Dorna Sports, S. L. is the commercial rights holder for the motorcycling sport of MotoGP. Established in 1988 as an international sports management and marketing company, it is headquartered in Madrid, with branch offices and/or subsidiaries in Barcelona, Amsterdam and Rome. Set up by Banco Banesto as Dorna promoción del deporte, the company was sold to CVC Madrid in 1998 as the operation developed internationally and was renamed Dorna Sports. Private equity group Bridgepoint has been the majority shareholder of Dorna since 2006. Since 1992 Dorna has been the exclusive holder of all commercial and television rights relating to the MotoGP World Championship, from 2001 has held the commercial and television rights for the Supercross GP World Championship and since 2013 the Superbike World Championship; the company participates in the management and marketing of other motorsports properties, including: the Spanish Road Racing Championship, the British Superbike Championship and the Trials World Championships.
Dorna recognised, with support from manufacturers. The costs of developing specialist two-stroke engines, which created non-commercial end products, was not sustainable. Hence, in its efforts to bring about the change from 500 cc racing to MotoGP four-stroke racing, Dorna has managed to take away the FIM’s power in rule-making and turn the keys to the rule-making castle over to the MSMA. A gentlemen’s agreement has existed for some time between Dorna CEO Carmelo Ezpeleta and Bernie Ecclestone, CEO of Formula One rights holder FOM, to do what is necessary to avoid a direct TV conflict between F1 and MotoGP. At schedule-making time there is consultation between the two sides, but, in general, when F1 makes a change creating a conflict with a MotoGP date, MotoGP responds by changing dates. Set up by Banco Banesto as Dorna promocion del deporte, the company was sold to CVC Madrid in 1998 as the operation developed internationally and was renamed Dorna Sports; the purchase was supervised by American Hardy McLain, cost $80 million, half of, needed to pay off Dorna debt.
McLain, one of the founders of CVC and an executive of Citibank, was present at several motorcycle Grand Prix events in 1998 but, confident in the ability of Dorna CEO Carmelo Ezpeleta, has left the running of the company to the Spaniard, as well as the completely Spanish Dorna executive leadership. In November 2005 CVC Capital Partners announced it was to acquire the 25% and 48% shares of Bambino and Bayerische Landesbank in Formula1 commercial rights holder SLEC and acquired the shares of JP Morgan Chase in December 2005; this deal was given approval by the European Commission on 21 March 2006 subject to the sale of Dorna Sports. By divesting Dorna, the Commission concluded that CVC’s Formula One transaction would not cause competition concerns. Competition commissioner Neelie Kroes, said: “When the two most popular motor sport events in the EU, Formula One and Moto GP, come in the hands of one owner, there is a risk of price increases for the TV rights to these events and a reduction in consumer choice.
I am satisfied that the commitments given by CVC will eliminate this risk.” Its final 71% stake in Dorna was sold by CVC for £400million on 28 March, selling the holding to Dorna Sports management. In 2005, with the growth of the Internet, Dorna began the controversial practice of charging for Press Credentials for online publications; the "fee" varied from 100 euros to 1000 euros. Most newsworthy publications turned their back on this flagrant exploitation by the event promoter. Official website
ASK known as ASK Italian is a British casual dining restaurant chain that serves Italian cuisine in 120 locations in the UK. The chain, founded by brothers Adam Kaye and Samuel Kaye in 1993, floated on AIM in 1995, was the subject of a public-to-private deal in 2004, after which it was merged with Pizza Express to form Gondola Holdings, part of the Gondola Group, was acquired along with Zizzi for £250 million by Bridgepoint Capital in February 2015; the name can be construed either as the founders' initials or as an acronym for "Authentic Sicilian Kitchen". ASK was the chain's original name, it was rebranded as ASK Italian from 2010. In 2010, Theo Randall started working with ASK Italian restaurants as their'expert friend', developing menus and coming up with new dishes. In June 2015, he took his relationship with the brand further by becoming an investor in to the Azzurri Group, which owns and runs the restaurant chain. Kiss It Better Campaign ASK Italian embarked on a partnership with Great Ormond Street Hospital Children's Charity in 2008 when they chose to support the charity’s Kiss it Better appeal by donating £1 for every kids menu sold during the campaign, by asking customers to add a kiss £1 onto their bill.
They smashed their original target of £20,000 to raise an astonishing £73,000 in just four weeks ASK Italian went on to raise a further £200,000 for the charity in the following two years, through a range of activities including sales of a celebrity cook book and donations from a range of dishes. The money raised was able to fund both a ward kitchen and an adolescent dining and recreation area on Bear Ward, part of the Wolfson Heart and Lung Centre housed in the Morgan Stanley Clinical Building, the first part of the Mittal Children's Medical Centre; the ASK Italian Cookbook In November 2012, the ASK Italian Cookbook was launched to help raise funds for the partnership. Edited by prize-winning food writer Carla Capalbo, with special recipes from TV chef and Italian cooking expert Theo Randall, this lovely cookbook contains more than 100 authentic Italian recipes to cook at home, from hand-made fettuccine to perfect risottos and indulgent desserts; the ASK Italian Cookbook is available from all ASK Italian restaurants for £10 with £4 from each sale going directly to Great Ormond Street Hospital Children’s Charity.
The ASK Italian Grand Tour During September 2013, ASK Italian took one of their most ambitious charity projects to date: The ASK Italian Grand Tour. Over 22 days of activity, the ASK Italian Grand Tour visited every ASK Italian restaurant in the UK, covering over 2,500 miles by bike, on foot and from behind the wheel. Around 400 team members got involved in two 600 mile bike-rides, two day-long walks and a triathlon. During the tour a number of restaurants were joined by local families who have benefited from Great Ormond Street Hospital; the ASK Italian Grand Tour was brought to a close at a celebration finale party in October 2013 attended by Jilly Hale, Head of Nursing at Great Ormond Street Hospital, who collected a cheque for £208,675 raised during the event. Pennies In early 2013 ASK Italian switched on Pennies, the digital charity box in all their restaurants, giving their customers the option to top up their bill by 25p and donate to charity Great Ormond Street Hospital Children’s Charity.
In February 2015, Bridgepoint Capital bought ASK Italian along with its sister brand Zizzi from Cinven in a transaction totalling £250 million. In November 2015 the chain was one of seven restaurants surveyed that failed to meet a basic level of sustainability in its seafood; the ASK Italian Cookbook List of Italian restaurants Official website Media related to Ask at Wikimedia Commons
Dennis Eagle Limited is a UK-based dustcart manufacturer owned by Terberg RosRoca Group, Europe’s largest refuse collection vehicle manufacturer and the second largest refuse collection vehicle manufacturer in the world. Notable product launches include the Phoenix 1 body in 1979 and the Elite 1 chassis, the UK’s first low entry cab, in 1992. Further developments have led to the introduction of the Phoenix 2 in 2001 and the 8x4 Elite 2 in 2003. Before operations were merged with Terberg Environmental, Dennis Eagle employed a workforce of over 600 across its two manufacturing sites and service network, which included nine depots as well as mobile engineers based throughout the UK. Body and chassis assembly took place at the Warwick headquarters, with cabs built at the additional manufacturing facility in Blackpool. Producing over 1,000 refuse collection vehicles each year, the company had an international network of distributors. Dennis Brothers Limited had made specialised vehicles for municipal authorities from the early 1920s though they were builders of chassis for buses, fire engines and haulage lorries.
Eagle Engineering Company Limited and general engineers of Warwick, was incorporated in 1907. It made oil and petrol internal combustion stationary engines and some small agricultural equipment and provided municipalities with refuse vehicles and road sweepers and tower lorries at inexpensive prices sometimes built on Dennis chassis. Soon after the start of the Great Depression Eagle turned from engines to building road trailers and semi-trailers for articulated vehicles, they added an electrical and wireless department and produced Chakophone wireless sets until 1936. Ownership changed a number of times during the 1960s. Dennis Eagle's history goes back to the autumn of 1971 when Hestair Group bought Yorkshire Vehicles Limited in Leeds and Eagle Engineering Co in Warwick. Six months Hestair bought Dennis Motor Holdings and thereafter managed the businesses as the Vehicle Division of Hestair Engineering. Municipal bodies were made in Warwick by Hestair Eagle, municipal chassis were made by Dennis in Guildford, cabs were made in Blackpool.
Hestair set up a special Environmental Vehicles Division for its waste management activities. In 1985 Hestair moved municipal chassis manufacture from the Dennis plant at Guildford to a new 125,000 square foot plant on the Heathcote Industrial Estate at Warwick, they were joined there by Hestair Eagle's municipal bodies operations which moved across Warwick from Saltisford. The new Dennis Eagle plant was the largest refuse vehicle manufacturing site in Europe. In 1991 Shelvoke and Drewry's design rights were bought from the receiver. Environmental Vehicles, Dennis Eagle, now represented around one-third of Hestair's Vehicle Division. Following more changes of parent company Dennis Eagle was sold in July 1999 to NatWest Equity Partners. In January 2004, Dennis Eagle was purchased by ABN Amro. In 2007, Dennis Eagle was purchased by Ros Roca SA. Ros Roca and Terberg Environmental merged in 2016; the various companies within the new group retained their trading names. Official website
Burger King is an American global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. Headquartered in the unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County, the company was founded in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida–based restaurant chain. After Insta-Burger King ran into financial difficulties in 1954, its two Miami-based franchisees David Edgerton and James McLamore purchased the company and renamed it "Burger King". Over the next half-century, the company would change hands four times, with its third set of owners, a partnership of TPG Capital, Bain Capital, Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, taking it public in 2002. In late 2010, 3G Capital of Brazil acquired a majority stake in the company, in a deal valued at US$3.26 billion. The new owners promptly initiated a restructuring of the company to reverse its fortunes. 3G, along with partner Berkshire Hathaway merged the company with the Canadian-based doughnut chain Tim Hortons, under the auspices of a new Canadian-based parent company named Restaurant Brands International.
The 1970s were the "Golden Age" of the company's advertising, but beginning in the early-1980s, Burger King advertising began losing focus. A series of less successful advertising campaigns created by a procession of advertising agencies continued for the next two decades. In 2003, Burger King hired the Miami-based advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky, which reorganized its advertising with a series of new campaigns centered on a redesigned Burger King character nicknamed "The King", accompanied by a new online presence. While successful, some of CP+B's commercials were derided for perceived sexism or cultural insensitivity. Burger King's new owner, 3G Capital terminated the relationship with CP+B in 2011 and moved its advertising to McGarryBowen, to begin a new product-oriented campaign with expanded demographic targeting. Burger King's menu has expanded from a basic offering of burgers, French fries and milkshakes to a larger and more diverse set of products. In 1957, the "Whopper" became the first major addition to the menu, it has become Burger King's signature product since.
Conversely, BK has introduced many products. Some of these failures in the United States have seen success in foreign markets, where BK has tailored its menu for regional tastes. From 2002 to 2010, Burger King aggressively targeted the 18–34 male demographic with larger products that carried correspondingly large amounts of unhealthy fats and trans-fats; this tactic would damage the company's financial underpinnings, cast a negative pall on its earnings. Beginning in 2011, the company began to move away from its previous male-oriented menu and introduce new menu items, product reformulations and packaging, as part of its current owner 3G Capital's restructuring plans of the company; as of December 31, 2018, Burger King reported. Of these, nearly half are located in the United States, 99.7% are owned and operated, with its new owners moving to an entirely franchised model in 2013. BK has used several variations of franchising to expand its operations; the manner in which the company licenses its franchisees varies depending on the region, with some regional franchises, known as master franchises, responsible for selling franchise sub-licenses on the company's behalf.
Burger King's relationship with its franchises has not always been harmonious. Occasional spats between the two have caused numerous issues, in several instances, the company's and its licensees' relations have degenerated into precedent-setting court cases. Burger King's Australian franchise Hungry Jack's is the only franchise to operate under a different name, due to a trademark dispute and a series of legal cases between the two; the predecessor to Burger King was founded in 1953 in Florida, as Insta-Burger King. After visiting the McDonald brothers' original store location in San Bernardino, the founders and owners, who had purchased the rights to two pieces of equipment called "Insta-machines", opened their first restaurants, their production model was based on one of the machines they had acquired, an oven called the "Insta-Broiler". This strategy proved to be so successful that they required all of their franchises to use the device. After the company faltered in 1959, it was purchased by its Miami, franchisees, James McLamore and David R. Edgerton.
They initiated a corporate restructuring of the chain. They ran the company as an independent entity for eight years, before selling it to the Pillsbury Company in 1967. Pillsbury's management tried several times to restructure Burger King during the late 1970s and the early 1980s; the most prominent change came in 1978 when Burger King hired McDonald's executive Donald N. Smith to help revamp the company. In a plan called "Operation Phoenix", Smith restructured corporate business practices at all levels of the company. Changes included updated franchise agreements, a broader menu and new standardized restaurant designs. Smith left Burger King for PepsiCo in 1980 shortly before a system-wide decline in sales. Pillsbury's Executive Vice President of Restaurant Operations Norman E. Brinker was tasked with turning the brand around, strengthening its position against its main rival McDonald's. One of his initiatives was a new advertising campaign featuring a series of attack ads against its major competitors.
This campaign started a competitive period between Burger King, McDonald's, top burger chains known as the Burger wars. Brinker left Burger King i
Pret a Manger
Pret a Manger is an international sandwich shop chain based in the United Kingdom referred to as Pret. Founded in 1983, Pret has over 450 shops in nine countries. Jeffrey Hyman founded the first Pret a Manger in London on 21 October 1983; the first Pret A Manger shop opened in Hampstead, London, in 1984. The name Prêt à Manger was based on prêt-à-porter, French for "ready-to-wear" clothing. Opening in June 1983, the company traded at 58 Hampstead High Street for eighteen months at which time takings had dropped to below break-even point and the company went into liquidation; the name and visual branding was purchased from the company liquidator David Rubin by college friends Sinclair Beecham and Julian Metcalfe. Beecham and Metcalfe started a new operation, using the Pret A Manger name purchased from the former company's liquidator, they opened their first Pret A Manger in July 1986, located at 75b Victoria Street in London. Beecham and Metcalfe had met while studying at university; the pair developed the chain's menu of handmade natural food, prepared in shop kitchens, they remain significant shareholders in the company.
In 1995 Metcalfe and Beecham set up the Pret Foundation Trust with the aim to alleviate poverty in the UK. The Trust receives donations from the sale of products and collection boxes in shops; the donations fund Pret's "Charity Run" vans which deliver unsold food to homeless shelters at the end of each day. The first shop outside of London was opened on Broad Street, New York, in 2000. In 2016, there were 74 Pret shops in the United States. In 2001, McDonald's bought a 33% non-controlling stake in the company, which they sold in 2008 to private equity firm Bridgepoint Capital; the company opened its first shop in France in 2012, had a total of 19 shops in France in 2016. In 2016, its group sales were £776 million. On 29 May 2018, JAB Holding Company announced; the acquisition was completed in September 2018. The company emphasises the use of natural ingredients and advertises that its sandwiches are made on the day of purchase in a kitchen at each location. Food left. Sandwiches are packaged in paperboard rather than sealed plastic.
67 % of its trade is in London. Locations include: United Kingdom Dubai: 1 outlet, as of March 2016, it opened on 16 March 2016 at Dubai International Airport's new Concourse D. United States Hong Kong China Singapore France Netherlands Denmark: 3 at Copenhagen Airport in Terminal 3, Terminal 2 and Gate A Germany: 1 at Berlin Hauptbahnhof, as of October 2018 In 1998, the company employed 1,400 people, of whom 19% were from the UK and 60% were from other European Union countries in Eastern Europe. Pret A Manger employs 1 in every 14 applicants. Applicants go on a one-day experience day at a shop and their success is determined by votes from the staff members. Many managers and senior executives have come from within the company; the organisational structure of Pret A Manger is divided between the main offices. The London head office is the hub for the UK stores, while the office in New York City is the hub for the American stores; each store contains levels of positions. Above the in-store manager is the operations manager, in charge of a group of 10 stores, above that are more senior management positions based out of the offices that are tasked with coordinating a region and maintaining communication with the company's CEO in London.
All office employees are paired with a "buddy shop". While the uppermost levels of management are located in the offices, not all the office jobs are above the store jobs in the organisational structure. Orders do not flow from the head offices in a top-down manner. Pret a Manger promotes an internal culture as described in a leaflet entitled "Pret Behaviours"; the Behaviours break down traits into three categories: passion, clear talking and team working – and identify specific behaviours as "Don't want to see", "Want to see", "Pret perfect!" The number of Behaviours Pret hopes an employee exhibits increases with rank within the company: team members should practise around six Behaviours, managers ten, the company's executives all of them. Pret A Manger has been cited as being vigorous in extracting affective labour from its employees. Affective labour is work. Pret A Manger demands go beyond traditional requirements for fast-food workers to such tasks as having "presence", demonstrating a quirky sense of fun, exhibiting behaviour consistent with being inwardly happy with oneself.
Pret A Manger uses mystery shoppers to ensure that employees deploy markers of a positive emotional state. Employees who exhibit markers of latent sadness face consequences such as not having a bonus; this has led to some criticism of the company for over-reaching while drawing praise from right-wing commentators and other business owners for its business practices. In response to labour issues within the company, the Pret A Manger Staff Union was established in 2012 as an independent union with its principal demand being made around calls for a Living Wage. Andrej Stopa, the founder of the union, was sacked from his Pret branch. In late 2015, a 17-year-old girl collapsed and needed emergency medical care after a "life-threatening" reac
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K