The Lawrence School, Sanawar
The Lawrence School, Sanawar, is a private boarding school in Himachal Pradesh, established in 1847, whose history and wealth have made it one of the most prestigious schools in Asia. It is located in the Kasauli District of Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. Sanawar is about six hours from New Delhi; the school was founded by Sir Henry Lawrence and his wife Honoria, is one of the oldest surviving boarding schools. As the school is located in Sanawar, the school is popularly called "Sanawar", it is situated at a height of 1,750 metres and spread over an area of 139 acres forested with pine and other conifer trees. The school has been ranked among the best residential schools of India. In May 2013 Sanawar created history by becoming the first school in the world to send a team of seven students to climb Mount Everest; the motto of the school is "Never Give In". Sanawar is affiliated to India's Central Board of Secondary Education. Children are admitted to Sanawar in February each year, at the age of ten years.
Class Five is preferred as the entry point. Admission is based on a competitive entrance examination, held the preceding November, followed by an interview. In the school's name, "Sanawar" is the name of the hill; the nearest railway station is now spelt "Sonwara". Sanawar is believed to be the oldest mixed-sex boarding school anywhere in the world; the school was established by Henry Lawrence. His intent was to provide for the education of the orphans of British soldiers and other poor white children. In 1845 he outlined the creation of a boarding school in the Indian highlands for girls, he stated his aim as being to create...an Asylum from the debilitating effects of the tropical climate and the demoralizing influence of Barrack-life. The school at Sanawar was established as the first such asylum on 15 April 1847, when fourteen girls and boys arrived at Sanawar in the charge of Lawrence's sister-in-law Mrs George Lawrence and a superintendent Healey; the school was co-educational from its beginning.
The site had been chosen by Lawrence, after discussions with William Hodson and others, considering that it was an "ideal location" which "afforded the necessary requisites: isolation, ample space, water, a good altitude, all not too far from British troops". The construction of the buildings was paid for by Lawrence and other British officers, with a large contribution from Gulab Singh, the first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Hodson, who became famous for Hodson's Horse, supervised the construction of the school's first buildings and is still commemorated by the annual Hodson's Run, a competition between the school's houses. In the early days some Anglo-Indian children were admitted, but Lawrence insisted that preference should be given to those of "pure European" parentage, as he considered they were more to suffer from the heat of the plains. Under its first professional headmaster, the Rev. W. J. Parker, appointed in 1848, the school was known as "Lawrence's Asylum", reflecting its focus on orphans.
In 1858 it was renamed the "Lawrence Royal Military School". By 1853, the school had grown to 195 pupils when it was presented with the King's Colour, one of only seven schools and colleges to be so honoured in the British Empire, the others being Eton, Cheltenham, the Duke of York's Royal Military School the Royal Military College and the Lawrence Memorial Royal Military School, Lovedale. Sanawar has held its Colour for the longest unbroken period; the tradition of military training at Sanawar has always been strong and was of such a high standard that several contingents of boys were enlisted from the school and sent straight to the battlefields of the First World War. In appreciation of this, the school was redesignated in 1920 as the "Lawrence Royal Military School" and, in 1922, the Prince of Wales presented the school with new Colours; this pattern of military service was repeated again during the Second World War and, according to a BBC Radio broadcast on 3 October 1941, more than two hundred Sanawarians had joined up.
The school Colour continues to this day to be trooped at the Founders' Celebration in early October, Sanawar pupils continue to make a major contribution to the defence of the country. In its first two decades, the school suffered an unexpectedly high death rate, with forty children dying between 1848 and 1858, of whom thirteen were the victims of an outbreak of cholera in 1857. In the next ten years, there were seventy-two further deaths, in 1870 a Punjab Medical Department report proposed measures to improve the school's sanitation, as well as "a separate hospital for the treatment of contagious diseases"; the headmaster, the Rev. John Cole, was inspired to write a book called Notes on Hygiene with Hints on Self-discipline for Young Soldiers in India. Sanawar's centenary year was crucial to the development of the school. With Indian independence, the bulk of the staff and children at Sanawar returned to Britain. However, the then-Governor General, Lord Louis Mountbatten, presided at the centenary celebrations and read out a message from King George VI.
Thereafter, control of the school passed from the Crown to the government of India's Ministry of Defence. A further transfer in 1949 brought the school under the control of the Ministry of Education. In June 1952 the Ministry resolved to administer the school through a society created under the Societies Registration Act 1860, subject to a Memorandum of Association and rules and regulati
Paarl is a city with 191,013 inhabitants in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is the third oldest town and European settlement in the Republic of South Africa and the largest town in the Cape Winelands. Due to the growth of the Mbekweni township, it is now a de facto urban unit with Wellington, it is situated about 60 kilometres northeast of Cape Town in the Western Cape Province and is renowned for its haunting scenic beauty and deep viticulture and fruit growing heritage. Paarl is the seat of the Drakenstein Local Municipality. Paarl is unusual in South Africa in that the name of the place is pronounced differently in English and Afrikaans. An unusual feature of the name of the town is that Afrikaners customarily attach the definite article to it: people say in die Paarl or in die Pêrel, rather than in Paarl. Paarl gained international attention when, on 11 February 1990, Nelson Mandela walked out of Victor Verster Correctional Centre in Paarl ending 27 years of imprisonment and beginning the march to South Africa's post-apartheid era and multi-racial elections.
Mandela spent three years in prison here living in a private house within the walls. Today, a bronze statue of Mandela stands outside the prison. Paarl hosted a match from the ICC Cricket World Cup 2003; the headquarters of Ceres Fruit Juices are located in the city, although its namesake, Ceres valley and source of much of the fruit, is around one hour's drive to the northeast. The district is well known for its Pearl Mountain or "Paarl Rock"; this huge granite rock is formed by three rounded outcrops that make up Paarl Mountain and has been compared in majesty to Uluru in Australia.. The area, now known as Paarl was first inhabited by the Khoikhoi and San people; the Peninsular Khoikhoi people and the Cochoqua people lived in this area divided by the Berg River Valley. The Cochaqua were cattle herding people and among the richest of the Khoi tribes, they had between 16,000-18,000 members and called Paarl Mountain, Tortoise Mountain. The Dutch East India Company under the leadership of Jan van Riebeeck established meat trading relationships with the Khoikhoi people on the Table Bay coastline.
In 1657, in search of new trading relationships inland, Abraham Gabemma saw a giant granite rock glistening in the sun after a rainstorm and named it "de Diamondt en de Peerlberg" from which Paarl is derived. Gabemma was the Fiscal for the settlement on the shores of Table Bay; the "diamonds" disappeared from the name and it became known as Pearl Rock or Pearl Mountain. In 1687, Governor Simon van der Stel gave title to the first colonial farms in the area to "free burghers"; the following year, the French Huguenots arrived in the Western Cape and began to settle on farms in the area. The fertile soil and the Mediterranean-like climate of this region provided perfect conditions for farming; the settlers planted vegetable gardens and above all, vineyards. Thus began Paarl's long and continuing history as a major wine- and fruit-producing area of South Africa; the arrival of the European settlers brought on conflict with the Khoikhoi people, as land and water resources began to be contested and the Khoi traditions of communal land use came in conflict with the settler's concept of private property.
The Khoi peoples were further decimated by European diseases. The population became laborers on settler farms. In the 2001 census Paarl's population was recorded as being 82,713 people in 20,138 households, in a land area of 32.2 square kilometres. 67.8% of the inhabitants described themselves as "Coloured", 21.2% as "White", 10.5% as "Black African", 0.5% as "Indian or Asian". 85.5% spoke Afrikaans as their first language, 8.5% spoke Xhosa, 5.2% spoke English. Like many towns in the Cape Winelands, Paarl is home to a prosperous community, with many well maintained and attractive Cape Dutch houses, beautiful gardens and streets lined with old oak trees. Paarl boasts a unique cultural attraction: it was here that the foundations of the Afrikaans language were laid by the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners; the "Afrikaanse Taalmonument" on the slopes of Paarl Mountain, the Language Museum and the Afrikaans Language Route through Dal Josaphat are memorials to this achievement. The former headquarters of the wine industry in South Africa is situated here.: This was the famous "Co-operative Wine Growers' Association".
KWV became a South African institution that has acquired an international reputation based on its unique achievements and its imprint of quality on the local wine industry. Over the past decade, however, KWV has been privatized and no longer has an administrative role in the South African wine industry; the town and its surroundings attract many visitors with an array of interests. There are magnificent Cape Dutch buildings, scenic drives, hiking trails, excellent restaurants and the Paarl wine route, with its many wine
St. Cyprian's School, Cape Town
St Cyprian's School is an independent school for girls, in Grades 000 to 12, in Oranjezicht, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa. Full or weekly boarding is available to high school students, it has a scenic view. The school is a member of the G20 Schools Group, it has an Anglican foundation. The school practises its Anglican religion by having regular Eucharists, weekly chapel services. St Cyprian's girls involve themselves in charity work around Cape Town. St Cyprian's School is a member of the'Round Square' international community of schools; the school's vision is stated as We teach not for life. Its students write the WCED exams. From 2016 the Grade 12s write the Independent Examinations Board Examinations. Official website
Mayo College is a boys-only independent boarding school in Ajmer, India. It was founded in 1875 by Richard Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo, the Viceroy of India from 1869 to 1872, it is one of the oldest public boarding schools in India. The principal is Lt. Gen. Surinder Kulkarni, who has occupied the post since January 2015 as the 17th principal; the idea for the college was proposed in 1869 by Colonel Walter. It was founded in 1875 and Colonel Sir Oliver St John became its first principal; the founder's intention was to create an "Eton of India". The 1st Earl of Lytton, Viceroy of India, said in a speech on campus in 1879: "The idea was well expressed long ago by Colonel Walter in an excellent and most suggestive report which may have influenced Lord Mayo when he founded the present college. In that sensible report Colonel Walter pointed out that what was most needed for the education of India's young rulers and nobles was an Indian Eton. Mayo is India's Eton and you are India's Eton boys."It aimed to provide the leaders of the princely states with an education similar to that given by Eton College.
The British built Mayo for the sons of the Indian upper classes the princes and nobles of India. The school houses 800 pupils aged between 9 and 18; the coat of arms was composed from the design furnished by Lockwood Kipling, a former principal of the School of Arts and father of Rudyard Kipling. In the upper centre of the shield are Mayo Arms and Quarterings, a Lion Rampant and an open hand. On the right and left are the sun and the moon, typical of Suryavanshi and Chandravanshi, the two great families of Rajputs. Below are the Panch Rang, the five sacred colours of the Rajputs, Gold, Blue and Green. In the centre is a Rajput fort – two towers connected by a curtain; the supports are on full quiver of arrows. On the left a Rajput, armed at all points, wearing a steel helmet with three plumes, a shield on his back, a dagger and katar in his belt, a suit of chain covered with embroidered cloth and gauntlet on his hand; the motto is "Let there be Light". The badge is a peacock, the sacred bird of Rajputana, standing on a two-edged, two-handed Rajput sword Khanda.
On 12 April 1986, the Indian Postal Service released a stamp showing the main building of Mayo College. The multicolour stamp was designed by India Security Press; the first day cover shows the emblem of the college. The cancellation was designed by Nenu Bagga. Mayo College houses the Danmal Mathur Museum in Jhalawar House, which it shares with the Arts School; the museum showcases an armoury section. It is considered to have one of the best collections of any school museum in the world. Mayo's first student, H. H. Maharaja Mangal Singh of Alwar, arrived at the school gates in October 1875 on the back of an elephant accompanied by 300 retainers and a menagerie of tigers and horses. One of the school's traditions is meeting for tea on the lawns known as Mughal Gardens after the Annual Prizegiving ceremony, it is believed that M. N. Kapur did away with using a rope to Indian guests at this ceremony; the Annual Prizegiving, one of the oldest ceremonies at Mayo, has seen chief guests including Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India, Lord Chelmford, governor general of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, ex-president of India, HH Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur, HH Maharani Gayatri Devi of Jaipur, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Dr Zakir Hussain, ex-president of India, Dr Karan Singh, Indira Gandhi, ex-prime minister of India, field marshal Sam Manekshaw, H.
H. Sayyid Faher Bin Taimur of Oman, HM Birendra Shah, King of Nepal, Sardar Khushwant Singh, HH Madhavrao Scindia, Sir Peter Ustinov, Jaswant Singh and LK Advani. Other traditions at Mayo include an annual horseback parade by the students and sporting fixtures between Old Boys and current students, including a polo match. There are more than 40 members of the Mayo College General Council including patron, life members, old boys' association representatives and MCGS old girls' representatives; the school has a council of monitors consisting of students with posts dealing with school and house duties. There is a prefect from each senior house. There are positions held by the students who excel in fields like academics, sports and co-curricular activities. Apart from the council of monitors, there are captains for each sport. Positions are held by the students of 12th class or by juniors. There are twelve houses of which eight are a holding house and three junior houses; the senior houses are Ajmer, Bharatpur,Bikaner and Tonk, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Rajasthan.
The holding house is Oman. The junior houses are Ajaypal and Prithviraj; each senior and junior house can accommodate 60-75 students, apart from Oman which has a capacity of 120-130 students. Mayo College has some of the best sporting facilities among the top boarding schools of India. There are facilities for students and staff consisting of playing fields for football and hockey and a cricket ground with a view of the Aravali Hills and an old red sandstone pavilion. Horse riding was revived again in 1994 with ten horses. Today, Mayo College close to 250 boys and girls are trained. Mayo has ten polo players who practice in the polo ground. Students are trained in equestrianism with a defined set of routines. Mayo College has participated in national level polo competitions and produced players like Himmat Singh Bedla, Nagender Singh, Pratap Singh, Sarveshwar Singh, Dhruv Singh and Shivdutt Singh; the school participated in the S
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
The Western Cape is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country. It is the fourth largest of the nine provinces with an area of 129,449 square kilometres, the third most populous, with an estimated 6.6 million inhabitants in 2018. About two-thirds of these inhabitants live in the metropolitan area of Cape Town, the provincial capital; the Western Cape was created in 1994 from part of the former Cape Province. The Western Cape Province is L-shaped, extending north and east from the Cape of Good Hope, in the southwestern corner of South Africa, it stretches about 400 kilometres northwards along the Atlantic coast and about 500 kilometres eastwards along the South African south coast. It is bordered on the north on the east by the Eastern Cape; the total land area of the province is 129,462 square kilometres, about 10.6% of the country's total. It is the size of England or the State of Louisiana, its capital city and largest city is Cape Town, some other major cities include Stellenbosch, Worcester and George.
The Garden Route and the Overberg are popular coastal tourism areas. The Western Cape is the southernmost region of the African continent with Cape Agulhas as its southernmost point, only 3800 km from the Antarctic coastline; the coastline varies from sandy between capes, to rocky to mountainous in places. The only natural harbour is Saldanha Bay on the west coast, about 140 km north of Cape Town; however a lack of fresh water in the region meant that it has only been used as a harbour. The province's main harbour was built in Table Bay, which in its natural state was exposed to the northwesterly storms that bring rain to the province in winter, as well as the uninterrupted dry southeasterly winds in summer, but fresh water coming off Table Mountain and Devil's Peak allowed the early European settlers to build Cape Town on the shores of this less than satisfactory anchorage. The province is topographically exceptionally diverse. Most of the province falls within the Cape Fold Belt, a set of nearly parallel ranges of sandstone folded mountains of Cambrian-Ordovician age.
The height of the mountain peaks in the different ranges vary from 1000m to 2300m. The valleys between ranges are very fertile as they contain the weathered loamy soils of the Bokkeveld mudstones; the far interior forms part of the Karoo. This region of the Province is arid and hilly with a prominent escarpment that runs close to the Province's most inland boundary; the Escarpment marks the southwestern edge of South Africa's central plateau. It runs parallel to the entire South African coastline except in the far northeast, where it is interrupted by the Limpopo River valley, the far northwest, where it is interrupted by the Orange River valley; the 1000 km-long northeastern stretch of the escarpment is called the Drakensberg, geographically and geologically quite distinct from the Cape Fold Mountains, which originated much earlier and independently of the origin of the escarpment. The principal rivers of the province are the Berg and Olifants which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, the Breede and Gourits which drain into the Indian Ocean.
The vegetation is extremely diverse, with one of the world's seven floral kingdoms exclusively endemic to the province, namely the Cape Floral Kingdom, most of, covered by Fynbos. These evergreen heathlands are rich in species diversity, with at least as many plant species occurring on Table Mountain as in the entire United Kingdom, it is characterised by various types of shrubs, thousands of flowering plant species and some grasses. With the exception of the Silver tree, Leucadendron argenteum, which only grows on the granite and clay soils of the Cape Peninsula, open fynbos is treeless except in the wetter mountain ravines where patches of Afromontane forest persist; the arid interior is dominated by Karoo drought-resistant shrubbery. The West Coast and Little Karoo are semi-arid regions and are typified by many species of succulents and drought-resistant shrubs and acacia trees; the Garden Route on the south coast is lush, with temperate rainforest covering many areas adjacent to the coast, in the deep river valleys and along the southern slopes of the Outeniqua mountain range.
Typical species are hardwoods of exceptional height, such as Yellowwood and Ironwood trees. The Western Cape is climatologically diverse, with many distinct micro- and macroclimates created by the varied topography and the influence of the surrounding ocean currents; these are the warm Agulhas Current which flows southwards along South Africa's east coast, the cold Benguela Current, an upwelling current from the depths of the South Atlantic Ocean along South Africa's west coast. Thus climatic statistics can vary over short distances. Most of the province is considered to have a Mediterranean climate with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. Both the Great Karoo and Little Karoo, in the interior, have an arid to semi-arid climate with cold, frosty winters and hot summers with occasional thunderstorms; the Garden Route and the Overberg on the south coast have a maritime climate with cool
Stellenbosch is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa, situated about 50 kilometres east of Cape Town, along the banks of the Eerste River at the foot of the Stellenbosch Mountain. It is the second oldest European settlement in the province, after Cape Town; the town became known as the City of Oaks or Eikestad in Afrikaans and Dutch due to the large number of oak trees that were planted by its founder, Simon van der Stel, to grace the streets and homesteads. Stellenbosch has adjoining the metropolitan area of the City of Cape Town; the town is home to Stellenbosch University. Technopark is a modern science park situated on the southern side of the town near the Stellenbosch Golf Course. In 1899 Louis Péringuey discovered Paleolithic stone tools of the Acheulean type at a site named Bosman's Crossing near the Adam Tas Bridge at the western entrance to Stellenbosch; the town was founded in 1679 by the Governor of the Cape Colony, Simon van der Stel, who named it after himself – Stellenbosch means " Stel's Bush".
It is situated on the banks of the Eerste River, so named as it was the first new river he reached and followed when he went on an expedition over the Cape Flats to explore the territory towards what is now known as Stellenbosch. The town grew so that it became an independent local authority in 1682 and the seat of a magistrate with jurisdiction over 25,000 square kilometers in 1685; the Dutch were skilled in hydraulic engineering and they devised a system of furrows to direct water from the Eerste River in the vicinity of Thibault Street through the town along van Riebeeck Street to Mill Street where a mill was erected. Early visitors commented on the oak gardens. During 1690 some Huguenot refugees settled in Stellenbosch, grapes were planted in the fertile valleys around Stellenbosch and soon it became the centre of the South African wine industry. In 1710 a fire destroyed most of the town, including the first church, all the Company property and twelve houses. Only two or three houses were left standing.
When the church was rebuilt in 1723 it was located on what was the outskirts of the town, to prevent any similar incident from destroying it again. This church was enlarged a number of times since 1723 and is known as the "Moederkerk"; the first school had been opened in 1683, but education in the town began in earnest in 1859 with the opening of a seminary for the Dutch Reformed Church. Rhenish Girls' High School, established in 1860, is the oldest school for girls in South Africa. A gymnasium, known as het Stellenbossche Gymnasium, was established in 1866. In 1874 some higher classes became Victoria College and in 1918 University of Stellenbosch; the first men's hostel to be established in Stellenbosch was Wilgenhof, in 1903. In 1905 the first women's hostel to be established in Stellenbosch was Harmonie. Harmonie and Wilgenhof were part of the Victoria College. In 1909 an old boy of the school, Paul Roos, captain of the first national rugby team to be called the Springboks, was invited to become the sixth rector of the school.
He remained rector until 1940. On his retirement the school's name was changed to Paul Roos Gymnasium. In the early days of the Second Boer War Stellenbosch was one of the British military bases, was used as a "remount" camp. At the time of the 2011 census, the population of the urban area of Stellenbosch was 77,476 people in 23,730 households. 50% of the residents spoke Afrikaans as their home language, 28% spoke isiXhosa, 8% spoke English. 37% of the population identified themselves as "Black African", 35% as "Coloured", 26% as "White". The Stellenbosch Municipality extends beyond the town of Stellenbosch itself to include rural areas and the town of Franschhoek. At the time of 2011 census the municipal population was 155,728, while by 2016 it was estimated to be 173,197. Stellenbosch is 53 km east of Cape Town via National Route N1. Stellenbosch is in a hilly region of the Cape Winelands, is sheltered in a valley at an average elevation of 136 m, flanked on the west by Papegaaiberg, a hill. To the south is Stellenbosch Mountain.
Die Tweeling Pieke has an elevation of 1,494 m. Jonkershoek Nature Reserve lies about 9 km east of Stellenbosch, the Helderberg Nature Reserve is about 23 km south via provincial route R44. Just south of the Helderberg Nature Reserve is Strand, a seaside resort town; the soils of Stellenbosch range from dark alluvium to clay. This, combined with the well-drained, hilly terrain and Mediterranean climate, prove excellent for viticulture. Summers are dry and warm to hot, with some February and March days rising to over 40 °C. Winters are cool and sometimes quite windy, with daytime temperatures averaging 16 °C. Snow is seen a couple of times in winter on the surrounding mountains. Spring and autumn are colder seasons. Stellenbosch is a warm weather training venue for cyclists and field squads, triathletes; the Stellenbsoch Sports Academy opened