Abbot of Iona
The Abbot of Iona was the head of Iona Abbey during the Middle Ages and the leader of the monastic community of Iona, as well as the overlord of scores of monasteries in both Scotland and Ireland, including Durrow, Kells and, for a time, Lindisfarne. It was one of the most prestigious clerical positions in Dark Age Europe, was visited by kings and bishops of the Picts and English; the Ionan abbots had the status of Comarba of Colum Cille, i.e. the successors of that Saint, Columba. Iona's position as head of the Columban network of churches declines over time, with abbots based at Derry, Raphoe and Dunkeld. In Scotland, the abbots of Dunkeld ruled much of central Scotland in the 11th century, functioned as some of the most important politicians of northern Britain. One of the abbots, Crínán, married Bethóc ingen Maíl Coluim, the daughter of King Máel Coluim II, became the progenitor of the so-called House of Dunkeld, which ruled Scotland until the thirteenth century. Dunkeld became a bishopric, the monks based at Inchcolm Abbey became Augustinians.
At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the monks of Iona adopted the Benedictine rule. Iona was re-endowed in 1203 by Raghnall mac Somhairle, son of Somerled, king of Argyll and the Isles. During the abbacies of Diarmait and Indrechtach certainly because of Viking attacks, the relics of Columba were moved to other monastic houses in the Columban familia, such as Kells and Dunkeld; the position of abbot on Iona ceases to have the same significance within the Columban monastic familia, many comarbai are not based on the island. None of the following comarbai Coluim Cille are based at Iona, but rather Derry. Http://foundationsirishculture.ie/record/?id=52
A Pictish stone is a type of monumental stele carved or incised with symbols or designs. A few have ogham inscriptions. Located in Scotland north of the Clyde-Forth line and on the Eastern side of the country, these stones are the most visible remaining evidence of the Picts and are thought to date from the 6th to 9th century, a period during which the Picts became Christianized; the earlier stones have no parallels from the rest of the British Isles, but the forms are variations within a wider Insular tradition of monumental stones such as high crosses. About 350 objects classified as Pictish stones have survived, the earlier examples of which holding by far the greatest number of surviving examples of the mysterious Pictish symbols, which have long intrigued scholars. In The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland J Romilly Allen and Joseph Anderson first classified Pictish stones into three groups. Critics have noted weaknesses in this system but it is known and still used in the field. In particular, the classification may be misleading for the many incomplete stones.
Allen and Anderson regarded their classes as coming from distinct periods in sequence, but it is now clear that there was a considerable period when both Class I and II stones were being produced. Class I — unworked stones with symbols only incised. There is no cross on either side. Class I stones date back to the 7th and 8th century. Class II — stones of more or less rectangular shape with a large cross and symbol on one or both sides; the symbols, as well as Christian motifs, are carved in relief and the cross with its surroundings is filled with designs. Class II stones date from the 9th century. Class III — these stones feature no idiomatic Pictish symbols; the stones can be cross-slabs, recumbent gravemarkers, free-standing crosses, composite stone shrines. They originate in the 9th century. Historic Scotland describes this class as "too simplistic" and says "Nowadays this is not considered a useful category. A surviving fragment may belong to a monument that did include Christian imagery". Scottish stones merge into wider medieval British and European traditions.
The purpose and meaning of the stones are only understood, the various theories proposed for the early Class I symbol stones, that are considered to pre-date the spread of Christianity to the Picts, are speculative. Many Christian stones from Class II and Class III fall more into recognisable categories such as gravestones; the earlier symbol stones may have served as personal memorials or territorial markers, with symbols for individual names, lineages or kindreds, although there are several other theories, proposed explanations of the meanings of the symbols. Class I and II stones contain symbols from a recognisable set of standard ideograms, many unique to Pictish art, which are known as the Pictish symbols; the exact number of distinct Pictish symbols is uncertain as there is some debate as to what constitutes a Pictish symbol, whether some varied forms should be counted together or separately. The more inclusive estimates are in excess of sixty different symbols, but a more typical estimate is "around thirty", or "around forty" according to Historic Scotland.
These include geometric symbols which have been assigned descriptive names by researchers such as "crescent" "V-rod" "double disc and Z-rod" "mirror and comb" "triple disc"and outline representations of animals such as adder salmon wolf stag eagle Pictish Beast Some are representations of everyday objects, such as the "mirror and comb", which could have been used by high-status Picts. The symbols are always arranged in pairs or sets of pairs with the object type, such as the mirror and comb, below the others, the animals are only found in combination with the abstract types. Hence some think they could represent names, lineage, or kinships, such as the clans of two parents, analogous to the Japanese mon. According to Anthony Jackson the symbol pairs represent matrilineal marriage alliances. A small number of Pictish stones have been found associated with burials, but most are not in their original locations; some stones may have marked tribal or lineage territories. Some were re-used for other purposes, such as the two Congash Stones near Grantown-on-Spey, now placed as portal stones for an old graveyard.
The shaft of an old cross is lying in the field. Another Pictish stone, the Dunachton Stone near Kincraig, was used as a door lintel in a barn; this was discovered when the building was dismantled in 1870. The stone was re-erected in the field, it fell, after being photographed in 2007, but was re-erected again a few years by the owner of Dunachton Lodge. The symbols are found on some of the rare survivals of Pictish jewellery, such as the pair of silver plaques from the Norrie's Law hoard found in Fife in the early 19th century, the Whitecleuch Chain; the symbols are sometimes found on other movable objects like small stone discs and bones from the Northern Isles. Simple or early forms of the symbols are carved on the walls of coastal caves at East Wemyss and Covesea, Moray, it is therefore thought that they were represented in other more perishable forms that have not survived in the archaeological record including clothing and tattoos. Some symbols appear across the whole geographical range of the stones while, for example, six stones with the single symbol of a bull found at Burghead Fort suggest that this represented the place itself, or its owners, despite other examples appearing elsewhere.
A team from Exeter University, using mathematical analysis, have concluded that the symbols in the Pic
Dunadd is a hillfort dating from the Iron Age and early medieval period in Kilmichael Glassary in Argyll and Bute and believed to be the capital of the ancient kingdom of Dál Riata. Dal Riata, as a kingdom, appeared in Argyll in the early centuries AD, after the Romans had abandoned Scotland. Rulers of Argyll were Gaelic speakers. Dunadd is a hill. Dunadd is a rocky crag that may have been one time an island and now lies inland near the River Add, from which it takes its name, a little north of Lochgilphead; the surrounding land, now reclaimed, was boggy and known as the Mòine Mhòr'Great Moss' in Gaelic. This no doubt increased the defensive potential of the site. Detailed analysis of sea-level changes in the region argue that the Dun was an island or promontory into historic times, that receding sea levels left the fortification open to siege and seizure in the 6th to 7th centuries Originally occupied in the Iron Age, the site became a seat of the kings of Dál Riata, it is known for its unique stone carvings below the upper enclosure, including a footprint and basin thought to have formed part of Dál Riata's coronation ritual.
On the same flat outcrop of rock is an incised boar in Pictish style, an inscription in the ogham script. The inscription is dated to the late 8th century or after. Dunadd is mentioned twice in early sources. In 683 the Annals of Ulster record: "The siege of Dún At and the siege of Dún Duirn" without further comment on the outcome or participants. In the same chronicle the entry for 736 states: "Aengus son of Fergus, king of the Picts, laid waste the territory of Dál Riata and seized Dún At and burned Creic and bound in chains two sons of Selbach, i.e. Donngal and Feradach."The site was occupied after 736, at least into the 9th century. It is mentioned twice in sources, suggesting that it retained some importance. In 1436, it is recorded that "Alan son of John Riabhach MacLachlan of Dunadd" was made seneschal of the lands of Glassary. In June 1506, commissioners appointed by James IV, including the earl and bishop of Argyll, met at Dunadd to collect rents and resolve feuds; the site is an Ancient Monument, under the care of Historic Scotland, is open to the public.
Because Dunadd is mentioned in early sources, is identifiable, it has been excavated on several occasions and has one of the most important ensembles of finds from any early medieval site in Scotland. Finds range from the 6th to the 8th centuries AD; these include tools, quernstones, imported pottery and motif-pieces and moulds for the manufacture of fine metalwork. In Rosemary Sutcliff's 1965 novel The Mark of the Horse Lord the Dal Riada undergo an internal struggle for control of royal succession, with Dun Monaidh central to the conflict, including a depiction of royal coronation and use of carved footprint. Dunadd is the location for Claire R. McDougall's novel "Veil of Time," in which a modern-day woman is transported back to Dunadd's heyday in the 8th century. All the features of Dunadd, including the footprint, the boar, the well and the tumble down ruins are features of the story, as are the modern farm and cottages. Other ancient sites in the Kilmartin Valley play a part in the narrative.
Petrosomatoglyph Three Dimensional Modelling of Scottish Early Medieval Sculpted Stones AVI, QuickTime and VRML format images of Dunadd and the surrounds. The Kingdom of the Gaels, BBC Scotland - Scotland's History Brief history with photos with respect to the Siol Alpin56°5′9.33″N 5°28′42.55″W
Deira was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in Northern England. The kingdom was inhabited by Britons and was first recorded when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley in the latter half of the fifth century. Deira's territory extended from the Humber to the Tees, from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York, it merged with the kingdom of Bernicia, its northern neighbour, to form the kingdom of Northumbria. The name of the kingdom is of Brythonic origin from Daru, meaning "oak", in which case it would mean "the people of the Derwent", a derivation found in the Latin name for Malton, Derventio; the modern Gaelic'Doire' is the same word. The origin of the name for County Londonderry and city of Derry stems from this word with an oak being featured on the crest of Derry GAA. According to Simeon of Durham, it extended from the Humber to the Tyne, but the land was waste north of the Tees. After the Brythonic kingdom centred on Eboracum, which may have been called Ebrauc, was taken by King Edwin, the city of Eboracum became its capital, Eoforwic was taken by the Angles.
The first Anglian king of Deira of whom we have any record is Ælla, who flourished in the 6th century after conquering the realm from the Britons in 581. After his death, Deira was subject to king Æthelfrith of Bernicia, who united the two kingdoms into Northumbria. Æthelfrith ruled until the accession of Ælla's son Edwin, in 616 or 617, who ruled both kingdoms until 633. Osric, the nephew of Edwin, ruled Deira after Edwin, but his son Oswine was put to death by Oswiu in 651. For a few years subsequently, Deira was governed by Æthelwald son of Oswald of Bernicia. Bede wrote of Deira in his Historia Ecclesiastica. Higham, N. J.. The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–1100. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 0-86299-730-5 Mackenzie, E.. An Historical and Descriptive View of the County Palatine of Durham, I, Newcastle upon Tyne: Mackenzie and Dent, p. xi, retrieved 2008-07-23 Geake, Helen & Kenny, Jonathan. Early Deira: Archaeological studies of the East Riding in the fourth to ninth centuries AD. Oxford: Oxbow. ISBN 1-900188-90-2
Gowrie is a region and ancient province of Scotland, covering the eastern sliver of what became Perthshire. It was located to the immediate east of Atholl, included the area around Perth, though, detached as Perthia, its chief settlement is the city of Perth. Today it is most associated with the Carse of Gowrie, the part of Gowrie south of the Sidlaw Hills running east of Perth to Dundee, it is written as Goverin or Gouerin in the Latin of the Middle Ages. The Old Gaelic terms Circinn and Mag Gerghinn, may be related. Alex Woolf and William J. Watson both implied; the modern Gaelic for the province is Gobharaidh. Gowrie contains some of the best farmland in the whole of Scotland, a key to explaining its importance in Scottish history; the Carse of Gowrie, the southern part of the region, has traditionally been called the "Garden of Scotland". Coupar, the location of Coupar Angus Abbey, lay at the borders of Angus with Gowrie on the Gowrie side. Blairgowrie, "Plain of Gowrie", was recorded as "Blair in Gowrie" in 1604, the Blair element has -gowrie attached to it to distinguish it from Blair in Atholl, i.e. Blair Atholl.
Abernethy, where the cross of MacDuff marked the boundary of the kindred, was the boundary between Fothriff and Gowrie. The following is a list of modern settlements and places of interest in the province: Forteviot, physically on the Earn, was included in the St Andrews deanery of Gowrie not in Strathearn, it is unclear if Gowrie was thought to include the province of Stormont. The Scottish royal coronation site was located at Scone. Containing sites such as Scone and Forteviot, originally Abernethy, it was the core province of the early Kingdom of Scotland. In the 12th century, when detailed records begin, the king possessed four royal manors in the province; those four royal manors were held by the crown in addition to the rest of the province, which the king held as mormaer. In either the reign of Alexander I or David I a burgh was founded in the province, located at Perth, it had a sheriff, called the "Sheriff of Gowrie" or "Sheriff of Scone", from the 1130s until at least 1228. It is not clear if this sheriff was distinct from the "Sheriff of Perth", as Perth and Scone were thought of as the same location, being only two miles apart.
There are judices, "Brehons", of the province of Gowrie recorded from the 12th century into the 14th century. These men were the specialist lawmen for the province, who preserved legal knowledge relevant to the provincial community, it is that every province of Scotland had lawmen designated for such purposes. Ecclesiastically, Gowrie was controlled by the Bishop of St Andrews. Half a dozen or so of the parish churches in Gowrie were under the control of the bishops of Dunblane and Dunkeld. Gowrie was recreated as an earldom for William Ruthven, Lord Ruthven in 1581. John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, the second son of William Ruthven, was involved in the famous Gowrie Conspiracy of 1600, which led to the forfeiture of the earldom; the title of Earl of Gowrie was resurrected in 1945 for a descendant of the 2nd Earl. The area covered by the sheriff of Perth - the sheriffdom - included Atholl and Strathearn, as well as Gowrie. In the mid 19th century, local government reforms replaced the ancient provinces by new Counties, aligned to sheriffdom boundaries.
Barrow, G. W. S; the Acts of Malcolm IV, Barrow, G. W. S. "The Judex", in G. W. S. Barrow The Kingdom of the Scots, pp. 57–67 Duncan, A. A. M; the Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence, Duncan, A. A. M. Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, Alexander, "Thanes and Thanages, from the eleventh to the Fourteenth Centuries" in A. Grant & K. Stringer, Medieval Scotland: Crown and Community, Essays Presented to G. W. S. Barrow, pp. 39–81 Juhala, Amy L. "Ruthven, third earl of Gowrie", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 11 Nov 2007 MacGregor, Lindsay J. & Oram, Richard and Gowrie: North Perthshire, A Historical Guide, Reid, N. H. & Barrow, G. W. S; the Sheriffs of Scotland: An Interim List to C.1306, David, Scottish Place-Names, Watson, W. J; the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland, with an Introduction, full Watson bibliography and corrigenda by Simon Taylor Woolf, From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070, 56.44°N 3.23°W / 56.44.
Orkney known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of the isle of Great Britain. Orkney is 10 miles north of the coast of Caithness and comprises 70 islands, of which 20 are inhabited; the largest island, Mainland, is referred to as "the Mainland", has an area of 523 square kilometres, making it the sixth-largest Scottish island and the tenth-largest island in the British Isles. The largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall. Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a lieutenancy area, a historic county; the local council is Orkney Islands Council, one of only three Councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents. A form of the name dates to the pre-Roman era and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8,500 years occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes and by the Picts. Orkney was colonized and annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse.
The Scottish Parliament annexed the earldom to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James III's bride Margaret of Denmark. In addition to the Mainland, most of the islands are in two groups, the North and South Isles, all of which have an underlying geological base of Old Red Sandstone; the climate is mild and the soils are fertile, most of the land being farmed. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy; the significant wind and marine energy resources are of growing importance, the island generates more than its total yearly electricity demand using renewables. The local people are known as Orcadians and have a distinctive dialect of the Scots language and a rich inheritance of folklore. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site and there is an abundance of marine and avian wildlife. Pytheas of Massilia visited Britain – sometime between 322 and 285 BC – and described it as triangular in shape, with a northern tip called Orcas.
This may have referred to Dunnet Head. Writing in the 1st century AD, the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela called the islands Orcades, as did Tacitus in 98 AD, claiming that his father-in-law Agricola had "discovered and subjugated the Orcades hitherto unknown" Etymologists interpret the element orc- as a Pictish tribal name meaning "young pig" or "young boar". Speakers of Old Irish referred to the islands as Insi Orc "island of the pigs"; the archipelago is known as Ynysoedd Erch in modern Welsh and Arcaibh in modern Scottish Gaelic, the -aibh representing a fossilized prepositional case ending. Some earlier sources alternately hypothesize that Orkney comes from whale; the Anglo-Saxon monk Bede refers to the islands as Orcades insulae in his seminal work Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Norwegian settlers arriving from the late ninth century reinterpreted orc as the Old Norse orkn "seal" and added eyjar "islands" to the end so the name became Orkneyjar "Seal Islands"; the plural suffix -jar was removed in English leaving the modern name "Orkney".
According to the Historia Norwegiæ, Orkney was named. The Norse knew Mainland, Orkney as Megenland "Mainland" or as Hrossey "Horse Island"; the island is sometimes referred to as Pomona, a name that stems from a sixteenth-century mistranslation by George Buchanan, used locally. A charred hazelnut shell, recovered in 2007 during excavations in Tankerness on the Mainland has been dated to 6820–6660 BC indicating the presence of Mesolithic nomadic tribes; the earliest known permanent settlement is at Knap of Howar, a Neolithic farmstead on the island of Papa Westray, which dates from 3500 BC. The village of Skara Brae, Europe's best-preserved Neolithic settlement, is believed to have been inhabited from around 3100 BC. Other remains from that era include the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Maeshowe passage grave, the Ring of Brodgar and other standing stones. Many of the Neolithic settlements were abandoned around 2500 BC due to changes in the climate. During the Bronze Age fewer large stone structures were built although the great ceremonial circles continued in use as metalworking was introduced to Britain from Europe over a lengthy period.
There are few Orcadian sites dating from this era although there is the impressive Plumcake Mound near the Ring of Brodgar and various islands sites such as Tofts Ness on Sanday and the remains of two houses on Holm of Faray. Excavations at Quanterness on the Mainland have revealed an Atlantic roundhouse built about 700 BC and similar finds have been made at Bu on the Mainland and Pierowall Quarry on Westray; the most impressive Iron Age structures of Orkney are the ruins of round towers called "brochs" and their associated settlements such as the Broch of Burroughston and Broch of Gurness. The nature and origin of these buildings is a subject of ongoing debate. Other structures from this period include underground storehouses, aisled roundhouses, the latter in association with earlier broch sites. During the Roman invasion of Britain the "King of Orkney" was one of 11 British leaders, said to have submitted to the Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at Colchester. After the Agricolan fleet had come and gone anchoring at Shapinsay, direct Roman influence seems to have been limited to trade rather than conquest.
By the late Iron Age, Orkney was part of the Pictish kingdom, although the archaeological remains from this period are less
Aberlemno is a parish and small village in the Scottish council area of Angus. It is noted for three large carved Pictish stones dating from the 7th and 8th centuries AD. Two stones stand by the B9134 Forfar-Brechin road, the Kirkyard Stone stands in the nearby graveyard of the parish church, it is said. The parish of Aberlemno had a population of 544 at the 2011 Census. A genus of fossil plants first found in a nearby quarry is named Aberlemnia in honour of the location. A notable Scottish-American poet and editor, James Mackintosh Kennedy, was born in Aberlemno in 1848, developed his interest in literature through books lent to him by the Aberlemno church. Aberlemno is notable for the presence of four early Medieval Standing Stones, as well as a fifth, on display at McManus Galleries. List of places in Angus Crombie, J.. The new statistical account of Scotland, Parish of Aberlemno, Forfarshire. Retrieved 2009-02-12. Cummins, WA; the Picts and their symbols. Stroud, Gloucester: Sutton Publishing. Fraser, James E.
The Pictish Conquest: The Battle Of Dunnichen 685 and the Birth of Scotland, Gloucester: Tempus Jervise, Andrew. "Notices descriptive of the localities of certain sculptured stone monuments in Forfarshire, &c.". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 2: 187–201. Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. Laing, L. "The Chronology and Context of Pictish Relief Sculpture". Medieval Archaeology. 34: 81–114. Doi:10.1179/med.2000.44.1.81. Archived from the original on 2011-06-13. Mitchel, A.. The statistical account of Scotland, Parish of Aberlemno, County of Forfar. Retrieved 2009-02-12. Nennius. "Historia Brittonum". Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Aberlemno Stones: I, II, III, V Aberlemno Sculptured Stones