Cumbria Constabulary is the territorial police force in England covering Cumbria. As of September 2017, the force had 1,108 police officers, 535 police staff, 93 police community support officers, 25 designated officers and 86 special constables. In terms of officer numbers, it is the 7th smallest of the 48 police forces of the United Kingdom. Conversely, its geographic area of responsibility is the 7th largest police area of a territorial police force in the United Kingdom; the force area's size and its population of just under 500,000 people makes it sparsely populated. The only major urban areas are Barrow-in-Furness. There are significant areas of isolated and rural community, the county has one of the smallest visible minority ethnic populations in the country at under 3.0%. Each year Cumbria, which incorporates the Lake District National Park, attracts over 23 million visitors from all over the world; the county has some 700 miles of trunk and primary roads. The Chief Constable is Michelle Skeer.
The headquarters of the force are at Penrith. In terms of operational policing the force is divided into two commands - the Territorial Policing Command and the Crime Command, each headed by a Chief Superintendent; this command is further divided into three geographic Territorial Policing Areas to cover the county, an operational support section and a command and control section. Each TPA is led by a Superintendent and is further divided into districts and teams for the purposes of neighbourhood policing; the major elements of the Territorial Policing Command are as follows: Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas: Carlisle District Eden District Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas: Barrow Borough District South Lakeland District Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas Allerdale District Copeland District Within this section are force wide units which support the TPAs or units from the Crime Command, or provide a specialist service: Roads Policing Firearms Dog section PSG Civil Contingencies Collision Investigation Firearms Licensing Safety Camera/CTO Within this section is the Command and Control Room, including the Force Incident Manager and the call taking centre.
This command is responsible for significant investigations and is predominantly staffed by detectives. The command is divided as follows: Intelligence Force Intelligence Bureau Intelligence Analysis Area Intelligence Units Operations Public Protection Units CID Volume Crimes Force Major Investigations Safeguarding Hub Forensics Cumbria Constabulary is a partner in the following collaboration: North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit Cumberland and Westmorland Constabulary was formed in 1856. In 1947 this force absorbed Kendal Borough Police. Less than 20 years this amalgamated force absorbed Carlisle City Police to form a force broadly the same as today's force called the Cumberland and Carlisle Constabulary. In 1965, it had an establishment of 652 and an actual strength of 617. In 1967 the force name was changed to Cumbria Constabulary. In 1974 the force's boundaries were expanded to include the new non-metropolitan county of Cumbria, in particular Furness and Sedbergh Rural District.
The Home Secretary proposed on 6 February 2006 to merge it with Lancashire Constabulary. These proposals were accepted by both forces on 25 February and the merger would have taken place on 1 April 2007. However, in July 2006, the Cumbria and Lancashire forces decided not to proceed with the merger because the Government could not remedy issues with the differing council tax precepts. Cumbria Constabulary 1968–1980: William Cavey 1980–1987: Barry David Keith Price 1991–1997: Alan Elliott 1997–2001: Colin Phillips 2001–2007: Michael Baxter 2007-2012: Sir Craig Thomas Mackey QPM 2012-2013 Stuart Hyde QPM 2014-2018 Jerry Graham QPM 2018–: Michelle Skeer The Police Roll of Honour Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty; the force's first, to date only, murder of an officer occurred on 10 February 1965. Constable George William Russell, aged 36, was fatally shot when and knowing that colleagues had been fired on, he confronted an armed suspect and called upon him to surrender at a railway station in Kendal.
Russell was posthumously awarded the Queen's Police Medal for gallantry and a memorial plaque has been unveiled on a wall at Carlisle Cathedral. PC Keith Easterbrook was fatally injured in a road traffic accident, while assisting in a vehicle pursuit, when a van he was overtaking pulled out and collided with his police motorcycle, on the A595 near Workington. PC William "Bill" Barker was killed whilst on duty on 20 November 2009. At night during severe weather and flooding across the county, the officer was directing motorists to safety off Northside Bridge, in a dangerous condition, when the bridge was destroyed by the flood and he was swept away and killed, his body found on a beach at Allonby that afternoon. Barker had completed 25 years police service and was a traffic officer attached to the Roads Policing Unit based at Workington. Cumbria Police and Crime Commissioner Policing in the United Kingdom PC John Kent - The first black British police officer, who served with the Carlisle City Police between 1837 and 1844 Official website
Fire alarm system
A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, carbon monoxide or other emergencies are present. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke detectors, heat detectors or may be activated via manual fire alarm activation devices such as manual call points or pull stations. Alarms can wall mountable sounders or horns, they can be ) which sound an alarm, followed by a voice evacuation message which warns people inside the building not to use the elevators. Fire alarm sounders can be set to certain frequencies and different tones including low and high, depending on the country and manufacturer of the device. Most fire alarm systems in Europe sound like a siren with alternating frequencies. Fire alarm electronic devices are known as horns in the United States and Canada, can be either continuous or set to different codes. Fire alarm warning devices can be set to different volume levels. After the fire protection goals are established – by referencing the minimum levels of protection mandated by the appropriate model building code, insurance agencies, other authorities – the fire alarm designer undertakes to detail specific components and interfaces necessary to accomplish these goals.
Equipment manufactured for these purposes is selected and standardized installation methods are anticipated during the design. ISO 7240-14 is the international standard for Design, installation and service of fire detection and fire alarm system in and around building; this standard was published in August 2013. NFPA 72, The National Fire Alarm Code is an established and used installation standard from United States. In Canada, the ULC is the standard for the fire system. Last version 2019; this code is part of family standard NFPA TS 54 -14 is a Technical Specification for Fire detection and fire alarm system - Part 14: Guidelines for planning, installation, commissioning and maintenance. This document has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC72, This document is part of the EN 54 series of standards; this standard was published in October 2018. There are national codes in each European country for planning, installation, commissioning and maintenance of fire detection system with additional requiments that are mentioned on TS 54 -14 Germany, Vds 2095 Italy, UNI 9795 France NF S61-936 Spain UNE 23007-14 United Kingdom BS 5839 Part 1 Fire alarm control panel AKA fire alarm control unit.
Primary power supply: Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240-volt alternating current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its constituents. "Dedicated branch circuits" should not be confused with "Individual branch circuits" which supply energy to a single appliance. Secondary power supplies: This component consisting of sealed lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including generators, is used to supply energy in the event of a primary power failure; the batteries can be either inside the bottom of the panel or inside a separate battery box installed near the panel. Initiating devices: These components act as inputs to the fire alarm control unit and are either manually or automatically activated. Examples would be devices such as pull stations, heat detectors, smoke detectors. Heat and smoke detectors have different categories of both kinds; some categories are beam, ionization and duct.
Fire alarm notification appliance: This component uses energy supplied from the fire alarm system or other stored energy source, to inform the proximate persons of the need to take action to evacuate. This is done by means of a pulsing incandescent light, flashing strobe light, electromechanical horn, electronic horn, bell, speaker, or a combination of these devices. Strobes are either made of a xenon tube or LEDs. Building safety interfaces: This interface allows the fire alarm system to control aspects of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire, to control the spread of smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, process control, human transport and exit. Manually actuated devices. Devices for manual fire alarm activation are installed to be located and operated, they are actuated by means of physical interaction, such as pulling a lever or breaking glass. Automatically actuated devices can take many forms intended to respond to any number of detectable physical changes associated with fire: convected thermal energy.
The newest innovations can use cameras and computer algorithms to analyze the visible effects of fire and movement in applications inappropriate for or hostile to other detection methods Notification Appliances utilize audible, tactile, textual or olfactory stimuli to alert the occupants of the need to evacuate or take action in the event of a fire or other emergency. Evacuation signals may consist of simple appliances that transmit
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Listed buildings in Brigham, Cumbria
Brigham is a civil parish in the borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England. It contains 16 listed buildings. Of these, one is listed at Grade I, the highest of the three grades, one is at Grade II*, the middle grade, the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade; the parish contains the village of surrounding countryside. The listed buildings include a church and a sundial in the churchyard and associated structures and farm buildings, milestones, a bridge, a war memorial, a cattle pound
Brigham railway station
Brigham railway station was situated on the Cockermouth and Workington Railway and served the village of Brigham, England. The station opened on 28 April 1847 and closed on 18 April 1966; the last train was the 20:19 DMU from Keswick to Workington Main on Saturday 16 April. In 2013 remains of the station and the junction to Papcastle station were still visible by the A66 road before the Great Broughton junction. Cockermouth and Penrith Railway Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Marsh, John. Cumbrian Railways. Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0750920432. Smith, Paul. Railway Atlas Then and Now. Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 978 0 7110 3695 6. Suggitt, Gordon. Lost Railways of Cumbria.
Newbury: Countryside Books. ISBN 978-1-84674-107-4. British Railways Pre-Grouping Atlas And Gazetteer. Shepperton: Ian Allan Publishing. 1997. ISBN 0-7110-0320-3. Anderson, Paul. Hawkins, Chris, ed. "Dog in the Manger? The Track of the Ironmasters". British Railways Illustrated. Clophill: Irwell Press Ltd. 11. Bairstow, Martin. Railways In The Lake District. Martin Bairstow. ISBN 1-871944-11-2. Bowtell, Harold D.. Rails through Lakeland: An Illustrated Journey of the Workington-Cockermouth-Keswick-Penrith Railway 1847-1972. Wyre, Lancashire: Silverling Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-947971-26-2. Joy, David. Lake Counties. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 094653702X. McGowan Gradon, W.. The Track of the Ironmasters: A History of the Cleator and Workington Junction Railway. Grange-over-Sands: Cumbrian Railways Association. ISBN 0-9540232-2-6. Marshall, John. Forgotten Railways: North West England. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0 7153 8003 6. Western, Robert; the Cockermouth and Penrith Railway OL113. Usk: Oakwood Press.
ISBN 0-85361-564-0. Map of the line with photos, via RAILSCOT The station on an OS map surveyed in 1864, via National Library of Scotland The station on overlain OS maps surveyed from 1898, via National Library of Scotland The station on a 1948 OS Map, via npe maps The station, via Rail Map Online The railways of Cumbria, via Cumbrian Railways Association Photos of Cumbrian railways, via Cumbrian Railways Association The railways of Cumbria, via Railways_of_Cumbria Cumbrian Industrial History, via Cumbria Industrial History Society Local history of the CKPR route, via Cockermouth The line's and station's Engineer's Line References, via railwaycodes.org.uk A video tour-de-force of the region's closed lines, via cumbriafilmarchive
A ship's bell is a bell on a ship, used for the indication of time as well as other traditional functions. The bell itself is made of brass or bronze, has the ship's name engraved or cast on it. Unlike civil clock bells, the strikes of a ship's bell do not accord to the number of the hour. Instead, there are one for each half-hour of a four-hour watch. In the age of sailing, watches were timed with a 30-minute hourglass. Bells would be struck every time the glass was turned, in a pattern of pairs for easier counting, with any odd bells at the end of the sequence; the classical, or traditional, system was: Most of the crew of a ship would be divided into two to four groups, called watches. Each watch would take its turn with the essential activities of manning the helm, trimming sails, keeping a lookout; the hours between 16:00 and 20:00 are so arranged. The odd number of watches aimed to give each man a different watch each day; some "ship's bell" clocks use a simpler system: Ship's bells are used for safety in foggy conditions, their most important modern use.
On US naval vessels, bells additionally are rung as "boat gongs" for officers and dignitaries coming aboard or leaving the ship, in a number equivalent to the number of sideboys to which the visitor is entitled. At midnight on New Year's Eve, 16 bells would be struck – eight bells for the old year and eight bells for the new; when a sailor has died he or she can be honoured with the sounding of eight bells. The term "eight bells" can be used in an obituary, as a nautical euphemism for finished; the ship's name is traditionally engraved or cast onto the surface of the bell with the year the ship was launched, as well. The earliest ship's bell was recovered from the wreck-site of a Portuguese armada ship off the coast of Oman; the bell was dated 1498. The bell will carry the name of the shipyard that built the ship. If a ship's name is changed, maritime tradition is that the original bell carrying the original name will remain with the vessel. A ship's bell is a prized possession when a ship is broken up and provides the only positive means of identification in the case of a shipwreck.
Most United States Navy ships of the post–World War II era have carried two ship's bells: the official bell on deck and a smaller one in the pilot house and at the quarterdeck at the 1MC station, used when the ship is underway. According to seafaring legend, the ship's cooks and boatswain's mates had a duty arrangement to give the cooks more sleep; the boatswain's mates, who worked 24 hours a day on watches, would build the fire in the stove, so the cook could get up a little while and the fire would be going so he could begin preparing breakfast. In return, between meals, the cooks would shine the bell, traditionally the boatswain's mates' responsibility, it is a naval tradition to baptize children using the ship's bell as a baptismal font and to engrave the names of the children on the bell afterwards. Christening information from the bells held by the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Museum has been entered into a searchable data archive. Watch system Watchstanding When Eight Bells Toll Media related to Ships' bells at Wikimedia Commons "Discovery of a ship's bell by underwater archaeologists on a colonial shipwreck lost off St. Augustine, Florida in the late 1700s".