A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines. The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers. There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe.
It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank. Many countries actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major, confusion arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major. Originally the serjeant major was, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general, the distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was eventually dropped from both titles, creating the modern rank titles
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Colonel (United States)
It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services. The pay grade for colonel is O-6, the insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officers left side. The insignia for a colonel is an eagle which is a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States. As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U. S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch, however, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagles mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the branch is always clutched in the eagles right-side talons. The head of the eagle faces towards the branch, rather than the arrows. As a result, the head of the eagle faces towards the viewers left. During World War II the military insignia for the rank of Colonel changed somewhat with the eagle facing the arrows and this was done only during war years. These special war eagles, although rare, can sometimes be found in surplus or memorabilia sales.
In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is worn with the head of the eagle to the wearers right. In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army. The first colonels in America were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the American colonies, upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonels. Thus, the first American colonels were usually respected men with ties in local communities, such was the origin of the phrase soldier and statesman. With the post-war reduction of the US Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, the first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army. The first recorded use of the insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810.
The rank of colonel was relatively rare in the early 19th century, partly because the U. S. Army was very small, and the rank was usually obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew rapidly and many colonels were appointed, a number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion usually for distinguished service in combat. The American Civil War saw an influx of colonels as the rank was commonly held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 10,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength, in most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, in turn, several divisions typically make up a corps. In the West, the first general to think of organising an army into smaller units was Maurice de Saxe, Marshal General of France. He died at the age of 54, without having implemented his idea, victor-François de Broglie put the ideas into practice. He conducted successful practical experiments of the system in the Seven Years War. The first war in which the system was used systematically was the French Revolutionary War. It made the more flexible and easy to manoeuvre. Under Napoleon, the divisions were grouped together into corps, because of their increasing size, napoleons military success spread the divisional and corps system all over Europe, by the end of the Napoleonic Wars, all armies in Europe had adopted it.
In modern times, most military forces have standardized their divisional structures, the peak use of the division as the primary combat unit occurred during World War II, when the belligerents deployed over a thousand divisions. With technological advances since then, the power of each division has increased. Divisions are often formed to organize units of a particular type together with support units to allow independent operations. In more recent times, divisions have mainly been organized as combined arms units with subordinate units representing various combat arms, in this case, the division often retains the name of a more specialized division, and may still be tasked with a primary role suited to that specialization. For the most part, large cavalry units did not remain after World War II, in general, two new types of cavalry were developed, air cavalry or airmobile, relying on helicopter mobility, and armored cavalry, based on an autonomous armored formation. The former was pioneered by the 11th Air Assault Division, formed on 1 February 1963 at Fort Benning, on 29 June 1965 the division was renamed as the 1st Cavalry Division, before its departure for the Vietnam War.
After the end of the Vietnam War, the 1st Cavalry Division was reorganised and re-equipped with tanks, the development of the tank during World War I prompted some nations to experiment with forming them into division-size units. Many did this the way as they did cavalry divisions, by merely replacing cavalry with AFVs. This proved unwieldy in combat, as the units had many tanks, instead, a more balanced approach was taken by adjusting the number of tank, infantry and support units. A panzer division was a division of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS of Germany during World War II
Major General Charles Heywood was the ninth Commandant of the Marine Corps. He served as an officer for over 45 years and was the first Marine to reach the rank of major general, during Heywoods term as Commandant, the size of the Corps more than tripled, from 2,175 Marines to 7,810 total. He was appointed lieutenant in the Marine Corps from New York. During that year, he was stationed at the Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. and at Brooklyn, while on duty in Brooklyn, he served in the 1858 quarantine riots at Staten Island, New York. He performed special duty on the USS Niagara and on board the USS St. Louis, of the Home Squadron, the ship seeking filibusters in Central America. He was invalided from Aspinwall, Panama, in January 1860, in March 1861, he returned to duty on board the Cumberland and with that vessel took part in the destruction of the Norfolk Navy Yard during the Civil War. In May 1861, 2ndLt Heywood was promoted to first lieutenant, and as such landed with the Marines at Hatteras Inlet, where he was present at the capture of both Fort Clark and Fort Hatteras.
He was advanced to captain in November of that year, and he was most favorably mentioned for his gallant conduct and received the brevet rank of major for his services during the engagement. For some time afterwards, he was employed, both on shore and at sea, in the search for the notorious raider CSS Alabama. He was ordered to that vessel as Fleet Marine Officer of the West Gulf Squadron, Major Heywood served on shore at Pensacola and was on board the Hartford in the Battle of Mobile Bay, where he received the brevet rank of lieutenant colonel for gallant and meritorious services. During that engagement he had charge of two nine-inch guns and his services during the Civil War thus secured for him two brevet ranks for distinguished gallantry in the presence of the enemy. After the Civil War, Heywood joined the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - an organization of officers who has served in the Union armed forces during the war. From 1865 to 1867, he performed duty on various ships, serving as Admiral Farraguts Fleet Marine Officer on the European Station.
During this period he served for a time at Washington, Norfolk. On November 1,1876, he attained regular rank of major to which he had been brevetted more than ten years before, during the serious labor riots of the summer of 1877, Major Heywood commanded a battalion of Marines at Baltimore and Reading, Pennsylvania. He was honorably mentioned by General Hancock, United States Army, who was in general command and his next years of duty carried him to widely separated posts — Mare Island and Brooklyn, New York. In April 1885, he organized, within hours from the time of the order. Subsequently under his command on the Isthmus were 800 Marines in addition to a detachment of United States Navy
An officer of one-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-6. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, one-star officers hold the rank of commodore, flotilla admiral, brigadier general, brigadier, or in the case of air forces with a separate rank structure. Officers of one-star rank are either the most junior of the flag and air officer ranks, specifically, in many navies, one-star officers are not considered to be flag officers, although this is not always the case. The army and air force rank of general is, by definition. However, the equivalent rank of brigadier is usually not designated as a general officer, the air force rank of air commodore is always considered to be an air-officer rank. Edwards crown and crossed sabre and baton, before unification in 1968, the rank of air commodore was the one-star rank equivalent for the Royal Canadian Air Force, and brigadier for the Canadian Army.
Ranks and insignia of NATO Two-star rank
Rear admiral (United States)
Rear admiral in the United States refers to two different ranks of commissioned officers — one-star flag officers and two-star flag officers. By contrast, in most nations, the rear admiral refers to an officer of two-star rank. The abbreviation for personnel from the USN, USCG, and NOAA is RDML, whereas for the USPHS, Rear admiral ranks above captain and below rear admiral. Rear admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. In the United States uniformed services, rear admiral replaced the rank of commodore in 1985, Rear admiral ranks above rear admiral and below vice admiral. Rear admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. It is the highest permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed services, all higher ranks are temporary ranks and linked to their specific commands or office and expire with the expiration of their term of command or office. Before the American Civil War, the American Navy had resisted creating the rank of admiral, they preferred the term flag officer, in order to distinguish the rank from the traditions of the European navies.
During the American Civil War, The US Congress honored David Glasgow Farraguts successful assault on the city of New Orleans by creating the rank of admiral on July 16,1862. During World War II, the U. S. Navy, by the end of the war, all incumbents had been advanced to the rank of two-star rear admiral and the commodore rank was eliminated in both services. Lower-half rear admirals were promoted to full rear admirals, or upper half status. However, both categories of rear admiral wore two-star insignia, an issue that was a source of consternation to the other services. Although not flag officers, these officers were entitled to a blue and white command pennant containing the initials. 97–86 expanded commodore from a title to a permanent grade by creating the one-star rank of commodore admiral. After only 11 months, the rank was reverted to just commodore, this caused issues with the Navy due to the difficulty in discriminating those commodores who were flag officers from commodores who were senior captains in certain command positions.
99–145 renamed commodore to the current grade of rear admiral effective on November 8,1985, up until 1981, all rear admirals wore two stars on their shoulder bars and rank insignia. Since then, rear admirals wear one star while rear admirals wear two, verbal address remains rear admiral for both ranks, on correspondence, where the rear admirals rank is spelled out, the acronym and follows the rear admirals rank title to distinguish between one and two stars. The flags of restricted line officers and staff officers have blue stars on a white field
Major general (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general, a major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy. The United States Code explicitly limits the number of general officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army,61 for the Marine Corps, some of these slots are reserved or finitely set by statute. This promotion board generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank and this list is sent to the service secretary and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review before it can be sent to the President, through the Secretary of Defense for consideration. The President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the secretary, and if applicable.
The President may nominate any eligible officer who is not on the recommended list if it serves in the interest of the nation, the Senate must confirm the nominee by a majority vote before the officer can be promoted. Once confirmed, the nominee is promoted to rank on assuming a position of office that requires an officer to hold the rank. For positions of office that are reserved by statute, the President nominates an officer for appointment to fill that position, since the grade of major general is permanent, the rank does not expire when the officer vacates a two-star position. Tour length varies depending on the position, by statute, and/or when the officer receives a new assignment or a promotion, in the case of the Air National Guard, they may serve as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory. Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement of general officers, all major generals must retire after five years in grade or 35 years of service, whichever is later, unless appointed for promotion or reappointed to grade to serve longer.
Otherwise, all officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday. However, the Secretary of Defense may defer a general officers retirement until the officers 66th birthday, because there are a finite number of General Officer positions, one officer must retire before another can be promoted. As a result, general officers typically retire well in advance of the age and service limits. The rank of general was abolished in the U. S. Army by the Act of March 16,1802. Major general has been a rank in the U. S. Army ever since, to address this anomaly, Washington was posthumously promoted by Congress to the rank of General of the Armies of the United States in 1976. The position of Major General Commanding the Army was entitled to three stars according to General Order No.6 of March 13,1861
94th Infantry Division (United States)
The 94th Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I, and of the Organized Reserve Corps in 1921 until 1942. The 94th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II and it continued in the Army Reserve as the 94th Command Headquarters from 1963 until the Armys realignment of reserve component combat arms into the Army National Guard in 1967. For forty years, beginning in the late 1960s, the United States Army Reserve was divided up into a number of regional, branch-immaterial commands. In addition to the RRCs, several mission-oriented commands were established, including such as training divisions, the 94th Division is a unit of the United States Army Reserve, charged with providing sustainment training throughout the United States. The division is based at Fort Lee, Virginia and is subordinate to the 80th Training Command, the division has subordinate brigades that perform military occupational specialty reclassification training. The division has brigades in the Continental United States and a brigade in Puerto Rico.
The 94th Infantry Divisions standard and lineage bestowed upon the 94th Division at its activation in 2009, the 94th started as a provisional division in 1918. It was originally going to be formed as the 94th Division, based out of Puerto Rico, the US Army lacked enough Spanish-speaking instructors to train the necessary support and technical services units, so it was agreed to create it as a paper division like the 93rd. The infantry regiments were assigned numbers 373 through 376, which would have associated with the National Armys 94th Division. Only the 373rd–375th Infantry Regiments were formed, with the close of World War I, the division was disbanded. As Quatre was pronounced cat, the decided to adopt this as a nickname. In 1921 the 94th Division was re-activated as an element of the Organized Reserves, a shoulder sleeve insignia featuring a Native American with bow and arrow was authorized on 21 July 1922. This design was superseded 6 September 1923 by one depicting the silhouette of a Puritan carrying a blunderbuss on his shoulder.
The OR units were not mobilized as units, its officers were ordered to active duty individually, and were disbursed to existing Regular Army and Army National Guard units. The majority of officers in the U. S. Army during the Second World War II were OR officers. As such, the 94th provided leaders to every theater in the war, ten days later, on 15 September 1942, the division was recomposed as the 94th Infantry Division at Fort Custer near Kalamazoo, Michigan. Activated,15 September 1942 Overseas,6 August 1944, Northern France, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe Days of combat,209. Malony Brigadier General Louis J. Fortier Major General Allison J. Barnett Returned to U. S.6 February 1946 Inactivated,9 February 1946 at Camp Rucker, Alabama
187th Infantry Brigade (United States)
The 187th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the United States Army. It was first organized in November 1921 as one of the two brigades under the United States Army Reserves 94th Division, the brigade was disbanded in February 1942 when the 94th Division was converted from a two brigade, four regiment square division to a three regiment triangular division. The 94th Division was disbanded in the early 1960s, as part of continuing Army Reserve force reductions, from that year to 1994 it was one of only four combat Infantry brigades in the Army Reserve. As a separate brigade, the 187th wore its own shoulder rather than the 94th Division patch its members had previously worn. Cold War plans called for the brigade to deploy to Iceland as part of the Iceland Defense Force if a confrontation between NATO and the Soviet Union occurred. The brigades headquarters was relocated on 25 October 1971 to Wollaston, Massachusetts and on 13 July 1976 to Fort Devens, the 187th Infantry Brigade was reactivated as an active duty training unit at Fort Leonard Wood, MO on 23 January 2007 and inactivated on 17 May 2007
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel.
According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner.
Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source