Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Gorget patches are an insignia, paired patches of cloth or metal on the collar of the uniform, used in the military and civil service in some countries. Collar tabs sign the military rank, the rank of civil service, the military unit, the office or the branch of the armed forces and the arm of service. Gorget patches were gorgets, pieces of armour worn to protect the throat. With the disuse of armour they were lost; the cloth patch on the collar however evolved from contrasting cloth used to reinforce the buttonholes at the collar of a uniform coat. In the British Empire the patches were introduced as insignia during the South African War, they have been used since in many counties of the Commonwealth of Nations. The collar patches of the most of the armed forces of the Middle East and Arab derive from the uniform tradition of the European empires that dominated the region until World War II, Britain and France. Afghan army has collar patches similar to Commonwealth ones. In Austria collar patches of the Federal Army report the arm of service.
They are used in the police. Traditional, corps colours dominate the basic colours of the rank insignia. In the Austro-Hungarian Army, collar patches with rank insignia, appliquéd on the gorget of uniform coat, or jacket and the battle-dress blouse, were designated Paroli. See also:Waffenfarbe Rank insignia of the Austro-Hungarian armed forcesThe galleries below show examples of Parolis In Australia traditional gorget patches are worn by army colonels and general officers as well as by navy midshipmen. In the St John Ambulance Australia First Aid Services Branch, gorget patches designate State Staff Officers and National Staff Officers from those who are officers of a division or region. In Bangladesh Armed Forces officers of the rank of Colonel equivalent and above wear ‘Gorget Patches’, they are Red, Sky Blue & Black in color. For Colonel and equivalent it exhibits a "Shapla"; each flag rank adds a star to it onwards. In the Belgian army, the gorget patches have a branch rank insignia. In the Brazilian Army the gorget patches, embroined oak leafs in silver, are worn on the both lapels of rifle green and grey formal dresses by Generals.
The same insignia, in gold, are worn on the both collars of great gala dresses. In the State of São Paulo Military Police, the Colonels in charge of General Commanding Officers wears on both lapels of dark grey formal dresses embroined silvered insignias. Gorget patches in the Bulgarian Army show. With the restoration of historical nomenclature and features to the Canadian Army in 2013reinstated insignia included traditional gorget patches for colonels and general officers. For combat branches these are in scarlet with gold embroidery for generals; however the gorget patches worn by senior officers of the Medical Branch are dull cherry, the Dental Branch emerald green and the Chaplain Branch purple. In People's Liberation Army of People's Republic of China gorget patches are used to denote a military rank. In the French Army collar patches were used on tunics and greatcoats from the early nineteenth century onwards. In contrasting collars to the collar itself, they came to carry a regimental number or specialist insignia.
With the adoption of a new light-beige dress uniform for all ranks in the 1980s, the practice of wearing coloured collar patches was discontinued. Collar patches/gorget patches, are to be worn on the gorget of military uniform in German speaking armed forces. However, collar patch insignia for General officers of the Heer are traditional called Arabesque collar patch Larish embroidery, Old Prussian embroidery, or Arabesquen embroidery. In the German Empire, some officers and seamen wore Kragenspiegel, but these were not part of the service-wide uniform. In the Weimar Republic such patches were introduced throughout the army in 1921, where they indicated the rank and the arm of service, but were not used in the navy; the Wehrmacht continued this. Some Nazi-era civil services wore uniforms with collar tabs, similar to the armed forces' tabs. New tabs were introduced for the political leaders of the NSDAP, for the new Nazi organisations as Sturmabteilung and Schutzstaffel. East Germany used similar collar tabs to those of the Wehrmacht for its air force.
Collar tabs were worn by some personnel of the navy. The armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany maintained the use of collar tabs in the army and the air force, where they indicate to which branch an individual soldier belongs. Members of the German Navy do not wear collar tabs. In the Hellenic Army, the use of gorget/collar patches was introduced for the undress and field uniforms, via Austrian and French influences, at the turn of the 20th century, they consist of a distinctive background colour or combination of colours, that denote a specific arm of service or corps. General officers use a British-style general officer' patch. Collar patches are used by the Hellenic Police (and
The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, since the German Constitution states that matters of defense fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government; the Bundeswehr is divided into a military part and a civil part with the armed forces administration. The military part of the federal defense force consists of the German Army, the German Navy, the German Air Force, the Joint Support Service, the Joint Medical Service, the Cyber and Information Space Command; as of 28 February 2019, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 182,055 active soldiers, placing it among the 30 largest military forces in the world and making it the second largest in the European Union behind France in terms of personnel. In addition the Bundeswehr has 28,250 reserve personnel. With German military expenditures at €43.2 billion, the Bundeswehr is among the top ten best-funded forces in the world if in terms of share of German GDP, military expenditures remain average at 1.23% and below the NATO target of 2%.
Germany aims to expand the Bundeswehr to around 203,000 soldiers by 2025 to better cope with increasing responsibilities. The name Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel; the Iron Cross is its official emblem. It is a symbol; the Schwarzes Kreuz is derived from the black cross insignia of the medieval Teutonic knights. When the Bundeswehr was established in 1955, its founding principles were based on developing a new military force for the defence of West Germany. In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to either the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic or Hitler's Wehrmacht. Neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former German military organization, its official ethos is based on three major themes: the aims of the military reformers at the beginning of the 19th century such as Scharnhorst and Clausewitz the conduct displayed by members of the military resistance against Adolf Hitler the attempt of Claus von Stauffenberg and Henning von Tresckow to assassinate him.
Its own tradition since 1955. One of the most visible traditions of the modern Bundeswehr is the Großer Zapfenstreich; the FRG reinstated this formal military ceremony in 1952, three years before the foundation of the Bundeswehr. Today it is performed by a military band with 4 fanfare trumpeters and timpani, a corps of drums, up to two escort companies of the Bundeswehr's Wachbataillon and Torchbearers; the Zapfenstreich is only performed during solemn public commemorations. It can honour distinguished persons present such as the German federal president or provide the conclusion to large military exercises. Another important tradition in the modern German armed forces is the Gelöbnis. There are two kinds of oath: for conscripts/recruits it is a pledge but it's a solemn vow for full-time personnel; the pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944. Recruits from the Bundeswehr's Wachbataillon make their vow at the Bendlerblock in Berlin.
This was the headquarters of the resistance but where the officers were summarily executed following its failure. National commemorations are held nearby within the grounds of the Reichstag. Similar events take place across the German Republic. Since 2011, the wording of the ceremonial vow for full-time recruits and volunteer personnel is: "Ich gelobe, der Bundesrepublik Deutschland treu zu dienen und das Recht und die Freiheit des deutschen Volkes tapfer zu verteidigen." "I pledge to serve the Federal Republic of Germany loyally and to defend the right and the freedom of the German people bravely."Serving Bundeswehr personnel replace "Ich gelobe..." with "Ich schwöre...". After World War II the responsibility for the security of Germany as a whole rested with the four Allied Powers: the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Germany had been without armed forces since the Wehrmacht was dissolved following World War II; when the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in 1949, it was without a military.
Germany remained demilitarized and any plans for a German military were forbidden by Allied regulations. Only some naval mine-sweeping units continued to exist, but they remained unarmed and under Allied control and did not serve as a national defence force; the Federal Border Protection Force, a mobile armed police force of 10,000 men, was only formed in 1951. A proposal to integrate West German troops with soldiers of France, the Netherlands and Italy in a European Defence Community was proposed but never implemented. There was a discussion among the United States, the United Kingdom and France over the issue of a revived German military. In particular, France was reluctant to allow Germany to rearm in light of recent history (Germany had invaded France twice in living memory, in World War I and World War II, defeated France in the Franco-German War of 1870/71.
Oberst is a military rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel. It is used by both the ground and air forces of Austria, Switzerland and Norway; the Swedish rank överste is a direct translation, as are the Finnish rank eversti and the Icelandic rank ofursti. In the Netherlands the rank overste is used as a synonym for a lieutenant colonel. Oberst is the highest staff officer rank in German Air Force. See ⇒ Article: Ranks of the German Bundeswehr ⇒ Article: Rank insignia of the German Bundeswehr The rank is rated OF-5 in NATO, is grade A16 or B6 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence, it is comparable in NATO to OF-5 and equivalent to: Oberstarzt and Oberstveterinär in the Joint Medical Service of the German Bundeswehr. On the shoulder straps there are three silver pips in silver oak leaves. Bundeswehr sequence of ranks ascending Oberst is a German word. Spelled with a capital O, "Oberst" is a noun and defines the military rank of colonel or group captain.
Spelled with a lower case o, or "oberst", it is an adjective, meaning "top, uppermost, chief, first, principal, or supreme". Both usages derive from the superlative of ober, "the upper" or "the uppermost"; as a family name, Oberst is common in the southwest of Germany, in the area known as the Black Forest. The name is concentrated in the north-central cantons of Switzerland. Here the Swiss version of Oberst is spelled Obrist; the name first appeared in the thirteenth century in the German-Swiss border area, early forms were Zoberist and Oberist. The name most refers to the "tribe that lives the highest on the mountain" or "the family that lives the highest in the village". Translated as "superior" or "supreme", the rank of Oberst can trace its origins to the Middle Ages where the term most described the senior knight on a battlefield or the senior captain in a regiment. With the emergence of professional armies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, an Oberst became the commander of regiment or battalion-sized formations.
By the eighteenth century, Obersten were afforded aides or lieutenants titled Oberstleutnant. This led to formation of the modern German rank of the same name, translated as lieutenant colonel; the rank of Oberst is equivalent to that of colonel in English-speaking armies, although its more accurate meaning of "supreme" refers to the fact that Oberst is the highest-ranking officer below general officers. Oberst was used in the militaries of Austria during both World Wars. Oberst was used as the prefix of the now obsolete SS rank of Oberstgruppenführer; the SS Standartenführer was equivalent to an Oberst. A colonel general during the World Wars was called Generaloberst. Again, rather than meaning colonel general, its more accurate translation is "supreme general" as it was the highest peacetime military rank; the rank of Oberst is known in American cinema, since several popular movies have featured characters holding the rank. Luftwaffe Colonel Klink of the television series Hogan's Heroes was a caricature of such a character
Joint Medical Service (Germany)
The Joint Medical Service is a part of the Bundeswehr, the armed forces of Germany and serves all three armed services. However, members of the central medical corps remain members of their respective military branches. Only a few specialized medical units such as the medical care for divers and aircraft crews are not incorporated in the Joint Medical Service. Prior to 2002 each military branch had its own medical service; the services were largely merged, forming the Joint Medical Service. Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service Headquarters in Koblenz Bundeswehr Central Hospital in Koblenz Bundeswehr Hospital in Hamburg Bundeswehr Hospital in Berlin Bundeswehr Hospital in Ulm Bundeswehr Hospital in Westerstede Bundeswehr Medical Academy in Munich Medical Operational Support Command in Weißenfels Rapid Deployable Medical Forces Command in Leer 1st Medical Regiment in Weißenfels and Berlin 2nd Medical Regiment in Rennerod and Koblenz 3rd Medical Regiment in Dornstadt Medical Demonstration Regiment in Feldkirchen Medical Material Supply and Maintenance Center Blankenburg Medical Material Supply and Maintenance Center Pfungstadt Medical Material Supply and Maintenance Center Quakenbrück Medical Regional Support Command in Diez Medical Support Center Augustdorf Medical Support Center Berlin Medical Support Center Cochem Medical Support Center Erfurt Medical Support Center Hammelburg Medical Support Center Kiel Medical Support Center Cologne Medical Support Center Kümmersbruck Medical Support Center Munich Medical Support Center Munster Medical Support Center Neubrandenburg Medical Support Center Stetten am kalten Markt Medical Support Center Wilhelmshaven Bundeswehr Sport Medicine Center in Warendorf Military medicine Official website
German Air Force
The German Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Bundeswehr, the armed forces of Germany. With a strength of 27,767 personnel, it is the fourth largest air force within the European Union, after the air forces of the United Kingdom and Italy. Although its budget has been reduced since the end of the Cold War in 1989–1990, the Luftwaffe is still among the best-equipped air forces in the world; the German Air Force was founded in 1956 during the era of the Cold War as the aerial warfare branch of the armed forces of West Germany. After the reunification of West and East Germany in 1990, it integrated parts of the air force of the former German Democratic Republic, which itself had been founded in 1956 as part of the National People's Army. There is no organizational continuity between the current German Air Force and the former Luftwaffe of the Wehrmacht combined forces founded in 1935, disbanded in 1945/46 after World War II; the term Luftwaffe, used for both the historic and the current German air force is the German-language generic designation of any air force.
The commander of the German Air Force is Lieutenant General Ingo Gerhartz. In 2015, the Air Force uses eleven air bases. Furthermore, the Air Force has a presence at three civil airports. In 2012, the Air Force had an authorized strength of 4,914 reservists. After World War II, German aviation was curtailed, military aviation was forbidden after the Luftwaffe of the Third Reich had been disbanded by August 1946 by the Allied Control Commission; this changed in 1955 when West Germany joined NATO, as the Western Allies believed that Germany was needed to counter the increasing military threat posed by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies. Therefore, on 9 January 1956, a new German Air Force called Luftwaffe was founded as a branch of the new Bundeswehr. Many well-known fighter pilots of the Wehrmacht's World War II Luftwaffe joined the new post-war air force and underwent refresher training in the USA before returning to West Germany to upgrade on the latest U. S.-supplied hardware. These included Gerhard Barkhorn, Günther Rall and Johannes Steinhoff.
Steinhoff became commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe, with Rall as his immediate successor. Another pilot of World War II, Josef Kammhuber made a significant career in the post-war Luftwaffe, retiring in 1962 as Inspekteur der Luftwaffe. Despite the partial reliance of the new air force on soldiers who had served in the Wehrmacht's air arm, there was no organizational continuity between the old and the new Luftwaffe; this is in line with the policy of the Bundeswehr on the whole, which does not consider itself a successor of the Wehrmacht and does not follow the traditions of any other previous German military organization. The first volunteers of the Luftwaffe arrived at the Nörvenich Air Base in January 1956. In the same year, the Luftwaffe was provided with its first aircraft, the US-made Republic F-84 Thunderstreak. At first, the Luftwaffe was divided into two operational commands, one in Northern Germany, aligned with the British-led Second Allied Tactical Air Force, the other in Southern Germany, aligned with the American-led Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force.
In 1957, the Luftwaffe took command of the Army Air Defence Troops located in Rendsburg and began the expansion of its own air defence missile capabilities. The first squadron to be declared operational was the Air Transport Wing 61 at Erding Air Base, followed by the 31st Fighter-Bomber Squadron at Büchel Air Base. In 1958, the Luftwaffe received its first conscripts. In 1959, the Luftwaffe declared the 11th Missile Group in Kaufbeuren armed with MGM-1 Matador surface-to-surface tactical nuclear cruise missiles operational; the same year Jagdgeschwader 71 equipped with Canadair CL-13 fighters became operational at Ahlhorner Heide Air Base. All aircraft sported—and continue to sport—the Iron Cross on the fuselage, harking back to the pre-March 1918 days of World War I, while the national flag of West Germany is displayed on the tail. In 1963, the Luftwaffe saw its first major reorganization; the two operational Air Force Group Commands – Command North and Command South were both split into two mixed Air Force divisions containing flying and air defence units and one Support division.
Additionally, a 7th Air Force division was raised in Schleswig-Holstein containing flying units, missile units, support units and the German Navy's naval aviation and placed under command of Allied Forces Baltic Approaches. In 1960, the Luftwaffe received it first Lockheed F-104 Starfighter jets; the Starfighter remained in service for the entire duration of the Cold War, with the last being taken out of service in 1991. The Luftwaffe received 916 Starfighters, 292 of which crashed, resulting in the deaths of 116 pilots; the disastrous service record of the Starfighter led to the Starfighter crisis in 1966 as a reaction to 27 Starfighter crashes with 17 casualties in 1965 alone. The West German public referred to the Starfighter as the Witwenmacher, fliegender Sarg and Erdnagel. On 25 August 1966, the German Defence Minister Kai-Uwe von Hassel relieved the Inspekteur der Luftwaffe Generalleutnant Werner Panitzki, transferred Colonel Erich Hartmann, commanding officer of the 71st Fighter Squadron, as both had publicly criticized the acquisition of the Starfighter as a "purely political decision".
On 2 September 1966, Johannes Steinhoff, with Günther Rall as
An officer of one-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-6. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. One-star officers hold the rank of commodore, flotilla admiral, brigadier general, brigadier, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air commodore. Officers of one-star rank are either the most junior of the flag and air officer ranks, or are not considered to hold the distinction at all. In many navies, one-star officers are not considered to be flag officers, although this is not always the case; the army and air force rank of brigadier general is, by definition, a general officer rank. However, the equivalent rank of brigadier is not designated as a general officer; the air force rank of air commodore is always considered to be an air-officer rank. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded one-star ranks: Commodore Brigadier Air commodore Commodore Brigadier-general/brigadier-général The maple leaf appears with St. Edward's crown and crossed sabre and baton.
Before unification in 1968, the rank of air commodore was the one-star rank equivalent for the Royal Canadian Air Force, brigadier for the Canadian Army. Army and Air Force: Brigadegeneral Generalarzt Generalapotheker Navy: Flottillenadmiral Admiralarzt Admiralapotheker Air commodore Brigadier Commodore Deputy inspector-general Brigadir Jendral - Indonesian Army, Indonesian Marine Corps and Indonesian National Police one-star rank Laksamana Pertama - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency one-star rank Marsekal Pertama - Indonesian Air Force one-star rank Air commodore Brigadier Commodore Deputy Inspector General of Police Deputy Inspector General of Prisons Brigadier General Brigadier General Commodore Commodore Police Chief Superintendent Fire Chief Superintendent Jail Chief Superintendent Commodore Brigadier Air commodore Rear admiral Brigadier general In the modern naval services of Belgium, Denmark and Sweden, the one-star rank is flotilla admiral. Ranks and insignia of NATO Two-star rank