Orkney /ˈɔːrkni/, known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain. Orkney is 16 kilometres north of the coast of Caithness and comprises approximately 70 islands, the largest island Mainland is often referred to as the Mainland. It has an area of 523 square kilometres, making it the sixth-largest Scottish island, the largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall. A form of the dates to the pre-Roman era and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8500 years, originally occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes. Orkney was invaded and forcibly annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse, the Scottish Parliament re-annexed the earldom to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James IIIs bride Margaret of Denmark. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a lieutenancy area, and a historic county.
The local council is Orkney Islands Council, one of only three Councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents. In addition to the Mainland, most of the islands are in two groups, the North and South Isles, all of which have a geological base of Old Red Sandstone. The climate is mild and the soils are fertile, most of the land being farmed. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, the significant wind and marine energy resources are of growing importance, and the island generates more than its total yearly electricity demand using renewables. The local people are known as Orcadians and have a distinctive Orcadian dialect of Scots, there is an abundance of marine and avian wildlife. Pytheas of Massilia visited Britain – probably sometime between 322 and 285 BC – and described it as triangular in shape, with a northern tip called Orcas and this may have referred to Dunnet Head, from which Orkney is visible. Speakers of Old Irish referred to the islands as Insi Orc island of the pigs, the archipelago is known as Ynysoedd Erch in modern Welsh and Arcaibh in modern Scottish Gaelic, the -aibh representing a fossilized prepositional case ending.
The Anglo-Saxon monk Bede refers to the islands as Orcades insulae in his seminal work Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Norwegian settlers arriving from the ninth century reinterpreted orc as the Old Norse orkn seal. The plural suffix -jar was removed in English leaving the modern name Orkney, according to the Historia Norwegiæ, Orkney was named after an earl called Orkan. The Norse knew Mainland Orkney as Megenland Mainland or as Hrossey Horse Island, the island is sometimes referred to as Pomona, a name that stems from a sixteenth-century mistranslation by George Buchanan, which has rarely been used locally. A charred hazelnut shell, recovered in 2007 during excavations in Tankerness on the Mainland has been dated to 6820–6660 BC indicating the presence of Mesolithic nomadic tribes
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a forty-day period of fasting and penance. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the fiftieth day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the fortieth day, the Feast of the Ascension. The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, these were worked out in practice and it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, in many languages, the words for Easter and Passover are identical or very similar. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, and include services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church.
The Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the area of churches on this day. Additional customs that have associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, and Easter parades. There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally, however, it is possible that Bede was only speculating about the origin of the term since there is no firm evidence that such a goddess actually existed. In Greek and Latin, the Christian celebration was, and still is, called Πάσχα, the word originally denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek, Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church, especially in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration. The New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is a foundation of the Christian faith, the resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will judge the world in righteousness.
For those who trust in Jesus death and resurrection, death is swallowed up in victory, any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead. Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation. Easter is linked to the Passover and Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection. According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the room during the Last Supper he prepared himself. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his soon to be sacrificed
King Bridei III was king of the Picts from 672 until 693. Bridei may have been born as early as 616, but no than the year 628 and he was the son of Beli, King of Alt Clut. His claim to the Fortrean Kingship came through his paternal grandfather, nennius Historia Brittonum tells us that Bridei was King Ecgfriths fratruelis, i. e. maternal first cousin. Brideis mother was probably a daughter of King Edwin of Deira, Bridei was one of the more expansionary and active of Fortrean monarchs. He attacked Dunnottar in 680/681, and campaigned against the Orcadian sub-kingdom in 682 and it is recorded that, in the following year, in 683, War broke out between the Scots of Dál Riata under Máel Dúin mac Conaill and Brideis Picts. The Scots attacked Dundurn in Strathearn, Dundurn was Brideis main powerbase in the south, a great nuclear hilltop fortress. The Scots apparently did not take Dundurn, and Bridei backed up with an attack on Dunadd, the capital of Dal Riata. We do not know if Bridei took Dunadd, but the presence of Pictish-style carvings of that period in Dunadd may mean that he took.
The lack of contemporary sources of this conflict means that not much is known about the Scottish-Pict war of 683. It is very possible that Bridei was regarded by Ecgfrith as his sub-king, the traditional interpretation is that Bridei severed this relationship, causing the invervention of Ecgfrith. This led to the famous Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685, the consequences of this battle were the expulsion of Northumbrians from southern Pictland and permanent Fortrean domination of the southern Pictish zone. Brideis death is recorded by both the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach under the year 693, traditions attributed a surviving lament for Brideis death to Saint Adomnán, abbot of Iona. Annals of Tigernach Annals of Ulster Historia Brittonum
Juliet Marillier is a New Zealand-born writer of fantasy, focusing predominantly on historical fantasy. She was educated at the University of Otago, where she graduated with a BA in languages, Marillier taught music at the high school and university levels and has served as a choral conductor and opera singer. In 2009 Marillier was diagnosed with breast cancer, Marillier lives in the Swan Valley, Western Australia
The river is the origin of the name of Inverness which is from the Scottish Gaelic, Inbhir Nis, meaning Mouth of the Ness. Dochgarroch weir at the end of Loch Dochfour delineates the start of the River Ness. At Carnarc Point on the west bank the river discharges into the end of the Beauly Firth. The northern section of the Caledonian Canal passes partly through the River Ness, the river Ness is of glacial origin. Although of short length the River Ness has one of the highest average discharge rates in the UK of 11,000 cu ft/s, River Garry, Inverness-shire River Tarff, Fort Augustus On a hill above the river in Inverness stands Inverness Castle. Next to the castle is the Inverness Museum and Art Gallery, the river is overlooked by the Eden Court Theatre, one of the largest theatres in Scotland. St. Andrews Cathedral lies on the banks of the River Ness as does Old High St Stephens which stands on a known as St Michaels Mount. Inverness draws many tourists and there are hotels along the river, the 1685 bridge was sketched by J. M. W.
The Greig Street Bridge is a suspension bridge built in Inverness in 1881. Upstream of Inverness city centre lie the Ness Islands which are popular for walks and have many fine tree specimens. The river flows through the heart of the City of Inverness, the Ness District Salmon Fishery Board is the statutory body responsible for the protection and enhancement of salmon and sea trout fisheries in the Ness District. The banks of the river are lined with lime trees, near the Ness Islands on the west bank is Bught Park which has facilities for sports and leisure. Further upstream from Bught Park is Whin Park which has a boating pond, in Cavell Gardens near the Infirmary Bridge is Inverness war memorial which commemorates the fallen of the two world wars. The memorial is made of red sandstone and is designed in the form of a Celtic cross, a major flood alleviation scheme is currently under construction in the city centre side of the river. The £8.5 million contract for this phase is being undertaken by Morgan Sindall, the Port of Inverness is situated at the mouth of the River Ness where there is a recently constructed marina offering mooring for private yachts and other vessels.
Columba went out of Brideis house and picked up a pebble from the river. He said that the pebble would be used to heal sick people in Pictland. After he had finished speaking, two came to tell them that Broichan had a seizure and they wanted Columba to help them
Fortriu or the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for a Pictish kingdom recorded between the 4th and 10th centuries, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general. While traditionally located in and around Strathearn in central Scotland, it is likely to have been located in and around Moray. The people of Fortriu left no surviving indigenous writings and the name used to describe themselves is unrecorded. The population group was first documented in the late 4th century by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, a reconstructed form in the Pictish language would be something like *Uerteru. These are examples of a pattern of Goidelic languages rendering with an f what in Brittonic languages is U/V. The word Fortriu is a reconstruction of a hypothetical nominative form for this word that has survived only in these genitive and dative cases. Anglo-Saxon sources, from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 6th century to Bede in the 8th century, refer to the group using the Old English form of the name Waerteras.
Modern scholars writing in English usually refer to the Kingdom using the name Fortriu and the adjective Verturian, traditionally the kingdom has been seen as centred on central Scotland, equivalent to the Kingdom of the Southern Picts, with a heartland perhaps in Strathearn. Over the last century or so this has become a scholarly consensus, new research by Alex Woolf seems to have destroyed this consensus, if not the idea itself. As Woolf has pointed out, the basis for it had been that a battle had taken place in Strathearn in which the Men of Fortriu had taken part. By contrast, a recension of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle makes it clear that Fortriu was north of the Mounth. Another source, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, indicates that King Dub was killed at Forres, additions to the Chronicle of Melrose confirm that Dub was killed by the men of Moray at Forres. The Prophecy of Berchán states that Mac Bethad, the king of Fortriu. As Macbeth, King of Scotland was Mormaer of Moray before he became King of Scots, Fortriu is mentioned as one of the seven ancient Pictish kingdoms in the 13th-century source known as De Situ Albanie.
There can be little or no doubt that Fortriu centred on northern Scotland, relocating Fortriu north of the Mounth increases the importance of the Vikings. The Viking impact on the north was greater than in the south, and in the north, the creation of Alba or the Kingdom of Scotland from Pictland, traditionally associated with a conquest by Kenneth MacAlpin in 843, can perhaps be better understood in this context. His correspondence concerning the find is on-going with the afore mentioned Dr Alex Woolf, there have been Pictish Z rod carvings and a settlement found on Trustys hill at Gatehouse of fleet and Galloway. Theres are numerous cup and ring carvings and megaliths in the Machars, Mormaer of Moray Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History, AD 500-1286,2 Vols, Sally M. Picts and Gaels — Early Historic Scotland
Portmahomack is a small fishing village in Easter Ross, Scotland. It is situated in the Tarbat Peninsula in the parish of Tarbat, Tarbat Ness Lighthouse is about three miles from the village at the end of the Tarbat Peninsula. Ballone Castle lies about a mile from the village, there is evidence of early settlement and the area seems to have been the site of significant activity during the time of the Picts, early Christianity and the Vikings. The village is situated on a bay and has a small harbour designed by Thomas Telford, it shares with Hunstanton the unusual distinction of being on the east coast. Portmahomack lies inside the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation with the associated dolphin, the village has a primary school, golf course, hotel, a number of places to eat and a shop with a sub-post office. The nearest rail access is at Fearn railway station and the nearest commercial airport is at Inverness Airport, the nearest town with full services is Tain lying approximately ten miles to the west.
The hamlet of Rockfield is nearby and is accessed via the village of Portmahomack, situated 9 miles east of Tain on the northern coast of the Tarbat Peninsula, Portmahomack has long been known to be on the site of early settlements. The earliest evidence of habitation is provided by shell middens pointing to settlement as early as one or two thousand years BCE, there are the remains of an Iron Age broch a little to the west of the village. In 1822 Rev Grant, minister of Boharn, described a beautiful square fortification of about 100 paces of a side near Blàr a Chath, north of the village. It was tentatively identified as a Roman camp in 1949 by O. G. S. Crawford although he did not visit the site and no trace was found of its existence during a visit. Portmahomack is the site of the first confirmed Pictish monastery and the subject between 1994 and 2007 of one of the largest archaeological investigations in Scotland directed by Martin Carver, the monastery began around 550 AD and was destroyed by fire in about 800 AD.
It had a ground with cist and head-support burials, a stone church, at least four monumental stone crosses and workshops making church plate. The making of vellum in a medieval site was detected for the first time here by Cecily Spall of FAS Ltd. The tradition of holiness survived sufficiently strongly to allow the site to become that of the medieval parish church of St Colmóc. The museum and visitor centre in St Colmócs Church is managed by the Tarbat Historic Trust, the precise identity of Colmóc is uncertain. The name is an affectionate or hypocoristic form, and could refer either to one of the many early Irish holy men with the name of Colmán. Recent research on the ancient trench around the local monastery found organic samples in the range from 140 AD to 590 AD. The area enclosed by the ditch may have been a settlement, craft-working centre and/or hub of a Pictish community, the Battle of Tarbat Ness was a land battle fought between Thorfinn the Mighty, Earl of Caithness and the King of Scotland
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. They are thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celtic, where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of brochs, Brittonic place name elements, and Pictish stones. Picts are attested to in records from before the Roman conquest of Britain to the 10th century. Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii, called Pictavia by some sources, gradually merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba. Alba expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian Lothian, Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age societies in northern Europe, having wide connections and parallels with neighbouring groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts, what the Picts called themselves is unknown. The Latin word Picti first occurs in a written by Eumenius in AD297 and is taken to mean painted or tattooed people.
Their Old English name gave the modern Scots form Pechts and the Welsh word Fichti and it is generally accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, which is the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons and it has been suggested that Cruthin referred to all Britons not conquered by the Romans—those who lived outside Roman Britannia, north of Hadrians Wall. A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity from a number of tribes—how, some scholars have speculated that it was partly in response to the growth of the Roman Empire. Pictland had previously described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii. These Romans used names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones, Taexali. But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages. It appears that Picts were not the dominant power in Northern Britain for that entire period, the Gaels of Dál Riata controlled what is present day Argyll for a time, although they suffered a series of defeats in the first third of the 7th century.
The Angles of Bernicia overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, one of which, the Picts were probably tributary to Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli, when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion. The Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland for the remainder of the Pictish period, a Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa, placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata. Pictish attempts to achieve a dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut were not successful. The Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland than elsewhere, in a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the king of Fortriu, Eógan mac Óengusa, the king of Dál Riata Áed mac Boanta, and many others
William Hole (artist)
William Brassey Hole RSA was an English artist, illustrator and engraver, known for his industrial and biblical scenes. He was educated at Edinburgh Academy, served an apprenticeship as an engineer for 5 years. In 1869, he sailed from Swansea to Genoa, and spent the next 6 months travelling and sketching around Italy, in Rome he made the acquaintance of Keeley Halswelle who gave him practical advice on art. It was Halwelle whose criticism encouraged Hole to endeavour to become a professional painter, around this time he took up etching and was accepted into the Royal Society of Painters and Etchers in 1885, he was already a member of the Royal Scottish Watercolour Society from 1884. He eventually became a member of the Academy. Hole went on to specialise in painting industrial and historical material, although an Englishman by birth, he devoted much of his energies to Scottish national subjects and purposes. Principal paintings include End of the 45, A Straggler of the Chevaliers Army, Prince Charlies Parliament, If thou hadst known and The Canterbury Pilgrims.
Other paintings included Medea in the Island of Circe, several based on Arthurian legend, of the latter, The Nights Catch and The fill of the two Boats were praised by critics. Around 1900, he travelled to Palestine in order to study the background for biblical painting, there he began working on the 80 watercolours that would eventually appear as illustrations in his book The Life of Jesus of Nazareth. In April to May 1906 these pictures were shown at an exhibition at the Fine Art Society in London and he painted scenes from the Old Testament. In 1898 Hole painted a Processional Frieze for the hall of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. A critic described this work as one of the most notable essays in mural decoration ever accomplished in this country and he provided historical paintings for Edinburgh City Chambers and ecclesiastical decorations for other buildings. Hole drew the black and white illustrations for books including works by Robert Louis Stevenson, J M Barrie. In life he lived at 13 Inverleith Terrace in north Edinburgh, Hole died in Edinburgh in 1917.
He is buried in the Grange Cemetery in the ground of James Lindsay in the centre of the north wall and his name is listed at the base of the monument along with other members of the Hole family. Barrie, J. M. Auld Licht Idylls, the life of Jesus of Nazareth, eighty pictures. Containing The Old And New Testaments, the modern school of art, Volume 4. Caw, James L. Scottish painting past and present, Gerald M. Les orientalistes de lEcole Britannique p.323
Saint Columba was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission. He founded the important abbey on Iona, which became a dominant religious and he is the Patron Saint of Derry. He was highly regarded by both the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Picts, and is remembered today as a Christian saint, Columba studied under some of Irelands most prominent church figures and founded several monasteries in the country. He remained active in Irish politics, though he spent most of the remainder of his life in Scotland, three surviving early medieval Latin hymns may be attributed to him. Columba was born to Fedlimid and Eithne of the Cenel Conaill in Gartan, near Lough Gartan, in modern County Donegal, on his fathers side, he was great-great-grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish high king of the 5th century. He was baptised in Temple-Douglas, in the County Donegal parish of Conwal, by his teacher and foster-uncle Saint Crunathan.
When sufficiently advanced in letters he entered the school of Movilla, at Newtownards. He was about twenty, and a deacon when, having completed his training at Movilla, he travelled southwards into Leinster, on leaving him, Columba entered the monastery of Clonard, governed at that time by Finnian, noted for sanctity and learning. Here he imbibed the traditions of the Welsh Church, for Finnian had been trained in the schools of St. David, in early Christian Ireland the druidic tradition collapsed due to the spread of the new Christian faith. The study of Latin learning and Christian theology in monasteries flourished, Columba became a pupil at the monastic school at Clonard Abbey, situated on the River Boyne in modern County Meath. During the sixth century, some of the most significant names in the history of Irish Christianity studied at the Clonard monastery and it is said that the average number of scholars under instruction at Clonard was 3,000. Columba was one of students of St. Finnian who became known as the Twelve Apostles of Ireland.
He became a monk and eventually was ordained a priest, another preceptor of Columba was St. Mobhi, whose monastery at Glasnevin was frequented by such famous men as St. Canice, St. Comgall, and St. Ciaran. A pestilence which devastated Ireland in 544 caused the dispersion of Mobhis disciples, and Columba returned to Ulster and he was a striking figure of great stature and powerful build, with a loud, melodious voice which could be heard from one hilltop to another. The following years were marked by the foundation of important monasteries, County Londonderry, County Offaly, County Meath. While at Derry it is said that he planned a pilgrimage to Rome and Jerusalem, thence he brought a copy of those gospels that had lain on the bosom of St. Martin for the space of 100 years. This relic was deposited in Derry, tradition asserts that, sometime around 560, he became involved in a quarrel with Saint Finnian of Movilla Abbey over a psalter. Columba copied the manuscript at the scriptorium under Saint Finnian, intending to keep the copy, Saint Finnian disputed his right to keep the copy