Midland Highway (Tasmania)
The Midland Highway is one of Tasmania's major inter-city highways, running for 176 kilometres between Hobart and Launceston. It is part of the AusLink National Network and is a vital link for road freight to transport goods to and from the two cities, it represents a major north–south transportation corridor in Tasmania and has the route 1 designation as part of the National Highway. The highway consists of various traffic lane arrangements, the most common being two lanes – one in each direction, with overtaking options and at-grade intersections. At both the Launceston and Hobart sections of the highway there are small portions of grade-separated dual carriageway. Surveyor Grimes marked out the track from Hobart to Launceston in 1807, Governor Macquarie followed the route in 1811 when he visited the colony accompanied by his wife; the party took five and a half days to complete the journey. Macquarie again visited the colony in 1821, when the road was fit for a carriage, but his journal records many different sections, it was not until 1831 that the first regular coach service was operated by J. E. Cox.
The first mailman, Robert Taylor, was appointed in 1816, he walked, leaving Hobart and Launceston on alternate Sundays and carrying the mail in a pack. The first record of movement between the two centres was in 1821 when Governor Lachlan Macquarie selected sites for towns on the highway, it was known as the'Main Road' or'Hobart Road' for most of its history. In the 1930s it became known as the Midland Highway, in the 2000s - it had'The Heritage Highway' label applied to it; the route of the highway ran between Hobart and Launceston, passed through the localities which are now known as: Bridgewater, Pontville, Bagdad, Kempton, Melton Mowbray, Oatlands, Antill Ponds, Tunbridge, Campbell Town, Conara Junction, Epping Forest, Perth and Kings Meadows. A number of two lane bypasses of towns and villages have been constructed since the early 1980s, including the Jericho bypass, opened to traffic in January 1982. Construction of grade separated dual carriageways leading south of Launceston and north of Hobart provided new superior facilities for Midland Highway traffic and shortened the route designated the Midland Highway.
On 21 June 1983, what was referred to as the ‘Hobart Northern Outlet Road’ was opened to traffic. Now called the Brooker Highway, this completed a grade-separated dual carriageway between Claremont Interchange and Granton in the northern suburbs of Hobart. Construction of the first stage of the Launceston Southern Outlet between Glen Dhu and Strathroy commenced in February 1981 and comprised the construction of 7.4 km of dual carriageway and included three major bridges, namely the Mt Pleasant Interchange, the Westbury Road Overpass and the Glen Dhu Overpass. The highway opened to traffic between the Glen Dhu interchange and the temporary connection onto the old Midland Highway at Jinglers Creek, Strathroy; the extension of the Launceston Southern Outlet Road between Breadalbane and Strathroy opened to traffic on 28 August 1987. This extension included the construction of 3.7 km of dual carriageway and a roundabout, linking the Outlet Road with the Midland Highway and Evandale Main Road. The third and final section of the Launceston Southern Outlet opened to traffic on 24 May 1988.
The road works involved construction of 1 km of dual carriageway between Glen Dhu Overpass and the Frankland Street/Wellington Street intersection. In October 2012, the Brighton Bypass was opened, six months ahead of schedule; this bypass is a grade separated dual carriageway of the towns of Brighton and Pontville, just beyond Hobart’s northern suburbs. The total cost of the bypass was A$191 million. In 2002, a railway line underpass was constructed near Symmons Plains, south of Perth, to create a grade separated rail crossing on the highway itself. Significant numbers of overtaking lanes have been extended or created. There has been mounting pressure for the Highway to be upgraded to a four-lane carriageway for 20 years to fall in line with the Auslink network of highways such as the Hume and Pacific as it is Tasmania's most travelled stretch of long highway; the State and federal Liberal Parties have pledged $400 million to the funding of a dual-carriageway highway between Hobart and Launceston.
The Liberal Party's claim is that when taking into account the Brighton Bypass, the Southern Outlet and the 34 km of overtaking lanes, there are 120 km of single-carriageway road on the Midland Highway. The Australian Labor Party stated that the 400 million-dollar budget is grossly underfunded, could not be constructed for that price; the Liberal Party defended the accusations that the $3 million/km budget is too low by stating that they are not planning any new road alignments or bypasses, just adding new lanes to the existing alignment. They have not stated if they plan to include T-junctions and roundabouts. Should both the federal and state Liberal Parties win the next elections, they plan to upgrade this remaining stretch of road from 2014 progressively. There are several projects/proposals; the Transport study caters for the Bagdad Bypass and the replacement of the ageing Bridgewater Bridge The Perth Bypass is proposed to be constructed in 2 stages starting with the South Perth bypass which will result in a direct route to Illawarra Main Road - a vital link road to the Bass Highway.
There are plans to Duplicate the Midland Highwa
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Southern Transport Investment Program
The Southern Transport Investment Program is a road and rail transport plan for the northern outskirts of Hobart instituted in 2007 by the Tasmanian state government. It outlines most prominently an extensive upgrade of the Midland Highway, including the Brighton Bypass, the Bagdad Bypass and the replacement of the Bridgewater Bridge; the plan outlines the construction of the Brighton Transport Hub and various rail alignment improvements to the Main North/South Line. The original concept is over 2 decades old and includes both the replacement of the Bridgewater Bridge, the bypassing of, Brighton and Bagdad; this current section of the Midland Highway is a two-lane road with no overtaking lanes. The speed limit slows to as low as 50 km/h in the area of a Brighton school. Residents of the area have come to dread the daily sound of an ambulance speeding past, or a helicopter flying above, towards another crash. Hobart Disc jockey and resident of Bagdad, Bob Cooke has said locals live in "mortal fear" driving down Constitution Hill - A semi-mountainous stretch of the highway.
In response to some of these concerns, the Midlands Highway at Constitution Hill is being upgraded to have oncoming lanes separated by a wire rope safety fence and is expected to be completed in May 2009. The University of Tasmania is spending ten thousand dollars a month subsidising bus travel for students between the Hobart and Launceston Campus; this subsidy started after four students died in a car accident on the Midland Highway in 2006. The proposal has plagued by political bickering. In 2001 the Federal Government set aside $100 million towards the replacement of the bridge after the State and Federal governments reached consensus on the replacement bridge's location. In 2003 the Department of Infrastructure and Resources declared the Bridgewater crossing as the highest priority issue for the National Highway in Tasmania, they said that a range of upgrading concepts has been developed and were investigating costs for the construction of a new bridge compared to the costs of a refurbishment for the existing bridge.
In 2005 the Federal Minister for Trade Warren Truss said the state government had accepted all funding packages proposed by AusLink for that year except for the replacement of the Bridgewater Bridge. He said this is because the state Government does not want that project to proceedOn 30 October 2006 a problem with the lifting span of the Bridgewater bridge forced its closure for several weeks causing traffic problems for commuters in Northern Hobart. After this incident and the increasing road fatalities on the existing highway the Derwent Valley and the Southern Midlands Council started lobbying the State government for the construction of the long awaited bypass. Shortly after this, on 13 November 2006 the Federal Minister for Roads Jim Lloyd said the Tasmanian Government had taken too long to find a solution to problems with the Bridgewater Bridge. Mr Lloyd said there is $20 million available for a new bridge and the Federal Government is open to approaches for more funding, he said it is unacceptable that Tasmania's Department of Infrastructure and Resources has spent five years looking at alternatives for the bridge.
During early April 2007, after a ten-year-old girl was killed on the highway, the Mayors of the 3 southern councils proposed a 10-year upgrade of Hobart's northern approaches ending in the replacement of the Bridgewater Bridge. Southern Midlands Council Mayor Tony Bisdee estimated the staged works would cost between $250 million and $300 million and would help the South "catch up in road funding to the North and North-West of the state". Towards the end of April 2007, after five road fatalities on the Highway that month the state government drafted plans for a two-lane bypass of Brighton; the plan involves the following upgrades: Minor improvements of the Lyell Highway at the southern end of the Bridgewater bridge were proposed. This new proposal did not include the replacement of the Bridgewater Bridge or overtaking lanes for the new bypass. Mayor Bisdee said that the proposed 2 lane bypass was inadequate for the needs of the area, stated that with increasing truck movements in the area, that overtaking lanes were needed or the Swedish One Plus Two model.
State Transport Minister Jim Cox confirmed that specific details such as lanes, safety barriers and other safety features had yet to be finalised. Mr Cox stressed the road on the bridge is sound but did say $1.5 million was needed to fix the liftspan. Former Premier Paul Lennon joined the debate, saying that the upgrade—which will bypass some of Tasmania's most neglected and dangerous stretches of highway—was long overdue, he said he along with all other southern Tasmanians wanted to see the national highway upgraded significantly. The former Premier said he hopes the proposed move of the Freight Terminal to Brighton will be a catalyst for federal funds to fix Hobart's northern approaches; the day after making these comments the Mr Lennon accused the Federal government of pork-barrelling in the north and north-west while neglecting deadly roads in the south. In the following days Prime minister John Howard indicated the state's south would get a boost in road funding. However, Mr Howard hit back at Premier Paul Lennon's accusations he has spent up big in north and north-west while neglecting road safety in the south of the state.
The State Government had not yet released its plans for the proposed bypass to the Federal government, Mr Lennon said this should not prevent a commitment. He said. Shortly after this the Lennon government announced that the Bridewater Bridge would be closed indefinitely to
A swing bridge is a movable bridge that has as its primary structural support a vertical locating pin and support ring at or near to its center of gravity, about which the turning span can pivot horizontally as shown in the animated illustration to the right. Small swing bridges as found over canals may be pivoted only at one end, opening as would a gate, but require substantial underground structure to support the pivot. In its closed position, a swing bridge carrying a road or railway over a river or canal, for example, allows traffic to cross; when a water vessel needs to pass the bridge, road traffic is stopped, motors rotate the bridge horizontally about its pivot point. The typical swing bridge will rotate 90 degrees, or one-quarter turn; as this type requires no counterweights, the complete weight is reduced as compared to other moveable bridges. Where sufficient channel is available to have individual traffic directions on each side, the likelihood of vessel-to-vessel collisions is reduced.
The central support is mounted upon a berm along the axis of the watercourse, intended to protect the bridge from watercraft collisions when it is opened. This artificial island forms an excellent construction area for building the movable span as the construction will not impede channel traffic. For a symmetrical bridge, the central pier forms a hazard to navigation. Asymmetrical bridges may place the pivot near one side of the channel. Where a wide channel is not available, a large portion of the bridge may be over an area that would be spanned by other means. A wide channel will be reduced by foundation; when open, the bridge will have to maintain its own weight as a balanced double cantilever, while when closed and in use for traffic, the live loads will be distributed as in a pair of conventional truss bridges, which may require additional stiffness in some members whose loading will be alternately in compression or tension. If struck from the water near the edge of the span, it may rotate enough to cause safety problems.
Buna River Bridge, in Shkodra, Albania. Puente de la Mujer, an asymmetrical cable-stayed span. Gladesville Bridge, Australia. Had a small swing span on the southern end. Pyrmont Bridge, Australia. Glebe Island Bridge, Australia. Victoria Bridge, Queensland, Australia; the Sale Swing Bridge, Victoria, Australia. Dunalley Bridge, Tasmania Still in use. Belize City Swing Bridge, Belize City, Belize. Oldest such bridge in Central America and one of the few manually operated swing bridge in world still in operation; the longest swing bridge span. Le pont tournant rue Dieu, across the Canal Saint-Martin in Paris, is a distinctive location in the 1938 film Hôtel du Nord, is featured in the opening shot of the film. Kaiser-Wilhelm-Brücke in Wilhelmshaven, built in 1907, with the length of 159m, it was once Europe's biggest swing bridge Garden Reach Road Swing Bridge, for Calcutta Port, Kolkata Poira-Corjuem Bridge, for GSIDC, Goa by Rajdeep Buildcon Pvt. Ltd. Samuel Beckett Bridge, Ireland Seán O'Casey Bridge, Ireland Michael Davitt Bridge, County Mayo, Ireland Portumna bridge, between County Galway and County Tipperary, Ireland Ponte Girevole, Taranto – a unusual type, with two spans that separate at the bridge's center and pivot sideways from the bridge's outer ends.
Kalpaka Tilts, Liepāja, connecting the city with the former Russian/Soviet port Karosta. Chain Bridge, Klaipeda. Built in 1855 and still working today, this is the only swing bridge in Lithuania; when the bridge is turned and yachts can enter the Castle port. Rotation of the bridge is manual, two people can rotate the bridge; the "Abtsewoudsebrug" in Delft, close to the Technische Universiteit Delft, is a bridge of this type. 52°0′5.71″N 4°21′50.10″E There's another one on the channel between Ghent and Terneuzen at Sas Van Gent. Many inner cities have swing bridges, since these require less street space than other types of bridges. Kopu Bridge, Waihou River, near Thames, New Zealand A swing bridge at the Gatun Locks provides the only road passage over the Atlantic side of the Panama Canal; this is a small bridge. Another larger swing bridge at the Miraflores Locks is on the Pacific side but is used, having been supplanted by the Bridge of the Americas and the Centennial Bridge. A swing bridge at the Giżycko is one of four bridges.
It is the only swing bridge in Poland. Varvarivskyi Bridge over Southern Bug in Mykolaiv, with Europe's largest span In the UK, there is a legal definition in current statute as to what is, or is not a'swing bridge' Acton swing bridge - road Barmouth Bridge - rail Beccles swing bridge - rail Bethells Swing Bridge Boothferry swing bridge at Boothferry, Yorkshire Caernarfon swing bridge Co
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Norske Skogindustrier ASA or Norske Skog, which translates as Norwegian Forest Industries, is a Norwegian pulp and paper company based in Halden and established in 1962. The corporation is the world's largest producer of newspaper and magazine paper, with 18 mills around the world. Norske Skog started up in 1962 with the construction of a paper mill at Skogn in Norway, with the plant opening in 1966 and a second paper machine in 1967. Half the capital for the project was issued by the Norwegian Forest Owners Association. In 1972 Norske Skog started a cooperation with Follum Fabrikker in Hønefoss. By 1989 Norske Skog had acquired Follum Fabrikker and Union in Skien as well as Saugbrugsforeningen in Halden. With this Norske Skog controlled all the paper mills in Norway; the first international acquisition came in 1992 when Norske Skog Golbey in France. Norske Skog bought the entire plant in 1995. Norske Skog expanded with purchases in Austria in 1996 and the Czech Republic in 1997. In 1998 Norske skog purchased the Republic of Korea.
In 2000 Norske Skog bought the British Columbia based Fletcher Challenge Canada with nine mills and Pacifica Papers and created NorskeCanada. It absorbed a subsidiary of Fletcher Challenge at the same time. By 2006 Norske Skog had sold its shares in NorskeCanada and the company has changed its name to Catalyst Paper. In September 2005 it acquired the Asian company PanAsia Paper, in turn making Norske Skog Asia's largest producer of newsprint and magazine paper; the company has suffered from an oversupply in mounting debt. A number of factories have been downsized; the closure of the Union paper mill in Skien in 2005 caused a massive outcry, including protests from a number of politicians. Further closures include the closure of a factory in Steti in the Czech Republic, the indefinite closure of a factory in South Korea, the closure of one of the three paper machines at Follum. From March 2007 to March 2008, the value of the Norske Skog stock plummeted from over 100 kr to below 18 kr An editorial in Finansavisen could not rule out the possibility of bankruptcy.
In September 2008, Norske Skog Korea was bought by both Morgan Stanley Private Equity of Asia and Shinhan Private Equity. Sven Ombudstvedt became CEO of Norske Skog in January 2010. Ombudstvedt was chief financial officer and a management board member of Yara International and strategy director of Norsk Hydro. Ombudstvedt succeeded Christian Rynning-Tønnesen. Norske Skogindustrier ASA went bankrupt and was taken off Oslo Stock Exchange in 2017 and continued operations as Norske Skog AS As of 2008 Norske Skog Follum Norske Skog Skogn Norske Skog Saugbrugs Norske Skog Parenco Norske Skog Bruck Norske Skog Golbey Norske Skog Štětí Norske Skog Walsum Norske Skog Bio Bio Norske Skog Pisa Norske Skog Boyer Norske Skog Albury Norske Skog Tasman Hebei Mill Shanghai Mill Singburi Mill This list may be incomplete Norske Skog Union Södra Cell Folla Södra Cell Tofte Catalyst Crofton Catalyst Elk Falls Catalyst Port Alberni Catalyst Powell River Jeonju Mill Cheongwon Mill Official website