Light fountain of the Exposición Regional Valenciana
The Light fountain of the Exposición Regional Valenciana was a large fountain and square built for the Valencian Regional Exhibition of 1909. It was one of the most expensive buildings of the exhibition with a cost of 209,000 pesetas
Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, structural design and analyst engineer and painter known for his bridges supported by single leaning pylons, his railway stations and museums, whose sculptural forms resemble living organisms. His best-known works include the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Turning Torso tower in Malmö, the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge in Dallas and his largest project, the City of Arts and Sciences and Opera House, in his birthplace, Valencia, his architectural firm has offices in New York City, Zürich. Calatrava was born on July 1951, in Benimàmet, an old municipality now part of Valencia, Spain, his Calatrava surname was an old aristocratic one from medieval times, was once associated with an order of knights in Spain. He had his primary and secondary schooling in Valencia, beginning in 1957, studied drawing and painting at the School of Applied Art. In 1964, as the regime of General Francisco Franco relaxed and Spain became more open to rest of Europe, he went to France as an exchange student.
In 1968, after completing secondary school, he went to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, but he arrived in the midst of student uprisings and turmoil in Paris, returned home. Back in Valencia, discovered a book about the architecture of Le Corbusier, which persuaded him that he could be both an artist and an architect, he enrolled in the Higher School of Architecture at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. He received his diploma as an architect and did higher studies in urbanism. At the University he completed independent projects with fellow students, publishing two books on the vernacular architecture of Valencia and Ibiza. In 1975 he enrolled in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland for a second degree in civil engineering. In 1981 he was awarded a doctorate in the department of architecture, after completing his thesis on "The Pliability of three-dimensional structures." Speaking of this period, Calatrava told biographer Philip Jodidio:"The desire to start all over at zero was strong in me.
I was determined to put to one side all that I had learned in architecture school, to learn to draw and think like an engineer. I was fascinated by the concept of gravity and convinced that it was necessary to begin work with simple forms." Calatrava explained that he was influenced by the work of the early 20th century Swiss engineer Robert Maillart, which taught him that, "with an adequate combination of force and mass, you can create emotion." As soon as Calatrava completed his doctorate in 1981, he opened his own office in Zurich. He designed an exposition hall, a factory, a library, two bridges, but none were built, Finally in 1983, he began to receive commissions for industrial and transportation structures of greater size; the train station has several of the features. The railroad platforms curve, the supporting columns lean, the concrete walls of the modernistic cavern beneath the tracks are everywhere pierced with teardrop shaped skylights, tilting glass panels provide light and shelter without enclosing the platforms.
In 1984–87, he built his first bridge, the Bac de Roda Bridge in Barcelona, which for the first time brought him international notice. The bridge, designed for cyclists and pedestrians, connects two parts of the city by crossing a wasteland of railway tracks, it is 128 metres long, with twin arches. The upper portion of the bridge, composed of steel arches and cables, is light and airy, like a network of lace, anchored to the massive concrete supports and granite pillars below, his next bridge, the Puente del Alamillo, in Seville, was more spectacular and cemented his reputation. Built as part of the 1992 Expo 92, it is 200 metres long, its main feature is a single pylon 142 metres high, leaning to 58 degrees, the same angle as the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in Africa. The weight of the concrete of the pylon is sufficient to hold up the bridge with just thirteen pairs of cables, eliminating the need for any cables behind it. At the beginning of the 1990s Calatrava built several remarkable railway stations and bridges, but broadened his portfolio by designing a wider range of structures, including a Canadian shopping center, a new passenger terminal for Bilbao airport.
And his first building in the United States, the new structure of the Milwaukee Art Museum. In 1992 he completed one of his most picturesque and sculptural works, the Montjuïc Communications Tower in Barcelona, a 136 m -high graceful concrete spire designed for the site of the 1992 Olympics; the concrete pylon leans backwards, seems to grasp the vertical broadcast antennas. Its form suggests an athlete about to throw a javelin; the circular building at the base of the tower, which contains the broadcast equipment, is clad in white bricks and is equipped with metal resembling an eye which opens and closes. The building has a Catalan touch, borrowed from
Casa de la Ciutat (Valencia)
The Casa de la Ciutat or what it now call the City Hall, was in the place where today the Gardens known as de la Audiencia or more the gardens next to the Palau de la Generalitat. It was therefore the headquarters of the Municipal Council of Valencia; the King James I of Aragon granted houses and privilege to build the Casa de la Ciutat in the 13th century in a place near the present plaza de la Almoina and near the Archbishop's Palace, but this will be place in any case interim. The first Casa de la Ciutat in its usual location is built in 1302, but will be in 1311 when King James II of Aragon authorized to expand the locals which by had become too small; the Casa de la Ciutat would be completed in 1342 and would lodge halls for the juries of the city, Hall of inkstand, courts of justices of criminal and civil, imprisonment of men and women, offices of notaries, Hall of the Rational, Hall of Archives, halls for tax administrators, a Hall dedicated to Chapel, made around 1454 and as was one of the most important of the Casa.
In 1517 the master builder Jaume Vicent would make a new Chapel with ribbed vaulted roofs. In 1376 the building was wide again to build a hall for the called Secret Council or Council of the Juries, another hall for tax administrators. In these works involved the major master of the walls and moats of the city Bernat Boix. By 1392 the painter Marçal de Sax decorate with murals the walls of the Hall of the Secret Council, with scenes of the Last Judgment, the Heaven, the Hell and the Guardian Angel of the city. Between 1418 and 1426 it concludes the so-called Golden Hall, well known for the rich paneled ceiling that it closed; the hall it devoted to representative and ceremonial functions. Between 1421 and 1423 are constructed new halls that are expanding the perimeter and height of the building. In 1458 still it is working on minor details of the halls. In 1423 the Great Hall of the Council suffered a fire consuming the roof of it. Between 1425 and 1428 are made the repair work that would run under the direction of Joan del Poyo and is constructed a new wooden roof.
Once rebuilt this hall would be known as Hall of the Angels because of the large number of angels with shields of the city that decorated the roof. On February 15, 1586 the Casa de la Ciutat suffers another fire, this time dreadful, had to be rebuilt largely; that last fire was caused by the prisoners serving sentences in the jails that were on the ground floor of the building. One of the direct consequences of the fire was that some of the prisoners were to be transferred to the House of the Brotherhood of San Narciso, from that time this house would be known as Prison of San Narciso. Between 1854 and 1860 the municipal building that threatened ruin was demolished and its dependencies were moved to the current City Hall House of Education of girls created by Archbishop Mayoral in the 18th century. Of the Casa de la Ciutat just has reached a few graphic documents of its facade and little documentation; however has come down the coffered ceiling of the so-called Golden Hall that made between 1418 and 1438 by Joan del Poyo would be saved from destruction to be demolished the building, being piled up in the old Archbishop's Palace.
Between 1442 and 1445 the work polychromed it being finished the work. Today it is restored and placed since 1920 on the main floor of the Pavilion of the Consulate of the Llotja de la Seda; this hall would be the main and most sumptuous of the building and its destination were meetings of jurors and representative functions. The elements that made up this coffered or more properly the alfarje were made up of heraldic motifs of the city, busts of prophets, grotesque masks, musical allusions and chimeric animals among others, it was of gilded wood. Joan del Poyo directed the work between 1418 and 1438 with a group of architects among which Bertomeu Santalinea, Juliá Sanxo, the brothers Joan y Andreu Çanou, Domingo Minguez and the painter Jaume Mateu. Joan del Poyo, "master of the works of city", whose birthplace is unknown, died in Valencia in 1439, he is known for his activity in the city between 1439 as manager of the works of the city. In the Casa de la Ciutat are known his works in the "Hall of the Rational" and in the "Archive", in addition to the aforementioned roofs.
Was recognized his skill as manager of the clock housed in the Torre del Micalet. It is said that the Roca Valencia made in 1855 and that it procession in the Corpus Christi is built with wood from the Hall of the Council which as mentioned was called Hall of the angels, it is documented that between 1427 and 1428 the painters Gonçal Peris Sarriá and Jaume Mateu made a series of paintings on wooden boards of pine with paintings of kings of the Crown of Aragon for this Hall of the Council, of which only are preserved four in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. Of the Chapel of the Casa de la Ciutat is preserved in the City Museum, the central panel of the Triptych of the Judgment by Vrancke van der Stockt; the triptych was made up of a central table with a scene of Jesus in Majesty between St. John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary, at the bottom of the Archangel Michael weighing the souls of the damned while the devil tries to cheat; the side tables are preserved in the Museu de Belles Arts de València and represent the blessed ways of Paradise and the damned road to hell on its inner face, while the outer face depicted Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise.
This triptych was acquired in 1494 by the City Council. The fact that although the complete triptych is located in the city of Valencia, are its parts divid
The Turia or Túria is a Spanish river which has its source in the Montes Universales in the mountain ranges of the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, Teruel province. From its source to the city of Teruel, it is called Guadalaviar river, it runs through the provinces of Teruel and Valencia, discharges into the Mediterranean sea near the city of Valencia. The river is notorious for its floods; the flood which occurred on 14 October 1957, known as the Great Flood of Valencia, flooded large part of the city of Valencia, produced a great deal of damage to both life and property. To prevent this from happening in the future, a diversion project was devised, completed in 1969, the river was divided in two at the western city limits. During floods, most of the water is diverted southwards along a new course that skirts the city, until it meets the Mediterranean; the old course of the river has been turned into a central green-space for the city, a cultural attraction known as the garden of the Turia.
Not unlike the LA River man-made diversion channel south of the city is found dry, since water flows during periods of flooding. Under ordinary flow rates the waters are directed through irrigation channels to help cultivate the fertile plain of Valencia. Throughout history the water of the River Turia has been used to irrigate the region. In modern times, a complex network of irrigation has been created, with the main axis centred on the diversion project. Beyond irrigation, these channels take runoff and surplus waters from the Turia to the wetlands and marshes around Valencia; the old riverbed is now a verdant sunken park that allows cyclists and pedestrians to traverse much of the city without the use of roads. The park, called the'Garden of the Turia' boasts numerous ponds, fountains, football pitches, cafés, climbing walls, an athletics track, a zen garden and more; the many bridges overhead carry traffic across the park. Towards the park's eastern end is the Gulliver Park, a children's adventure playground featuring a huge fibreglass model of Lemuel Gulliver tied to the ground with ropes.
The model is constructed such. In addition, Gulliver's clothes form ladders on which to play. Towards the eastern end of the river course is the Valencian Music Palace. Marking the park's eastern extreme is Valencia's new City of Arts and Sciences. Two Metrovalencia stations lie beneath the riverbed, with entrances on either bank: Túria and Alameda. List of rivers of Spain Flight over River Turia video River Turia information with maps
Royal Palace, Valencia
The now vanished Del Real Palace or Royal Palace was the former residence of the kings of Valencia in the «Cap i Casal» of the Kingdom, as the city of Valencia was called. It was on the left bank of the Turia River, it was known as «300 keys palace» in reference to the number of rooms it had in its heights. From 11th to 19th centuries it was royal seat whether for the kings of the Taifa of Valencia or the monarchs of the Crown of Aragon, the Habsburgs and the Bourbons, while it was less appreciated by the latter. Late-19th century Valencian political Teodoro Llorente quotes "What happened to you, Palacio del Real? Noble mansion of the Valencian monarchs and symbol of our ancient and glorious kingdom All disappeared with the institutions that you represented, the illustrious autonomy of that kingdom that you were head..." It was constructed in the 11th century by the king Abd al-Aziz as an almúnia or recreation residence on the outskirts of the city. In Xarq al-Andalus these rural residences of the urban oligarchy, located around the cities, were known as real, which must not be confused with the rafals, which were estates for agrarian production.
Thereupon, the Real Palace name arises from the fact that it was one of these almúnies, not because it was a royal residence. The Arabist Henri Péres, in his book Esplendor de Al-Andalus, talks about the beauty and grandeur of the palace, which "included a big garden planted with fruit trees and flowers and a river that crossed it, the palace is located in the middle, with richly decorated pavilions, which gaped open to the garden". In 1364, in the course of the war with Castile, the troops of Peter the Cruel burned it down and looted it. Afterwards, Peter the Ceremonious rebuilt it as the residence of the Aragonese monarchs entirely, incorporating some partial remains of the old architecture, broadened the gardens in the 14th century, keeping in mind to build a true bigger palace. John I enlarged it so as Alfonso the Magnanimous, during the few years he resided in Valencia before conquering Naples, consolidated it as a royal residence and made considerable expenses to turned it into one of the best regal palaces in the Crown of Aragon.
His wife, queen Maria, for whom it was one of her most favoured residences, lived there permanently with her court. From there she governed the peninsular kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon. Inventories of that time indicate that it was a sumptuously decorated palace, with abundant tapestries and rich furniture. Ferdinand the Catholic, Germaine of Foix and the Duke of Calabria improved the facilities; the palace was composed of two attached bodies, called Real Nou. The old Arab building had four towers. There were two patios in the new part; the main halls, where audiences and receptions were held, were on the first floor. There were gardens with ponds and exotic plants brought on purpose from America, a menagerie with lions, deer, pheasants and other animals; some of those gardens are the current Viveros. In the early modern period it was the residence of the viceroys of Valencia, headquarters of the Cancelleria Reial of the kingdom of Valencia archive, created by Alfonso the Magnanimous, originating part of the current Archive of the Kingdom of Valencia.
Subsequently, in the 18th century, after the Nueva Planta decree, it served as the residence of the captain generals. Thereupon it underwent major work. Captain general of Valencia from 1721 to 1737, the nobleman of Italian origin Luigi Reggio, 4th prince of Campofiorito, took the initiative to organise in the Real Gardens the first opera performances played in Valencia. Thus, the Palace had a long history with numerous extensions and reforms that made him the recipient of a cluster of architectural experiences, reflecting constructive ways and forms of different eras lived. In 1810, during the Peninsular War, in order to deny the palace to the Napoleonic troops and avoid they using it as a bastion against the city, Valencians themselves decided to demolish it, useless. In fact, the demolition was due to a combination of factors: a poor military strategy, the economic needs of the Junta de Defensa and the perception by the bourgeois, liberal classes that this old grand palace was the main symbol of the past.
Only some fragment of the coffered ceiling, preserved at the Arxiu del Regne, was saved from its formidable brickwork. In 1986 in the wake of a works carried out in the collectors of the city, was lifted the asphalt of street General Elio, under it were the remains of the palace. After much controversy over whether the remains were to be buried or laid bare, it was decided to bury them because the street is one of the main arteries of the city. Earlier year 2009, new tastings with GPR were made, discarding a massive excavation and appear new remains that arouse interest for the palace, the emblem of the city. Although it is clear that the Del Real Palace is irrecoverable, in 1810 was razed to the ground, the illusion of archaeologists is increasing. Excavations at the Viveros garden were made. Archaeologists have unearthed last week the first walls, belonging to the Torre de la Reina. A magnificent tower, the residence of the Queen Maria, wife of Alfonso V of Aragon, although in the last period of the pal
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Modernisme Plaza of the City Hall of Valencia
The Modernisme Plaza of the City Hall of Valencia was the transformation of the square of the City Hall of Valencia by Javier Goerlich in 1931, now in its site is the current Plaza of the City Hall and its fountain. The Dr. Daniel Benito Goerlich, Professor of Art History and Curator of Cultural Heritage of the University of Valencia, assures that the reform of the 1930s "belongs to a specific social context, was destroyed a few years in a different context, the repressive postwar, towards the "disaffected" to the political regime of the time." Benito Goerlich, is, nephew of architect Goerlich Lleó. The work of the Plaza del Ayuntamiento ended the previous "Bajada de San Francisco", so it was expropriations that caused expected unrest among the owners and neighbors; the subsequent Plaza and Parque de Emilio Castelar is part of the height of the architectural work of Goerlich Lleó starring purist, Art Deco and Modernisme styles. Which was destined to become the new civic center of the city, competing with the plazas de la Reina and de la Virgen, it was carried out by a high and triangular platform.
The corners, culminated with fountains, representing the three provinces of the region. The square had the bad nickname tortada, referring to the upper platform, it included two elements: the steps of classic style and Mercado de las Flores; the latter was an underground space, that inserted into the square itself, served for florists of the city sell their product. However, they were opposed to be housed inside from the start; the space them was narrow and dark and, although it was a badge element to the square and the city, considered that supposed its "commercial ruin". The architect behind the popular Plaza de Emilio Castelar was the son of the consul of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Javier Goerlich Lleó; this decisive man in the image of the city of Valencia signed buildings like the headquarters of Bank of Valencia, in addition to expanding streets and avenues among which stand de la Paz, Poeta querol or Barón de Cárcer. Among other buildings of major streets of the downtown, Goerlich Lleó replaced the old "Bajada de San Francisco" by this.
After years of disputes with florists to the front, they left in 1944 from underground. Just over a decade the platform began to dismantle, to lose its appearance at different levels giving way to a flat space and demystified of all its baroque motifs. Shortly thereafter, the balcony of the City Hall of Valencia became a platform designed to preside over the military parades -work by Emilio Rieta and Román Jiménez- with a nondescript plaza and specially designed, according to the consulted historians, to carry out acts of falles traditMies van der Roheions; that is, able to accommodate host the mascletá and the falles of the City Hall. The square -then "del Caudillo"- passed to house from 1962 the light fountain by Engineer Carlos Buigues and the equestrian statue of General Francisco Franco, designed by Valencian sculptor José Capuz and is located at the military base of Bétera; the Plaza of the City Hall of Valencia hosts few symbolic values for much of the year, beyond the buildings that surround it.
However, the architecture shown by the "Goerlich reform" does not find favor among some Valencian architects. Rafael Rivera, municipal architect of Valencia during the 1980s and professor of urbanism at the School of Architecture of Valencia, considered "a horror the square" of Goerlich. "I read with surprise the comments on Facebook. People talk about the square with enthusiasm for the old, but not because it is something old of original form. In the 1930s Mies van der Rohe was doing wonders for Europe and why the work only talks about the cultural poverty of the power and the bourgeoisie of that time in Valencia"; this same Rivera stresses that "there is a total absence of the flowers and it bury the posts, something that makes no sense. However, the subsequent result not I think not commendable because it is conditioned by a single use; the plaza of the City Hall is part of an axis abandoned by the Valencians between La Estacioneta and the Estación del Norte". This architect points out that, in addition, "people should think it would have been difficult for a public expression as the 15-M movement if had occurred in the modernisme square.
That versatility makes it modern, but lacks of distinctive elements to adds a statue to Francesc Vinatea, a character of second order pointless for a square of that importance"