, chairs, etc.
Event briefing for all suppliers Coordinating wedding day and pre-event assembly follow-up The 2001 comedy The Wedding Planner with Jennifer Lopez and Matthew McConaughey is about the busy life of a wedding planner who falls in love with one of her clients. Many TV shows that have branched from wedding planning, such as TLC's Say Yes to the Dress; this is a reality show that follows brides as they shop at the prestigious Kleinfeld's for their perfect wedding dress. Another show is'My Fair Wedding' with celebrity party planner David Tutera. More Bollywood film Band Baaja Baaraat is about marriage planners falling in love. Ranveer Singh won Best Debutant at several awards; the film had a successful run at the theaters. The 2011 Hong Kong television drama Only You tells the stories of a fictional wedding services agency and their clients. Event planning Marriage proposal planner
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel