Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
Charfield is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, south-west of Wotton-under-Edge near the Little Avon River and the villages of Falfield and Cromhall. Charfield is a medium-sized village of about 2,500 residents with three pubs, the Pear Tree, Railway Tavern and The Plough Inn, a convenience store with Post Office and two churches. There are Farm Lees, Longs View, Manor Lane and Woodlands; the school has around 250 students. An electoral ward with the same name exists; this ward starts in the east in Charfield and stretches west to Falfield. The ward's population at the 2011 census was 4,678; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council's operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, such as the Memorial Hall and playing field and playground, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning.
Conservation matters and environmental issues are of interest to the council. The parish council is a burial authority, has its own burial ground in nearby Churchend; the Bristol-Birmingham main railway line runs through the village. Charfield railway station closed in January 1965 but still stands, discussions continue about the viability of re-opening it; the costs of re-opening would be shared between Gloucestershire and South Gloucestershire Councils since, although the station would be in South Gloucestershire, the nearby Gloucestershire town of Wotton-under-Edge would be a principal beneficiary. The railway line marks the division of the village between two different telephone areas; the village is on the outer limits of both areas. The village has now been fibre-enabled; the Charfield railway disaster was a fatal train crash which occurred on 13 October 1928. The Leeds to Bristol LMS night mail train crashed under a road bridge near Charfield railway station, killing 15 and injuring 23. Amongst the dead were two children.
Charfield Memorial Hall and Playing Field is in the centre of Charfield. The Hall has been refurbished and the play area upgraded with new equipment. St James' Church, Charfield Charfield Community Website Charfield Parish Council Web Site Charfield Burial Ground
Coalpit Heath is a small village in the parish of Westerleigh, South Gloucestershire, south of Yate and east of Frampton Cotterell in South Gloucestershire. Due to the expansion of Coalpit Heath and the neighbouring villages in the late 20th century, the borders of Coalpit Heath with Frampton Cotterell have become vague; the village contains one post office, a 27-hole golf course and a few local shops. The village includes a parish church, a local primary school, it was founded as a coal mining settlement. One pit was on Frog Lane at ST 685 815. Other mines operated between Mays Hill and Nibley to the north and at Ram Hill and Henfield to the south; these were closed some decades ago and no longer visible on the ground. In 1949 the coal ran out, since it has become a sought after place to live, with fields and easy accommodation; the South Gloucestershire Mines Research Group has done a lot of research into the history of mining in the area. When the Kendleshire golf course was built, the remains of many bell pits were found and there are many more in the area.
Frampton Cotterell lies along the northwest border, but the rest of the village is surrounded by the rolling Cotswold countryside, stocked full of wildlife and country pursuits. St. Saviour's Church lies within the village, it was his first Anglican Church. The history is documented here. Amenities used and supported by the village include Bitterwell Lake at Henfield and Coalpit Heath Cricket Club at Ram Hill. A number of sources, including Frank Barrett's book Where Was Wonderland? A Traveller's Guide to the Settings of Classic Children's Books, cite Coalpit Heath as the setting for the Dick King Smith children's book The Sheep-Pig adapted for film as Babe; the South Gloucestershire Mines Research Group have written two books on Coalpit Heath and the surrounding area. Details of these can be found on their website:. Available are:'Frog Lane' £12 ISBN 978-1-899889-33-4 and'Kingswood Coal' ISBN 978-0-9553464-2-2. St Saviour's Church, Coalpit Heath The Manor C of E Primary School, Coalpit Heath The South Gloucestershire Mines Research Group Review of Frank Barrett's Where Was Wonderland?
A Traveller's Guide to the Settings of Classic Children's book, within the text of the review, identifies Coalpit Heath as the location of the Sheep-Pig A site detailing the locations of popular books, which identifies Coalpit Heath as the Sheep-Pig's location interview with Paul Hawkins for God is in the TV magazine in which he talks about a song being set in Coalpit Heath
Hinton, South Gloucestershire
Hinton is a village in South Gloucestershire, England. It is forms part of the civil parish of Dyrham and Hinton; the Bull is the local pub. The Battle of Deorham was fought between West Saxons and Britons on Hinton Hill to the east of the village, it was a key moment in the isolation of the Britons of the South West Peninsula from the Britons of what would become Wales. Media related to Hinton, South Gloucestershire at Wikimedia Commons
Bagstone is a village in South Gloucestershire, England. Bagstone is on the B4058 between Cromhall. Media related to Bagstone at Wikimedia Commons
Badminton is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, England. It consists of Little Badminton. In 1612 Edward Somerset, 4th Earl of Worcester, bought from Nicholas Boteler his manors of Great and Little Badminton, called Madmintune in the Domesday Book while one century earlier the name Badimyncgtun was recorded, held by that family since 1275; the village houses the Duke of Beaufort's residence, Badminton House, the principal seat of the Somerset family since the late 17th century. Badminton House gives its name to the sport of badminton; the village does have a small shop which serves as a Post Office. The village is located close to the A46 and A433, the B4040 passes south of it; the next motorway junction is Tormarton Interchange between A46 and M4. The former railway station in nearby Acton Turville closed in 1968; the nearest railway station is Yate on the Bristol–Gloucester line. West of the village is Badminton Airfield; the village is famous for its horse trials, which take place in early May each year in the grounds of Badminton House.
The parish church of St Michael and All Angels in Great Badminton is attached to the Duke of Beaufort's residence. The current church was built in 1785 and serves as the principal burial place of the Somerset family. Nearly all Dukes and Duchesses are interred here. A smaller church dedicated to St Michael and All Angels, stands in neighbouring Little Badminton. To the north of the main village is the small rural settlement of Little Badminton. Here can be found farm houses and estate lodges much in the traditional Cotswold style of architecture. Remains of a medieval'sunken village' can be seen in Little Badminton, as well as an ornamental dovecote or croft, mentioned in the Domesday book. Field Marshal FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and commander of all the British forces in the Crimean War was born and buried in Badminton, he was the youngest son of the 5th Duke of Beaufort. The village of Badminton played host to the Dowager Queen Mary during the Second World War, evacuated from Marlborough House in London to take up residence at Badminton House for the duration of the war.
She lived here with her niece Duchess of Beaufort, wife of the 10th Duke. An air show was held in Badminton until the early 1990s. Badminton Golf Club was founded in early 1900s; the club closed in 1914. Media related to Badminton, Gloucestershire at Wikimedia Commons Badminton in the Domesday Book
Hill is a village and civil parish in South Gloucestershire, midway between the towns of Thornbury in South Gloucestershire and Berkeley in Gloucestershire. The parish stretches from the banks of the River Severn to an outcrop of the Cotswold escarpment. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 114. Hill is 5 miles from the M5 motorway which links to Gloucester and Bristol. In 1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Hill like this: HILL, a parish in Thornbury district, Gloucester. Posttown, Berkeley. Acres, 2, 476. Real property, £4, 146. Pop. 216. Houses, 44; the property is divided among a few. The manor belongs to Esq.. Hill Court is an ancient mansion, supposed to occupy the site of a monastery of the 12th century; the living is a donative in the diocese of Bristol. Value, £250.* Patron, Herbert Jenner, Esq. The church is good. In the Domesday Book, Hill is recorded as Hilla later between the years of 1250 to 1455 is referred to as Hulla, it was not until after 1773 until it was more known as Hill.
Census data dating back to 1831 shows that the principal industry in Hill has been agriculture, accounting for 75 percent of the workforce in 1831. One product still farmed in Hill is rapeseed, grown for the oil-rich seeds used in the production of vegetable oil; the continuing existence of four working farms in Hill today indicates that agriculture is still of importance to the local economy. The second largest category of employment has been as labourers this proportion however decreased throughout the end of the twentieth century to make way for an increase in professional employment; the employment in agriculture was male-dominated, census data from 1881 indicates that 80 percent of the employed women in Hill were employed in domestic service. According to the 2011 Census the largest proportions of employment in Hill was in the areas of manufacturing and retail; the total number of households in Hill today is similar to the number of households in Hill in 1901. The 1901 census showed there being a total of 40 households, whereas the 2011 census showed there to be a total of 42 households, the majority of which were made up of two adults with one or two children.
The Manor of Hill, known as Hill Court, was included in a grant of the Barony of Berkeley, bestowed upon Robert Fitzharding by Henry II of England after his ascension to the throne in 1154. The manor was transferred down successive generations of the Berkeley family until it came into the possession of Robert Poyntz of nearby Iron Acton in 1418; the Poyntz family gave up the Manor at the beginning of the 17th century, Richard Fust subsequently assuming the lordship in 1609. Built in 1863, the present Hill Court, home of the Jenner-Fust family, replaced an earlier building. On 18 January 1816, a group of sixteen poachers were encountered by a party of gamekeepers belonging to Colonel Berkeley and Lord Ducie at Catgrove, a wooded area in the parish of Hill; some of the poachers were in possession of firearms, which led to an assistant gamekeeper named William Ingram, a member of Colonel Berkeley's contingent, to be shot dead. The poachers, all of whom had blackened faces, fled the scene. Most, but not all, were subsequently taken into custody.
In total 11 men stood trial, all of whom were found guilty, leading to two of the guilty party being executed the following day and the remaining convicts faced transportation to Australia. According to the Ordnance Survey of 1880, the total area of the civil parish of Hill was 2270.7 acres, this included 217.95 acres of foreshore of the tidal River Severn. The boundary of the parish being the centre of the river’s channel at low tide. Over 1500 acres of Hill are meadow and pasture lands 210 acres of arable land and 130 acres of woodland. Ordnance Survey maps show Hill to have four small areas of woodland, in order of descending size these areas are. Along with these Woodland areas, Ordnance Survey maps show a number of small streams running through the centre and towards to the west of the Parish; the British History Online’s website contains an extract from A Topographical Dictionary of England by Samuel Lewis, which described Hill’s geography as: The surface of the western portion, extending to the river, here more than two miles wide, is a complete level, clothed with luxuriant herbage, studded with numerous groups of stately trees.
The soil is chiefly a loam. Hill is home to one parish church, St Michael the Archangel's Church, dedicated to Saint Michael the Archangel. St Michael's is in the archdeaconry and Diocese of Gloucester; the church was constructed in the 13th century and is a Grade II* listed building. The church has undergone restorations; the chancel was restored in 1870 by Ewan Christian, followed by the rebuilding of the porch and addition of buttresses in 1909 by William Weir and Temple Moore. Media related to Hill, Gloucestershire at Wikimedia Commons