My Name Is Lucy Barton
My Name is Lucy Barton is a 2016 New York Times Bestselling novel and the fifth novel by the American writer Elizabeth Strout. It was first published in the United States on January 2016 through Random House; the book details the complicated relationship between the titular Lucy Barton and her mother. In July 2016, it was longlisted for the 2016 Man Booker Prize; the book was shortlisted for the 2018 International Dublin Literary Award. The novel was adapted for the theatre by Rona Munro as a one-woman show, with an acclaimed 2018 London production starting Laura Linney. Growing up in a dysfunctional household, Lucy Barton had a difficult childhood, her father was abusive and while her mother loved Lucy, she was unable to protect her or her siblings from their father's mercurial mood swings. As a result Lucy would take solace in reading, which led her to realize that she wanted to become a writer; when she came of age, Lucy fled the family home. Years Lucy is hospitalized after she develops an infection following an operation.
During her stay her mother comes to visit and the two reconnect after years of not speaking to one another. Critical reception for My Name Is Lucy Barton was positive and the work received praise from the Washington Post and the AV Club; the Guardian compared the book favorably to Strout's earlier book, Olive Kitteridge, saying it "confirms Strout as a powerful storyteller immersed in the nuances of human relationships, weaving family tapestries with compassion and insight." In a review with the New York Times, author Claire Messud praised the book's "beautifully too-human characters" and drew favorable comparisons to Strout's earlier work. 2016 Man Booker Prize, longlist. 2018 International Dublin Literary Award, shortlist. Official website
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
Elizabeth Strout is an American novelist and author. She is known for her works in literary fiction and her descriptive characterization. Born and raised in Portland, her experiences in her youth served as inspiration for her novels–the fictional "Shirley Falls, Maine" is the setting of four of her six novels. Strout's first novel and Isabelle met with widespread critical acclaim, became a national bestseller, was adapted into a movie starring Elisabeth Shue, her second novel, Abide with Me, received critical acclaim but failed to be recognized to the extent of her debut novel. Two years Strout wrote and published Olive Kitteridge, to critical and commercial success grossing nearly $25 million with over one million copies sold as of May 2017; the novel won the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. The book was adapted into a multi Emmy Award-winning mini series and became a New York Times bestseller. Five years she published The Burgess Boys, which became a national bestseller. My Name Is Lucy Barton was met with international acclaim and topped the New York Times bestseller list.
Lucy Barton became the main character in Strout's 2017 novel, Anything is Possible. Strout was born in Portland and was raised in small towns in Maine and Durham, New Hampshire, her father was a science professor, her mother was an English professor and taught writing in a nearby high school. After graduating from Bates College in Lewiston, she spent a year in Oxford, followed by studies at law school for another year. In 1982, she graduated with honors, received a law degree from the Syracuse University College of Law; that year her first story was published in New Letters magazine. Strout moved to New York City, where she waitressed and began developing early novels and stories to little success, she continued to write stories that were published in literary magazines, as well as in Redbook and Seventeen. She enrolled in Law School at Syracuse University College of Law, practiced law for six months before concluding her legal practice and focusing on her writing. In an interview with Terry Gross in January 2015 she said of the experience, "law school was more of an operation, I think."
She stated in a 2016 interview with The Morning News,I wanted to be a writer so much that the idea of failing at it was unbearable to me. I didn’t tell people as I grew older that I wanted to be a writer—you know, because they look at you with such looks of pity. I just couldn’t stand that, she worked for six or seven years to complete her book Amy and Isabelle, which when published was shortlisted for the 2000 Orange Prize and nominated for the 2000 PEN/Faulkner Award for fiction. Amy and Isabelle was adapted as a television movie, starring Elisabeth Shue and produced by Oprah Winfrey's studio, Harpo Films. Strout was a National Endowment for the Humanities lecturer at Colgate University during the fall semester of 2007, where she taught creative writing at both the introductory and advanced levels, she was on the faculty of the master of fine arts program at Queens University of Charlotte in Charlotte, North Carolina. Abide with Me was published in 2006 by Random House to further critical acclaim.
Ron Charles of The Washington Post summarized her book by saying: "as she did in her bestselling debut and Isabelle, Strout sets her second novel in a small New England town, whose natural beauty she returns to again and again as this tale unfolds against the background of the Cold War tensions of the 1950s." The New Yorker welcomed the novel with a positive review: "with superlative skill, Strout challenges us to examine what makes a good story—and what makes a good life." GoodReads rated the novel 3.75 stars out of 5. Her third book, Olive Kitteridge, was published two years in 2008; the book featured a collection of connected short stories about a woman and her immediate family and friends on the coast of Maine. Emily Nussbaum of The New Yorker called the short stories "taciturn, elegant." In 2009, it was announced. Bollinger; the book would become a New York Times bestseller and win the Premio Bancarella Award, at an event held in the medieval Piazza della Repubblica in Pontremoli, Italy. It was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award the same year.
The book enjoyed widespread commercial success and Louisa Thomas, writing in The New York Times, said:The pleasure in reading Olive Kitteridge comes from an intense identification with complicated, not always admirable, characters. And there are moments in which slipping into a character’s viewpoint seems to involve the revelation of an emotion more powerful and interesting than simple fellow feeling—a complex, sometimes dark, sometimes life-sustaining dependency on others. There's nothing cheap here. There’s the honest recognition that we need to try to understand people if we can’t stand them; the Burgess Boys was published March 2013, to further critical acclaim. A New York Times review noted that she "handles her storytelling with grace and low-key humor, demonstrating a great ear for the many registers in which people speak to their loved ones," but criticized her for not developing certain characters. NPR noted the novel by saying: "This is an ambitious novel that wants to train its gaze on the flotsam and jetsam of thought, as well as on big-issue topics like the politics of immigration and the possibility of second chances."
The book became her second New York Times bestseller. The Washington Post reviewed it with the following: "he broad social and political range of The Burgess Boys shows just how im
David Calder (actor)
David Ian Calder is an English actor. Calder was born in Portsmouth, Hampshire and trained at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, his most high-profile TV roles include Det. Insp. George Resnick in the crime series Widows and Nathan Spring in the sci-fi drama Star Cops. In 1989, he appeared in the TV adaptation of the David Lodge novel Nice Work. In 2012 he portrayed Captain Edward Smith in the ITV mini-series Titanic. From 2005–06, he took on the role of PC George Dixon in the radio adaptation of the BBC's long running television series Dixon of Dock Green. Other TV credits include: The Professionals, Enemy at the Door, Bergerac, The New Statesman, Between the Lines, Cracker and Pascoe, Sleepers, Midsomer Murders, Waking the Dead, Wallis & Edward, A Touch of Frost, Cold Blood, Burn Up and Houdini, he appeared as Harold Hardman, the Manchester United chairman at the time of the Munich air disaster in 1958, in the TV drama United, aired by the BBC in April 2011. In 2013, he played Mr Reid in The Wrong Mans.
Calder appeared as Sir Robert King in the 1999 James Bond film. His other film appearances include Moonlighting, Defence of the Realm, American Friends, Hollow Reed, FairyTale: A True Story, The King Is Alive, Perfume: The Story of a Murderer, The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor and Rush. In 1979, Calder appeared in a public information film as a crime prevention officer, asking people to consider how they would get into their own home, if they lost their keys; the PIF, used to encourage people to make their homes secure, to contact their crime prevention officer for advice, ran until at least 1985. In February 2010, Calder played Stuart Bell in the television film On Expenses. In October 2016, Calder played Gus, in The Intelligent Homosexual's Guide to Capitalism and Socialism with a Key to the Scriptures by Tony Kushner at the Hampstead Theatre. In October 2016, he appeared as Mr Bruff in the BBC mini-series The Moonstone and from October 2017 in the title role of Julius Caesar at the new Bridge Theatre.
In March 2018, he appeared in the National Live Theatre's performance of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, as Julius Caesar. David Calder on IMDb
Rory Michael Kinnear is an English actor and playwright who has worked with the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre. In 2014, he won the Olivier Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Shakespeare's villain Iago in the National Theatre production of Othello, he is known for playing Bill Tanner in the James Bond films Quantum of Solace and Spectre, in various video games of the franchise. He is the youngest actor, he won a Laurence Olivier Award for portraying Sir Fopling Flutter in a 2008 version of The Man of Mode by George Etherege, a British Independent Film Award for his performance in the 2012 film Broken. On TV, he is known for playing Michael on the BBC comedy Count Arthur Strong, Lord Lucan in the two-part ITV series Lucan, Frankenstein's monster in Penny Dreadful and the lead role of Prime Minister Michael Callow in "The National Anthem", the first episode of the anthology series Black Mirror. Kinnear was born in Hammersmith, England, the son of the actor Roy Kinnear and actress Carmel Cryan.
He has two sisters and Karina. He is the grandson of the international rugby union and rugby league player Roy Kinnear and the godson of actor Michael Williams, the husband of Judi Dench. Educated at Tower House School and St Paul's School, London, he read English at Balliol College and studied acting at London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. Kinnear's performances in Phyllida Lloyd's production of Mary Stuart and Trevor Nunn's Hamlet, in which he played Laertes, met with acclaim, he achieved recognition as the outrageous Sir Fopling Flutter in The Man of Mode at the National Theatre, winning a Laurence Olivier Award and Ian Charleson Award. Other notable theatre work includes the lead in Thomas Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy, the role of Pyotr in Gorky's Philistines and the role of Mitia in a stage adaptation of the Nikita Mikhalkov film Burnt by the Sun, all for the National Theatre. In 2010, he played Angelo in Measure for Measure at the Almeida Theatre. In 2010 he played the title role in Hamlet at the National Theatre.
The two portrayals won him the best actor award in the Evening Standard drama awards for 2010. Kinnear appeared in The Last of the Haussmans by Stephen Beresford at the Royal National Theatre during the summer of 2012; the production was broadcast to cinemas around the world on 11 October 2012 through the National Theatre Live programme. He starred as Iago opposite Adrian Lester in the title role of Othello in 2013 at the National Theatre throughout the summer of 2013. Both actors won the Best Actor award in the Evening Standard Theatre Awards for their roles. From September 2013 the Bush Theatre in London staged Kinnear's debut play The Herd, directed by Howard Davies; the play ran at the Steppenwolf Theatre in Chicago beginning 2 April 2015. In October 2017 he appeared in the title role of Young Marx, the premiere production at the Bridge Theatre, he returned to the Olivier Theatre at the National Theatre to star as the title role in Macbeth opposite Anne-Marie Duff from February 2018. For The Threepenny Opera at the Olivier Theatre from May to October 2016, Kinnear found his "dormant" singing voice for the role of Macheath.
In February 2017 he made his directing debut with The Winter's Tale, a new opera written by Ryan Wigglesworth and based on Shakespeare's play, for English National Opera. He portrays Bill Tanner in the Daniel Craig era James Bond film series after taking over from Michael Kitchen, he is the fourth person to play the character. He has appeared in Quantum of Solace and Spectre; as well as the films, Kinnear lends his voice and likeness to the Bond video games. In 2014, he played the fictional character, Detective Nock, in The Imitation Game based loosely on the biography Alan Turing:The Enigma by Andrew Hodges. In January 2017 he portrayed Ellmann in the Netflix film iBoy. Further to his theatre work he received positive reviews for his sympathetic portrayal of Denis Thatcher in The Long Walk to Finchley, a BBC dramatisation of the early years of Margaret Thatcher's political career, which starred Andrea Riseborough and Samuel West, he starred alongside Lucy Punch and Toby Stephens in the BBC Two series Vexed.
Broadcast on 19 October 2010, he was the co-lead in the BBC4 TV drama, The First Men in the Moon written by and co-starring Mark Gatiss. In 2011, he provided narration during the BBC Proms production of'Henry V – suite' arranged by Muir Mathieson during their Film Music Prom, he appeared in the lead role of Prime Minister Michael Callow in "The National Anthem", the first episode of the anthology series Black Mirror. In July 2012, Kinnear appeared as Bolingbroke in Richard II, a BBC Two adaptation of the play of the same name, with Ben Whishaw as King Richard and Patrick Stewart as John of Gaunt. From 2013 onwards, he has starred in the BBC series Count Arthur Strong as Michael, he has appeared in the Channel 4 drama Southcliffe. In December 2013 he appeared as British peer and suspected murderer Lord Lucan in the two-part ITV series Lucan, he appeared as Frankenstein's monster in the Showtime television series Penny Dreadful, which premiered 11 May 2014. In 2017 he appeared in the British miniseries Guerrilla as a Chief Inspector in the Special Branches.
In 2017 he starred as Robert Lessing in the BBC Two comedy series Quacks, which ridicules the early days of medicine in England. In 2018 he appeared in the first episode of the fourth series of the BBC One comedy series Inside No. 9, Zanzibar, w
Royal National Theatre
The Royal National Theatre in London known as the National Theatre, is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House. Internationally, it is known as the National Theatre of Great Britain. From its foundation in 1963 until 1976, the company was based at The Old Vic theatre in Waterloo; the current building is located next to the Thames in the South Bank area of central London. In addition to performances at the National Theatre building, the National Theatre tours productions at theatres across the United Kingdom. Permission to add the "Royal" prefix to the name of the theatre was given in 1988, but the full title is used; the theatre presents a varied programme, including Shakespeare, other international classic drama, new plays by contemporary playwrights. Each auditorium in the theatre can run up to three shows in repertoire, thus further widening the number of plays which can be put on during any one season.
In June 2009, the theatre began National Theatre Live, a programme of simulcasts of live productions to cinemas, first in the United Kingdom and internationally. The programme began with a production of Phèdre, starring Helen Mirren, screened live in 70 cinemas across the UK. NT Live productions have since been broadcast to over 2,500 venues in 60 countries around the world; the NT had an annual turnover of £105 million in 2015–16, of which earned income made up 75%. Support from Arts Council England provided 17% of income, 1% from Learning and Participation activity, the remaining 9% came from a mixture of companies, individuals and foundations. In 1847, a critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus published a pamphlet describing the parlous state of British theatre. Production of serious plays was restricted to the patent theatres, new plays were subjected to censorship by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. At the same time, there was a burgeoning theatre sector featuring a diet of low melodrama and musical burlesque.
There was a demand to commemorate serious theatre, with the "Shakespeare Committee" purchasing the playwright's birthplace for the nation demonstrating a recognition of the importance of'serious drama'. The following year saw more pamphlets on a demand for a National Theatre from London publisher Effingham William Wilson; the situation continued, with a renewed call every decade for a National Theatre. Attention was aroused in 1879 when the Comédie-Française took a residency at the Gaiety Theatre, described in The Times as representing "the highest aristocracy of the theatre"; the principal demands now coalesced around: a structure in the capital that would present "exemplary theatre". The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre was opened in Stratford upon Avon on 23 April 1879, with the New Shakespeare Company; this still left the capital without a national theatre. A London Shakespeare League was founded in 1902 to develop a Shakespeare National Theatre and – with the impending tri-centenary in 1916 of his death – in 1913 purchased land for a theatre in Bloomsbury.
This work was interrupted by World War I. In 1910, George Bernard Shaw wrote a short comedy, The Dark Lady of the Sonnets, in which Shakespeare himself attempts to persuade Elizabeth I of the necessity of building a National Theatre to stage his plays; the play was part of the long-term campaign to build a National Theatre. In 1948, the London County Council presented a site close to the Royal Festival Hall for the purpose, a "National Theatre Act", offering financial support, was passed by Parliament in 1949. Ten years after the foundation stone had been laid in 1951, the Government declared that the nation could not afford a National Theatre. Still, the Government tried to apply unacceptable conditions to save money. Following some initial inspirational steps taken with the opening of the Chichester Festival Theatre in Chichester June 1962, the developments in London proceeded. In July 1962, with agreements reached, a board was set up to supervise construction, a separate board was constituted to run a National Theatre Company and lease the Old Vic theatre.
The "National Theatre Company" opened on 22 October 1963 with Hamlet. The current building was designed by architects Sir Denys Lasdun and Peter Softley and structural engineers Flint & Neill and contains three stages, which opened individually between 1976 and 1977; the construction work was carried out by Sir Robert McAlpine. The Company remained at the Old Vic until 1977; the National Theatre building houses three separate theatres. Additionally, a temporary structure was added in April 2013 and closed in May 2016. Named after the theatre's first artistic director, Laurence Olivier, this is the main auditorium, modelled on the ancient Greek theatre at Epidaurus. A'drum revolve' is operated by a single staff member; the drum has two rim revolves and two platforms, each
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. He held controversial stances on other scientific matters—in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC radio, his promotion of panspermia as the origin of life on Earth, he wrote science fiction novels, short stories and radio plays, co-authored twelve books with his son, Geoffrey Hoyle. He spent most of his working life at the Institute of Astronomy at Cambridge and served as its director for six years. Hoyle was born near Bingley in West Riding of Yorkshire, England, his father, Ben Hoyle, a violinist and worked in the wool trade in Bradford, served as a machine gunner in the First World War. His mother, Mabel Pickard, had studied music at the Royal College of Music in London and worked as a cinema pianist. Hoyle was educated at read mathematics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1936 he won the Mayhew Prize. In late 1940, Hoyle left Cambridge to go to Portsmouth to work for the Admiralty on radar research, for example devising a method to get the altitude of the incoming aeroplanes.
He was put in charge of countermeasures against the radar guided guns found on the Graf Spee. Britain's radar project employed more personnel than the Manhattan project, was the inspiration for the large British project in The Black Cloud. Two key colleagues in this war work were Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold, the three had many and deep discussions on cosmology; the radar work paid for a couple of trips to North America, where he took the opportunity to visit astronomers. On one trip to the US he learned about supernovae at Caltech and Mount Palomar and, in Canada, the nuclear physics of plutonium implosion and explosion, noticed some similarity between the two and started thinking about supernova nucleosynthesis, he had an intuition at the time "I will make a name for myself if this works out." His prescient and ground breaking paper came out. He formed a group at Cambridge exploring Stellar nucleosynthesis in ordinary stars and was bothered by the paucity of stellar carbon production in existing models.
He noticed that one of the existing processes would be made a billion times more productive if the carbon-12 nucleus had a resonance at 7.7 MeV, but the nuclear physicists did not list such a one. On another trip he visited the nuclear physics group at Caltech, spending a few months of sabbatical there and persuaded them against their considerable scepticism to look for and find the Hoyle state in carbon-12, from which developed a full theory of stellar nucleosynthesis, co-authored by Hoyle with some members of the Caltech group. After the war, in 1945, Hoyle returned to Cambridge University, starting as a lecturer at St John's College, Cambridge. Hoyle's Cambridge years, 1945–1973, saw him rise to the top of world astrophysics theory, on the basis of a startling originality of ideas covering a wide range of topics. In 1958, Hoyle was appointed to the illustrious Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge University. In 1967, he became the founding director of the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy (subsequently renamed the Institute of Astronomy, where Hoyle's innovative leadership led to this institution becoming one of the premier groups in the world for theoretical astrophysics.
In 1971 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. He chose the subject "Astronomical Instruments and their Construction". Hoyle was knighted in 1972. Hoyle resigned his Plumian professor position in 1972 and his directorship of the institute in 1973, with this move cutting him off from most of his establishment power-base and steady salary. After his leaving Cambridge, Hoyle wrote many popular science and science fiction books, as well as presenting lectures around the world. Part of the motivation for this was to provide a means of support. Hoyle was still a member of the joint policy committee, during the planning stage for the 150-inch Anglo-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, he became chairman of the Anglo-Australian Telescope board in 1973, presided at its inauguration in 1974 by Charles, Prince of Wales. After his resignation from Cambridge, Hoyle moved to the Lake District and occupied his time with a mix of treks across the moors, writing books, visiting research centres around the world, working on science ideas that have been nearly-universally rejected.
On 24 November 1997, while hiking across moorlands in west Yorkshire, near his childhood home in Gilstead, Hoyle fell down into a steep ravine called Shipley Glen. Twelve hours Hoyle was found by a search dog, he was hospitalised for two months with pneumonia, kidney problems as a result of hypothermia, a smashed shoulder, while he afterwards suffered from memory and mental agility problems. In 2001, he died in Bournemouth on 20 August. Hoyle authored the first two research papers published on the synthesis of the chemical elements heavier than helium by nuclear reactions in stars; the first of these in 1946 showed that the cores of stars will evolve to temperatures of billions of degrees, much hotter than temperatures considered for thermonuclear origin of stellar power in main sequence stars. Hoyle showed that at such high temperatures the element iron can become much more abundant than other heavy elements owing to thermal equilibrium among nuclear particles, explaining the high natural abundance of iron.
This idea would be called the e Process. Hoyle's second founda