Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803. Norfolk is located at the core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, named for the large natural harbor of the same name located at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, it is one of nine cities and seven counties that constitute the Hampton Roads metro area known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA. The city is bordered to the north by the Chesapeake Bay, it shares land borders with the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beach to its east. Norfolk is one of the oldest cities in Hampton Roads, is considered to be the historic, urban and cultural center of the region; the city has a long history as a strategic transportation point. The largest Navy base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk, is located in Norfolk along with one of NATO's two Strategic Command headquarters; the city has the corporate headquarters of Norfolk Southern Railway, one of North America's principal Class I railroads, Maersk Line, which manages the world's largest fleet of US-flag vessels.
As the city is bordered by multiple bodies of water, Norfolk has many miles of riverfront and bayfront property, including beaches on the Chesapeake Bay. It is linked to its neighbors by an extensive network of interstate highways, bridges and three bridge-tunnel complexes, which are the only bridge-tunnels in the United States. In 1619 the Governor of the Virginia Colony, Sir George Yeardley, incorporated four jurisdictions, termed citties, for the developed portion of the colony; these formed the basis for colonial representative government in the newly minted House of Burgesses. What would become Norfolk was put under the Elizabeth Cittie incorporation. In 1634 King Charles I reorganized the colony into a system of shires; the former Elizabeth Cittie became Elizabeth City Shire. After persuading 105 people to settle in the colony, Adam Thoroughgood was granted a large land holding, through the head rights system, along the Lynnhaven River in 1636; when the South Hampton Roads portion of the shire was separated, Thoroughgood suggested the name of his birthplace for the newly formed New Norfolk County.
One year it was divided into two counties, Upper Norfolk and Lower Norfolk, chiefly on Thoroughgood's recommendation. This area of Virginia became known as the place of entrepreneurs, including men of the Virginia Company of London. Norfolk developed in the late-seventeenth century as a "Half Moone" fort was constructed and 50 acres were acquired from local natives of the Powhatan Confederacy in exchange for 10,000 pounds of tobacco; the House of Burgesses established the "Towne of Lower Norfolk County" in 1680. In 1691, a final county subdivision took place when Lower Norfolk County split to form Norfolk County and Princess Anne County. Norfolk was incorporated in 1705. In 1730, a tobacco inspection site was located here. According to the Tobacco Inspection Act, the inspection was "At Norfolk Town, upon the fort land, in the County of Norfolk. In 1736 George II granted it a royal charter as a borough. By 1775, Norfolk developed into what contemporary observers argued was the most prosperous city in Virginia.
It was an important port for exporting goods beyond. In part because of its merchants' numerous trading ties with other parts of the British Empire, Norfolk served as a strong base of Loyalist support during the early part of the American Revolution. After fleeing the colonial capital of Williamsburg, the Royal Governor of Virginia, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, tried to reestablish control of the colony from Norfolk. Dunmore secured small victories at Norfolk but was soon driven into exile by the Virginia militia, commanded by Colonel Woodford, his departure brought an end to more than 168 years of British colonial rule in Virginia. On New Year's Day, 1776, Lord Dunmore's fleet of three ships shelled the city of Norfolk for more than eight hours; the gunfire, combined with fires started by the British and spread by the Patriots, destroyed more than 800 buildings, constituting nearly two-thirds of the city. The Patriot forces destroyed the remaining buildings for strategic reasons the following month.
Only the walls of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church survived subsequent fires. A cannonball from the bombardment remains within the wall of Saint Paul's. Following recovery from the Revolutionary War's burning and her citizens struggled to rebuild. In 1804, another serious fire along the city's waterfront destroyed some 300 buildings and the city suffered a serious economic setback. During the 1820s, agrarian communities across the American South suffered a prolonged recession, which caused many families to migrate to other areas. Many moved further into Kentucky and Tennessee; such migration followed the exhaustion of soil due to tobacco cultivation in the Tidewater, where it had been the primary commodity crop for generations. Virginia made some attempts to phase out slavery and manumissions increased in the two decades following the war. Thomas Jefferson Randolph gained passage of an 1832 resolution for gradual abolition in the state. However, by that time the increased demand fr
Kawasaki is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It is the 8th most populated city in Japan and one of the main cities forming the Greater Tokyo Area and Keihin Industrial Area; as of October 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 1,503,690, with 716,470 households, a population density of 10,000 persons per km2. The total area is 142.70 km2. Kawasaki is governed by Mayor Norihiko Fukuda, an independent elected on 27 October 2013; the city assembly has 63 elected members. Mayor Fukuda was re-elected to a second term in office on 22 October 2017. Kawasaki mayoral election, 2005 Kawasaki Stadium: Located in Kawasaki-ku. Opened in 1952, was used as a home field for professional baseball teams from 1954 to 1991; the stands were taken down in 2001, is used for American football games and other events in addition to baseball. Kawasaki Todoroki Baseball Stadium: Located in Nakahara-ku. Maximum capacity of 5,000 people. Used for preliminary rounds of high school baseball and American football games.
Todoroki Athletics Stadium: Located in Nakahara-ku. Maximum capacity of 25,000 people. Opened in 1964, the stadium underwent several renovations before becoming the home field for the Kawasaki Frontale. Used for track & field competitions. Kawasaki Prefectural Gymnasium: Located in Kawasaki-ku. Opened in 1956, is used for Puroresu matches. 20 minutes walking distance from Kawasaki Station's east entrance. Kawasaki Todoroki Arena: Located in Nakahara-ku. International field athletics and volleyball matches are held here, in addition to various musical concerts. Velodrome: Kawasaki Velodrome Kawasaki Keiba Fujitsu's Main Branch is located in Nakahara-ku, it was Fujitsu's headquarters. Kawasaki has several factories and development bases of the companies of heavy industry and high technology. ■ East Japan Railway Company ■ Tōkaidō Main Line - Kawasaki - ■ Keihin-Tōhoku Line - Kawasaki - ■ Nambu Line Main Line: Kawasaki - Shitte - Yakō - Kashimada - Hirama - Mukaigawara - Musashi-Kosugi - Musashi-Nakahara - Musashi-Shinjō - Musashi-Mizonokuchi - Tsudayama - Kuji - Shukugawara - Noborito - Nakanoshima - Inadazutsumi - Branch Line: Shitte - Hatchōnawate - Kawasaki-Shinmachi - Hama-Kawasaki ■ Tsurumi Line Main Line: - Musashi-Shiraishi - Hama-Kawasaki - Shōwa - Ōgimachi Ōkawa Branch: - Ōkawa ■ Yokosuka Line, Shōnan-Shinjuku Line - Musashi-Kosugi - Shin-Kawasaki -■ Odakyu Electric Railway ■ Odakyū Line - Noborito - Mukōgaoka-Yūen - Ikuta - Yomiuri-Land-mae - Yurigaoka - Shin-Yurigaoka - Kakio ■ Tama Line Shin-Yurigaoka - Satsukidai - Kurihira - Kurokawa - Haruhino -■ Keio Corporation ■ Sagamihara Line - Keiō-Inadazutsumi - Keiō-Yomiuri-Land - Inagi - Wakabadai■ Keikyu Corporation ■ Keikyū Main Line - Hatchōnawate - Keikyū Kawasaki - ■ Daishi Line Keikyū Kawasaki - Minatochō - Suzukichō - Kawasaki-Daishi - Higashi-Monzen - Sangyō-Dōro - Kojimashinden■ Tokyu Corporation ■ Tōyoko Line - Shin-Maruko - Musashi-Kosugi - Motosumiyoshi - ■ Meguro Line - Shin-Maruko - Musashi-Kosugi - Motosumiyoshi - ■ Den-en-toshi Line - Futako-Shinchi - Takatsu - Mizonokuchi - Kajigaya - Miyazakidai - Miyamaedaira - Saginuma - ■ Ōimachi Line - Futako-Shinchi - Takatsu - Mizonokuchi Expressway Tōmei Expressway is a north-south expressway running from Tokyo to Nagoya and in central area.
Tōmei-Kawasaki Interchange is served from Kawasaki. Daisan Keihin Road is a north-south expressway running from Tokyo to Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama and in central area. Keihin-Kawasaki Interchange is served from Kawasaki. Shuto Expressway Route K1 is a north-south expressway running from Shuto Expressway Route 1 to Shuto Expressway Route K3 and in southern area. Daishi Interchange, Hama-Kawasaki Interchange, Asada Interchange are served from Kawasaki. Bayshore Route is a north-south expressway running from Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama to Ichikawa, Chiba and in southern area. Ukishima Interchange and Higashi-Ōgishima Interchange are served from Kawasaki. Shuto Expressway Route K6 is an expressway in southern area. Daishi Interchange, Tonomachi Interchange, Ukishima Interchange are served from Kawasaki. Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line is an expressway across Tokyo Bay from Kawasaki to Kisarazu, Chiba. Ukishima Interchange is served from Kawasaki. National Route National Route 1 and 15 are north-south highways running in southern area.
Due to elongated territory from east to west, these highways run short length in Kawasaki. Japan National Route 246 is a north-south highways running in central area, it runs short length in Kawasaki. Japan National Route 132 is short highway running in southern area, it bounds port of kawasaki. Japan National Route 357 is an industrial highway in southern area, it runs only in Higashi-Ōgishima Island in Kawasaki. Japan National Route 409 is a highway running from Kawasaki to Narita, Chiba, it bounds central downtown area in Kawasaki. Kanayama Shrine: Site of the annual Kanamara Matsuri. Kawasaki Daishi: the second most visited temple in the Kantō region Nihon Minka-en: a park with a collection of 20 minka, or traditional farmhouses, from various areas in Japan Koreatown: eastern Kawasaki has the second largest concentration of Koreans in Japan after Osaka. In 1997 it became the first municipality to allow non-Japanese nationals to take civil service employment. Todoroki Ryokuchi: athletic park Fujiko F. Fujio Museum: known as Doraemon museum, opened on September 3, 2011, in Tama-ku Ward.
Nakagawa stable: stable of professional su
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U. S. states of Virginia. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula with its mouth located between Cape Henry and Cape Charles. With its northern portion in Maryland and the southern part in Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay is a important feature for the ecology and economy of those two states, as well as others. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the Bay's 64,299-square-mile drainage basin, which covers parts of six states and all of Washington, D. C; the Bay is 200 miles long from its northern headwaters in the Susquehanna River to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 2.8 miles wide at 30 miles at its widest. Total shoreline including tributaries is 11,684 miles, circumnavigating a surface area of 4,479 square miles. Average depth is 21 feet; the Bay is spanned twice, in Maryland by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge from Sandy Point to Kent Island and in Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel connecting Virginia Beach to Cape Charles.
Known for both its beauty and bounty, the Bay has become "emptier", with fewer crabs and watermen in past years. Recent restoration efforts begun in the 1990s have been ongoing and show potential for growth of the native oyster population; the health of the Chesapeake Bay improved in 2015, marking three years of gains over the past four years, according to a new report by the University of Maryland. The word Chesepiooc is an Algonquian word referring to a village "at a big river", it is the seventh oldest surviving English place-name in the United States, first applied as "Chesepiook" by explorers heading north from the Roanoke Colony into a Chesapeake tributary in 1585 or 1586. The name may refer to the Chesapeake people or the Chesepian, a Native American tribe who inhabited the area now known as South Hampton Roads in the U. S. state of Virginia. They occupied an area, now the Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach areas. In 2005, Algonquian linguist Blair Rudes "helped to dispel one of the area's most held beliefs: that'Chesapeake' means something like'great shellfish bay.'
It does not, Rudes said. The name might have meant something like'great water,' or it might have just referred to a village location at the Bay's mouth." In addition, the name is always prefixed by "the" in usage by local residents: "The Chesapeake", "The Chesapeake Bay" and "The Bay". The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary to the North Atlantic, lying between the Delmarva Peninsula to the east and the North American mainland to the west, it is the ria, or drowned valley, of the Susquehanna River, meaning that it was the alluvial plain where the river flowed when the sea level was lower. It is not a fjord, because the Laurentide Ice Sheet never reached as far south as the northernmost point on the Bay. North of Baltimore, the western shore borders the hilly Piedmont region of Maryland; the large rivers entering the Bay from the west have broad mouths and are extensions of the main ria for miles up the course of each river. The Bay's geology, its present form, its location were created by a bolide impact event at the end of the Eocene, forming the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and the Susquehanna River valley much later.
The Bay was formed starting about 10,000 years ago when rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age flooded the Susquehanna River valley. Parts of the Bay the Calvert County, coastline, are lined by cliffs composed of deposits from receding waters millions of years ago; these cliffs known as Calvert Cliffs, are famous for their fossils fossilized shark teeth, which are found washed up on the beaches next to the cliffs. Scientists' Cliffs is a beach community in Calvert County named for the desire to create a retreat for scientists when the community was founded in 1935. Much of the Bay is shallow. At the point where the Susquehanna River flows into the Bay, the average depth is 30 feet, although this soon diminishes to an average of 10 feet southeast of the city of Havre de Grace, Maryland, to about 35 feet just north of Annapolis. On average, the depth of the Bay is 21 feet, including tributaries; because the Bay is an estuary, it has salt water and brackish water. Brackish water has three salinity zones: oligohaline and polyhaline.
The freshwater zone runs from the mouth of the Susquehanna River to north Baltimore. The oligohaline zone has little salt. Salinity varies from 0.5 ppt to 10 ppt, freshwater species can survive there. The north end of the oligohaline zone is north Baltimore and the south end is the Chesapeake Bay Bridge; the mesohaline zone has a medium amount of salt and runs from the Bay Bridge to the mouth of the Rappahannock River. Salinity there ranges from 10.7 ppt to 18 ppt. The polyhaline zone is the saltiest zone, some of the water can be as salty as sea water, it runs from the mouth of the Rappahannock River to the mouth of the Bay. The salinity ranges from 18.7 ppt to 36 ppt. The climate of the area surrounding the Bay i
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is 405 miles long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed; the river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point". Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank; the South Branch Potomac River lies within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.
The Potomac River runs 405 miles from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles. The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles; the average daily flow during the water years 1931-2018 was 11,498 cubic feet /s. The highest average daily flow recorded on the Potomac at Little Falls, was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet /s; the lowest average daily flow recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet /s in September 1966 The highest crest of the Potomac registered at Little Falls was 28.10 ft, on March 19, 1936. The river has two sources; the source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland Virginia; the river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.
As it flows from its headwaters down to the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac traverses five geological provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont Plateau, the Atlantic coastal plain. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream; the estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout and Smith Point, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. "Potomac" is a European spelling of Patawomeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank. Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese" and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans"; the spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" to "Patomake", "Patowmack", numerous other variations in the 18th century and now "Potomac".
The river's name was decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least 3.5 million years old extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods; the Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck. Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D. C. the nation's capital city lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown.
General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D. C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital; the river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac. The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and connected Cumberland to Washington, D. C; this allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the
Bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River
The bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River carry rail and road traffic across China's longest and largest river and form a vital part of the country's transportation infrastructure. The river bisects China proper from west to east, every major north-south bound highway and railway must cross the Yangtze. Large urban centers along the river such as Chongqing and Nanjing have urban mass transit rail lines crossing the Yangtze. Pontoon bridges have been used by militaries for two thousand years on the Yangtze, but until the completion of the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge in 1957, there were no permanent bridges along the main stretch of the river known as Chang Jiang, from Yibin to the river mouth in Shanghai, a distance of 2,884 km. Since over 75 bridges and six tunnels have been built over this stretch, the overwhelming majority since 1990, they reflect a broad array of bridge designs and, in many cases, represent significant achievements in modern bridge engineering. Several rank among the world's longest suspension, cable-stayed, arch bridges and box girder bridges as well as some of the highest and tallest bridges.
Upriver from Yibin, bridge spans are more common along the Jinsha and Tongtian sections where the Yangtze is much narrower, although numerous new bridges are being added. The oldest bridge still in use is the Jinlong, a simple suspension bridge over the Jinsha section of the river in Lijiang, Yunnan, built in 1880 and rebuilt in the 1936. Due to changes in the designation of the source of the Yangtze, various sections of the river have been thought of as distinct rivers with different names; the bridges and tunnels of the Yangtze have compound names consisting of the location name and the river section name. Today, the river has four sectional names in: Tuotuo, Tongtian and Chang Jiang; the Tuotuo River, considered the official headstream of the Yangtze, flows 358 km from the glaciers of the Gelaindong massif in the Tanggula Mountains of southwestern Qinghai to the confluence with the Dangqu River to form the Tongtian River. The Tongtian continues for 813 km to the confluence with the Batang River at Yushu in south central Qinghai.
The Jinsha or Gold Sands River continues for 2,308 km along the border of western Sichuan with Qinghai and Yunnan, through northern Yunnan and southern Sichuan to the confluence with the Min River at Yibin in south central Sichuan. Chang Jiang or the "Long River" refers to the final 2,884 km of the Yangtze from Yibin through southeastern Sichuan, western Hubei, northern Hunan, eastern Hubei, northern Jiangxi and Jiangsu to the river's mouth in Shanghai. Chang Jiang is substituted by "Yangtze" in English usage. For example, the Nanjing Chang Jiang Bridge is translated as the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge; the Taku Jinsha River Bridge is a bridge along the Jinsha section of the Yangtze. The Yangtze River forms a major geographic barrier dividing southern China. For millennia, travelers crossed the Yangtze by ferry. In the first half of the 20th century, rail passengers from Beijing to Guangzhou and Shanghai had to disembark at Hanyang and Pukou, cross the river by steam ferry before resuming journeys by train.
The earliest recorded pontoon bridge over the Yangtze was the Jiangguan Pontoon Bridge built in AD 35 by Gongsun Shu, the ruler of Sichuan, in the war with the Han Emperor Liu Xiu. Gongsun Shu built the pontoon across a narrow part of the river between Jingmen and Yichang in to block the Han Emperor's navy from sailing upriver into Sichuan; the pontoon was burned in battle and Liu Xiu went on to capture Sichuan. In 570, the Northern Zhou general Chen Teng built a crude suspension bridge across the Xiling Gorge using thick rope and reeds to carry food and provisions for his troops on the south bank; the bridge was cut apart by boats lined with sharp knives sent down river by the Chen general Zhang Shaoda. During the Tang Dynasty, a pontoon bridge was built in Sangouzhen in the Qutang Gorge in 619. In 974, during the Song Emperor Zhao Kuangyin's conquest of the Southern Tang, a pontoon over 1,000 meters long linked together by bamboo chains was erected in just three days at Caishiji and enabled the Song Army to advance swiftly across the river and capture Nanjing, the Southern Tang capital.
The Taiping rebels made extensive use of pontoons on the Yangtze in their campaign against the Qing Dynasty in the Yangtze Basin. In December 30, 1852, they built two pontoons nearly 3,000 meters long in a fortnight's time at Baishazhou and Yingwuzhou in Wuhan to move troops from Hanyang on the north bank to the Wuchang on the south bank; the Taipings tied together small boats into twos and threes and steered these preassembled pieces into the river, used iron anchors to set the pontoons instead of chains. They added towers and firing positions. Pontoon bridges have not been a feasible long-term solution to cross river transport because they block boat traffic on the Yangtze, a major conduit for travelers and cargo between the coast and the Chinese interior. Dating back to 3rd century, militaries of antiquity have stretched iron chains across the Yangtze in the Three Gorges to block invading armies. Notable examples include the iron chain defense of the Wu Kingdom in the Xiling Gorge against the Jin Dynasty in 280, the Former Shu's chain across Kuimen in the Qutang Gorge against the Jingnan in 925, Song general Xu Zongwu's seven-link chain at the same location against the Mongols in 1264.
The first documented iron chain bridge across the river was built in the 7th century by the Tibetan Empire over the Jinsh
A causeway is a track, road or railway on top of an embankment across "a low, or wet place, or piece of water". It can be constructed of earth, wood, or concrete. One of the earliest known wooden causeways is the Sweet Track in the Somerset Levels, that dates from the Neolithic age. Timber causeways may be described as both boardwalks and bridges; when first used, the word appeared in a form such as "causey way" making clear its derivation from the earlier form "causey". This word seems to have come from the same source by two different routes, it derives from the Latin for heel and most comes from the trampling technique to consolidate earthworks. The construction of a causeway utilised earth, trodden upon to compact and harden it as much as possible, one layer at a time by slaves or flocks of sheep. Today, this work is done by machines; the same technique would have been used for road embankments, raised river banks, sea banks and fortification earthworks. The second derivation route is the hard, trodden surface of a path.
The name by this route came to be applied to a firmly-surfaced road. It is now little-used except in dialect and in the names of roads which were notable for their solidly-made surface; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica states "causey, a mound or dam, derived, through the Norman-French caucie, from the late Latin via calciata, a road stamped firm with the feet."The word is comparable in both meanings with the French chaussée, from a form of which it reached English by way of Norman French. The French adjective, chaussée, carries the meaning of having been given a hardened surface, is used to mean either paved or shod; as a noun chaussée is used on the one hand for a metalled carriageway, on the other for an embankment with or without a road. Other languages have a noun with similar dual meaning. In Welsh, it is sarn; the Welsh is relevant here, as it has a verb, meaning to trample. The trampling and ramming technique for consolidating earthworks was used in fortifications and there is a comparable, outmoded form of wall construction technique, used in such work and known as pisé, a word derived not from trampling but from ramming or tamping.
The Welsh word'cawsai' translates directly to the English word'causeway'. A transport corridor, carried instead on a series of arches approaching a bridge, is a viaduct; the distinction between the terms causeway and viaduct becomes blurred when flood-relief culverts are incorporated, though a causeway refers to a roadway supported by earth or stone, while a bridge supports a roadway between piers. Some low causeways across shore waters become inaccessible; the Aztec city-state of Tenochtitlan had causeways supporting aqueducts. One of the oldest engineered roads yet discovered is the Sweet Track in England. Built in 3807 or 3806 BC, the track was a walkway consisting of planks of oak laid end-to-end, supported by crossed pegs of ash and lime, driven into the underlying peat; the modern embankment may be constructed within a cofferdam: two parallel steel sheet pile or concrete retaining walls, anchored to each other with steel cables or rods. This construction may serve as a dyke that keeps two bodies of water apart, such as bodies with a different water level on each side, or with salt water on one side and fresh water on the other.
This may be the primary purpose of a structure, the road providing a hardened crest for the dike, slowing erosion in the event of an overflow. It provides access for maintenance as well as a public service. Notable causeways include those that connect Singapore and Malaysia and Saudi Arabia and Venice to the mainland, all of which carry roadways and railways. In the Netherlands there are a number of prominent dikes which double as causeways, including the Afsluitdijk and Markerwaarddijk. In Louisiana, two long bridges, called the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, stretch across Lake Pontchartrain for 38 km, making them the world's longest bridges, they are the oldest causeways on the Gulf Coast that have never been put out of commission for an extended period of time following a Hurricane. In the Republic of Panama a causeway connects the islands of Perico and Naos to Panama City on the mainland, it serves as a breakwater for ships entering the Panama Canal. Causeways are common in Florida, where low bridges may connect several man-made islands with a much higher bridge in the middle so that taller boats may pass underneath safely.
Causeways are most used to connect the barrier islands with the mainland. The Churchill Barriers in Orkney are of the most notable sets of causeways in Europe. Constructed in waters up to 18 metres deep, the four barriers link five islands on the eastern side of the natural harbour at Scapa Flow, they were built during World War II as military defences for the harbour, on the orders of Winston Churchill. The Estrada do Istmo connecting the islands of Taipa and Coloane in Macau was built as a causeway; the sea on both sides of the causeway became shallower as a result of silting, mangroves began to conquer the area. Land reclamation took place on both sides of the road and the area has subsequently been named Cotai and b